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We are in the Milky Way's Second Life – Star Formation was Shut Down for Billions of Years

We are in the Milky Way's Second Life – Star Formation was Shut Down for Billions of Years | LGN | Scoop.it

Since the birth of modern astronomy, scientists have sought to determine the full extent of the Milky Way galaxy and learn more about its structure, formation and evolution. According to current theories, it is widely believed that the Milky Way formed shortly after the Big Bang (roughly 13.51 billion years ago). This was the result of the first stars and star clusters coming together, as well as the accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.

 

Since then, multiple galaxies are thought to have merged with the Milky Way, which triggered the formation of new stars. But according to a new study by a team of Japanese researchers, our galaxy has had a more turbulent history than previously thought. According to their findings, the Milky Way experienced a dormant era between two periods of star formation that lasted for billions of years, effectively dying before coming back to life again.

 

Their study, titled “The formation of solar-neighbourhood stars in two  generations separated by 5 billion years“, recently appeared in the scientific journal Nature. The study was conducted by Masafumi Noguchi, an astronomer from the Astronomical Institute at Tohoku University, Japan. Using a new idea known as “cold flow accretion”, Noguchi calculated the evolution of the Milky Way over a 10 billion year period.


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Sci-Hub Proves That Piracy Can be Extremely Useful for Academics

Sci-Hub Proves That Piracy Can be Extremely Useful for Academics | LGN | Scoop.it

Despite two lost legal battles in the US, domain name seizures, and millions of dollars in damage claims, Sci-Hub continues to offer unauthorized access to academic papers. The site's founder says that she would rather operate legally, but copyright gets in the way. Sci-Hub is not the problem she argues, it's a solution, something many academics tend to agree with.

 

Sci-Hub has often been referred to as “The Pirate Bay of Science,” but that description really sells the site short. While both sites are helping the public to access copyrighted content without permission, Sci-Hub has also become a crucial tool that arguably helps the progress of science.

 

The site allows researchers to bypass expensive paywalls so they can read articles written by their fellow colleagues. The information in these ‘pirated’ articles is then used to provide the foundation for future research.

 

What the site does is illegal, according to current law, but Sci-Hub is praised by thousands of researchers and academics around the world. In particular, those who don’t have direct access to the expensive journals but aspire to excel in their academic field.

 

While publishers such as Elsevier convinced the courts that Sci-Hub is a force of evil, many scientists see it as an extremely useful tool. They don’t want research locked up behind paywalls, they want it to be read, to inspire.


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One species - Many origins: Humans' fractured African roots

One species - Many origins: Humans' fractured African roots | LGN | Scoop.it

A scientific consortium led by Dr. Eleanor Scerri, British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Oxford and researcher at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, has found that human ancestors were scattered across Africa, and largely kept apart by a combination of diverse habitats and shifting environmental boundaries, such as forests and deserts. Millennia of separation gave rise to a staggering diversity of human forms, whose mixing ultimately shaped our species.

 

While it is widely accepted that our species originated in Africa, less attention has been paid to how we evolved within the continent. Many had assumed that early human ancestors originated as a single, relatively large ancestral population, and exchanged genes and technologies like stone tools in a more or less random fashion.

 

In a recent paper published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, this view is challenged, not only by the usual study of bones (anthropology), stones (archaeology) and genes (population genomics), but also by new and more detailed reconstructions of Africa's climates and habitats over the last 300,000 years.

 

One species, many origins

"Stone tools and other artifacts -- usually referred to as material culture -- have remarkably clustered distributions in space and through time," said Dr. Eleanor Scerri, researcher at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and the University of Oxford, and lead author of the study. "While there is a continental-wide trend towards more sophisticated material culture, this 'modernization' clearly doesn't originate in one region or occur at one time period."

 

Human fossils tell a similar story. "When we look at the morphology of human bones over the last 300,000 years, we see a complex mix of archaic and modern features in different places and at different times," said Prof. Chris Stringer, researcher at the London Natural History Museum and co-author on the study. "As with the material culture, we do see a continental-wide trend towards the modern human form, but different modern features appear in different places at different times, and some archaic features are present until remarkably recently."


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ThePlanetaryArchives - BlackHorseMedia - San Francisco's curator insight, July 24, 7:31 PM

Hmmmm, getting closer, but still a long way from the whole story.....

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Magnetic beads can destroy brain tumors in ten minutes using MRI scanners to heat up the cancer cells

Magnetic beads can destroy brain tumors in ten minutes using MRI scanners to heat up the cancer cells | LGN | Scoop.it

Deadly brain tumors could be removed in just ten minutes with a groundbreaking new treatment which uses MRI scanners to heat up cancer cells until they die.

 

The new therapy, developed by University College London (UCL), involves injecting tiny magnetic metal beads into the bloodstream and directing it to the site of the cancer.

 

The scanner is then used to heat up the metal seed which causes the cells to die in the surrounding tissue. Not only does it quickly kill cancer cells, but it saves healthy cells from the damaging effects of invasive surgery or radiotherapy.

 

The team at UCL has already proven it is effective in the brains of pigs and plans to move to human trials on patients with prostate cancer within the next two years with the hope it will be available for many cancers on the NHS within five years. 

 

Launching the new technology at The Cheltenham Science Festival, Mark Lythgoe, professor of imaging at UCL, said: “The aim is to turn every MRI scanner in the world into a therapeutic device. At the moment it just take pictures. “The simple idea is the patient goes into the MRI scanner, you locate a tumor in the brain or the prostate and then we implant a tiny magnetic particle, a little bit smaller than a grain of rice, to the site of the tumur.

 
 

“We can guide it with real precision avoiding any areas that we don’t want to go to, like the sensory motor-cortex in the brain, the area with memories. Once it’s in there we’re able to fire in a simple radio wave and these seeds heat up remarkably well, and kills all the cells around it. You then just guide the seed through the tumor, killing all the cells. And you can do it with real precision right up to the margins of the tumor so there is no tumor left. This is a life-changing technology.”


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Analysis: Why scientists think 100% of global warming is due to humans

Analysis: Why scientists think 100% of global warming is due to humans | LGN | Scoop.it

In its 2013 fifth assessment report, the IPCC stated in its summary for policymakers that it is “extremely likely that more than half of the observed increase in global average surface temperature” from 1951 to 2010 was caused by human activity. By “extremely likely”, it meant that there was between a 95% and 100% probability that more than half of modern warming was due to humans.

 

This somewhat convoluted statement has been often misinterpreted as implying that the human responsibility for modern warming lies somewhere between 50% and 100%. In fact, as NASA’s Dr Gavin Schmidt has pointed out, the IPCC’s implied best guess was that humans were responsible for around 110% of observed warming (ranging from 72% to 146%), with natural factors in isolation leading to a slight cooling over the past 50 years.

 

Similarly, the recent US fourth national climate assessment found that between 93% to 123% of observed 1951-2010 warming was due to human activities.

 

These conclusions have led to some confusion as to how more than 100% of observed warming could be attributable to human activity. A human contribution of greater than 100% is possible because natural climate change associated with volcanoes and solar activity would most likely have resulted in a slight cooling over the past 50 years, offsetting some of the warming associated with human activities.


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Saberes Sin Fronteras OVS's curator insight, April 25, 4:28 PM

Como formuló Macron en su visita a Washington, NO HAY un segundo planeta tierra (al menos en bastantes años) 

Carlos Garcia Pando's comment, April 26, 6:20 AM
Yes, Nature's trend was cooling. Also, a stable system reacts with a behaviour to oppose the cause of instability, that is, cooling. But still, we are making sure we heat up the oven to burn ourselves sooner than expected.
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How to Raise a Boy – NY Magazine

How to Raise a Boy – NY Magazine | LGN | Scoop.it


"How should you raise a boy? For some time now, the urgency of the dilemma has seemed to ratchet up with every news cycle. Last month’s Parkland school shooting was just the most recent massacre committed by a young man filled with rage and resentment — and there have been multiple shootings since.

"For generations, boys have been raised in environments that seemed designed to cultivate, and then sublimate, aggression, sometimes right up to the border of sociopathy. (We recoil at Fight Club, but it basically depicts the secret life of boys aged 8 to 14. Men are Tyler Durden spliced with Beavis.) But those masculine scripts seem especially problematic today: Trained by superhero movies, inspired by planet-straddling athlete-gods and tech tycoons more powerful than entire governments, boys are reared to tame their aggressions, then asked to navigate a bleak, winner-take-all economic landscape. Thanks in part to more enlightened attitudes about gender and parenting, it is hard not to see male entitlement and aggression as toxic forces degrading our culture. But it is also hard not to notice that the world is now run by the aggressive and the bullying.

"It is also hard not to notice that, in many ways, and on average, boys are falling behind.

"Girls are getting better grades in school than boys, women are graduating from college at higher rates than men and slowly (too slowly, but still) taking over in the boardroom, thanks in large part to the famed “Quiet Revolution” of the last 30 years. That transformed landscape is part of what led the country to properly recognize, for the first time, the problems of sexual harassment and assault, and then to the revelation that much of the country’s still-male powers-that-be were guilty of one, or the other, or both. There is a male chauvinist and part-time white supremacist in the White House, but at some basic level that came to pass in part because both groups came out in droves to vote feeling themselves pushed into retreat."

 

Lots more in the article...


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Plagiarism Checker | Quetext

Plagiarism Checker | Quetext | LGN | Scoop.it
Advanced plagiarism checker and citation assistant with many professional features. Our proprietary DeepSearch™ technology checks for plagiarism better than any other technology.

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Carolyn Rowe's curator insight, January 27, 2:56 PM
I think this is an awesome tool.
Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, January 30, 1:35 AM
Plagiarism Checker
Pippa Davies @PippaDavies 's curator insight, February 2, 11:39 AM

A new plagiarism checker!

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12 Rules Of Great Teaching -

12 Rules Of Great Teaching - | LGN | Scoop.it
12 Rules Of Great Teaching by Terry Heick Recently, I’ve been thinking of the universal truths in teaching. Students should be first. Don’t always start planning with a standard. Questions matter more than answers. Trust is a currency of a human classroom. So I thought I’d gather twelve of them to start with. The idea …

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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, March 5, 1:26 AM
12 Rules Of Great Teaching
Mélene Dosou's comment, April 14, 6:42 PM
Ciao, per tutte le vostre esigenze di finanziamento e di altri, si prega di contattare me per maggiori dettagli.
gmail: gabrielli.alessandro6@gmail.com
Mélene Dosou's comment, April 14, 6:42 PM
Ciao, per tutte le vostre esigenze di finanziamento e di altri, si prega di contattare me per maggiori dettagli.
gmail: gabrielli.alessandro6@gmail.com
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The Power of Stories: Why We Need More Than Facts to Win

The Power of Stories: Why We Need More Than Facts to Win | LGN | Scoop.it
''You cannot take away someone's story without giving them a new one.''

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Zoanthamine-Type Alkaloids from the Zoanthid Zoanthus kuroshio Collected in Taiwan and Their Effects on Inflammation

Zoanthamine-Type Alkaloids from the Zoanthid Zoanthus kuroshio Collected in Taiwan and Their Effects on Inflammation | LGN | Scoop.it

Zoanthus kuroshio is a colorful zoanthid with a fluorescent pink oral disc and brown tentacles, which dominates certain parts of the Taiwanese and Japanese coasts. This sea anemone is a rich source of biologically active alkaloids. In the current investigation, two novel halogenated zoanthamines [5α-iodozoanthenamine (1) and 11β-chloro-11-deoxykuroshine A (2)], along with four new zoanthamines [18-epi-kuroshine A (3), 7α-hydroxykuroshine E (4), 5α-methoxykuroshine E (5), and 18-epi-kuroshine E (6)], and six known compounds were isolated from Z. kuroshio. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples of halogenated zoanthamine-type alkaloids isolated from nature. Compounds 3 and 6 are the first zoanthamine stereoisomers with a cis-junction of the A/B rings. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by measuring their effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to fMLP.

 

Yu-Ming Hsu†#, Fang-Rong Chang†‡∥§⊥#, I-Wen Lo†, Kuei-Hung Lai†▽, Mohamed El-Shazly○, Tung-Ying Wu□, Ying-Chi Du†, Tsong-Long Hwang△⬡¶, Yuan-Bin Cheng*†‡■, and Yang-Chang Wu*†□▼●▲
 
J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00625

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NatProdChem's curator insight, October 24, 2016 3:09 AM

Zoanthamine-Type Alkaloids from the Zoanthid Zoanthus kuroshio Collected in Taiwan and Their Effects on Inflammation

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Synergistic Combination of CASE Algorithms and DFT Chemical Shift Predictions: A Powerful Approach for Structure Elucidation, Verification, and Revision 

Synergistic Combination of CASE Algorithms and DFT Chemical Shift Predictions: A Powerful Approach for Structure Elucidation, Verification, and Revision  | LGN | Scoop.it
Structure elucidation of complex natural products and new organic compounds remains a challenging problem. To support this endeavor, CASE (computer-assisted structure elucidation) expert systems were developed. These systems are capable of generating a set of all possible structures consistent with an ensemble of 2D NMR data followed by selection of the most probable structure on the basis of empirical NMR chemical shift prediction. However, in some cases, empirical chemical shift prediction is incapable of distinguishing the correct structure. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that the combination of CASE and density functional theory (DFT) methods for NMR chemical shift prediction allows the determination of the correct structure even in difficult situations. An expert system, ACD/Structure Elucidator, was used for the CASE analysis. This approach has been tested on three challenging natural products: aquatolide, coniothyrione, and chiral epoxyroussoenone. This work has demonstrated that the proposed synergistic approach is an unbiased, reliable, and very efficient structure verification and de novo structure elucidation method that can be applied to difficult structural problems when other experimental methods would be difficult or impossible to use.

 

Alexei V. Buevich*† and Mikhail E. Elyashberg*‡
J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00799

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NatProdChem's curator insight, November 28, 2016 3:42 AM

Synergistic Combination of CASE Algorithms and DFT Chemical Shift Predictions: A Powerful Approach for Structure Elucidation, Verification, and Revision

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An Unprecedented Blue Chromophore Found in Nature using a “Chemistry First” and Molecular Networking Approach: Discovery of Dactylocyanines A–H

An Unprecedented Blue Chromophore Found in Nature using a “Chemistry First” and Molecular Networking Approach: Discovery of Dactylocyanines A–H | LGN | Scoop.it
Guided by a “chemistry first” approach using molecular networking, eight new bright‐blue colored natural compounds, namely dactylocyanines A–H (3–10), were isolated from the Polynesian marine spong

 


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NatProdChem's curator insight, September 19, 2017 1:59 PM

Fishing new chromophore using molecular nets ... deep in the blue !

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Viruses - lots of them - are falling from the sky

Viruses - lots of them - are falling from the sky | LGN | Scoop.it

An astonishing number of viruses are circulating around the Earth's atmosphere -- and falling from it -- according to new research from scientists in Canada, Spain and the U.S.

 

The study marks the first time scientists have quantified the viruses being swept up from the Earth's surface into the free troposphere, that layer of atmosphere beyond Earth's weather systems but below the stratosphere where jet airplanes fly. The viruses can be carried thousands of kilometers there before being deposited back onto the Earth's surface.

 

"Every day, more than 800 million viruses are deposited per square metre above the planetary boundary layer -- that's 25 viruses for each person in Canada," said University of British Columbia virologist Curtis Suttle, one of the senior authors of a paper in the International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal that outlines the findings.

 

"Roughly 20 years ago we began finding genetically similar viruses occurring in very different environments around the globe," says Suttle. "This preponderance of long-residence viruses traveling the atmosphere likely explains why -- it's quite conceivable to have a virus swept up into the atmosphere on one continent and deposited on another."

 

Bacteria and viruses are swept up in the atmosphere in small particles from soil-dust and sea spray. Suttle and colleagues at the University of Granada and San Diego State University wanted to know how much of that material is carried up above the atmospheric boundary layer above 2,500 to 3,000 meters. At that altitude, particles are subject to long-range transport unlike particles lower in the atmosphere.

 

Using platform sites high in Spain's Sierra Nevada Mountains, the researchers found billions of viruses and tens of millions of bacteria are being deposited per square meter per day. The deposition rates for viruses were nine to 461 times greater than the rates for bacteria.


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It Takes 26 Fundamental Constants To Give Us Our Universe, But Why?

It Takes 26 Fundamental Constants To Give Us Our Universe, But Why? | LGN | Scoop.it

When we think about our Universe at a fundamental level, we think about all the particles in it and all the forces and interactions that occur between them. If you can describe those forces, interactions and particle properties, you have everything you need to reproduce our Universe, or at least a Universe virtually indistinguishable from our own, in its entirety.

 

Because if you know the laws of physics -- gravitation, quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, the nuclear forces, etc. -- all you need are the relationships that tell you "by how much," and so long as you start with the same initial conditions, you'll wind up with a Universe with the same structures from atoms to galaxy clusters, the same processes from electron transitions to stellar explosions, the same periodic table of elements, and the same chemical combinations from hydrogen gas to proteins and hydrocarbon chains, among a great number of other similarities.

 

When you encounter the question of "how much," you probably think of the force of gravity being determined by a universal gravitational constant, G, and of the "energy of a particle" being determined by its rest mass, such as the mass of an electron, me. You think of the speed of light,c, and for quantum mechanics, Planck's constant, ħ. But physicists don't like to use these constants when we describe the Universe, because these constants have arbitrary dimensions and units to them.

 

But there's no inherent importance to a unit like a meter, a kilogram or a second; in fact there's no reason at all to force ourselves to define things like "mass" or "time" or "distance" when it comes to the Universe. If we give the right dimensionless constants (without meters, kilograms, seconds or any other "dimensions" in them) that describe the Universe, we should naturally get out our Universe itself. This includes things like the masses of the particles, the strengths of their interactions, the speed limit of the Universe and even the fundamental properties of spacetime itself!

 

So, here are the 26 fundamental dimensionless constants:

 

the mass of the up quark the mass of the down quark the mass of the charmed quark the mass of the strange quark the mass of the top quark the mass of the bottom quark 4 numbers for the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

 

the mass of the electron the mass of the electron neutrino the mass of the muon the mass of the mu neutrino the mass of the tau the mass of the tau neutrino 4 numbers for the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata matrix

 

the mass of the Higgs boson the expectation value of the Higgs field

 

the U(1) coupling constant the SU(2) coupling constant the strong coupling constant

 

the cosmological constant

 

http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/constants.html

 

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How trees secretly talk to each other through a fungal network, called the Wood Wide Web (WoWW)

How trees secretly talk to each other through a fungal network, called the Wood Wide Web (WoWW) | LGN | Scoop.it

Trees are talking and sharing resources right under your feet, using a fungal network nicknamed the Wood Wide Web. CrowdScience presenter Marnie Chesterton reveals how plants use the system to support their offspring, while others hijack the network to sabotage their rivals.


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Mosquito saliva vaccines: a weapon against arbovirus infections?

Mosquito saliva vaccines: a weapon against arbovirus infections? | LGN | Scoop.it
A soon-to-be-published study supports the development of arbovirus vaccines targeting mosquito salivary proteins rather than the viruses present in their saliva.

Arbovirus infections represent 17% of all communicable diseases in humans, causing one billion cases and one million deaths annually. An arbovirus is a virus that is transmitted by insects to a vertebrate host, mainly mammals. The most common vectors of the arbovirus are mosquitos, ticks, and sandflies.

 

The most prevalent mosquito-borne viruses are dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya. These viruses have been responsible for emerging and re-emerging outbreaks and epidemics in the last years, thus representing a huge global health burden. Among all vector-borne viruses, Dengue is the most clinically significant arbovirus, infecting 390 million people each year with nearly 100 million symptomatic infections.

There are currently only vaccines for three arbovirus infections

Currently, vaccines exist for only three arbovirus infections: tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever. Dengue virus vaccines have been tested, but due to the complexity within the four dengue subgroups and genetic similarities with Zika virus, further studies must be conducted.

 

Since the development of viral protein-based vaccines has not been successful due to the intricacies of the vector-arbovirus-host interactions, some studies have supported the use of salivary proteins to develop “universal” arbovirus vaccines.

 

American researchers recently conducted a review study and its manuscript will bepublished soon in The Journal of Infectious Diseases. In their article, the authors review the literature and encourage the research and development of such vaccines.


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This New Virtual Reality Experience Drops You In Hiroshima Right After It's Been Bombed | Innovation

This New Virtual Reality Experience Drops You In Hiroshima Right After It's Been Bombed | Innovation | LGN | Scoop.it

When creators tread the line between empathy and trauma carefully, immersive technology can be a powerful tool for educating the public about history

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To Increase Learners Engagement: Use Different Types Of Visual Content

To Increase Learners Engagement: Use Different Types Of Visual Content | LGN | Scoop.it
As Human Brain Love Visuals So Its A Great Idea To Add Visuals In Your Content To Increase Your Learners. Visuals Also Help Your Learners To Understand Easily.

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David W. Deeds's curator insight, March 6, 5:36 AM

Check this out! Thanks to Elizabeth E. Charles.

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First look at Jupiter’s poles show strange geometric arrays of storms

First look at Jupiter’s poles show strange geometric arrays of storms | LGN | Scoop.it

The biggest planet in the solar system has no tilt as it moves, so its poles have never been visible from Earth. But in the past two years, with NASA’s Juno spacecraft, scientists have gotten a good look at the top and bottom of the planet for the first time. What they found astounded them: bizarre geometric arrangements of storms, each arrayed around one cyclone over the north and south poles—unlike any storm formation seen in the universe.

 

The new study, authored by scientists from an international group of institutions including the University of Chicago, is published in March 8’s Nature as part of a set of four papers dedicated to new observations from the Juno spacecraft. Juno launched in 2011 with the ambitious mission of finally seeing beneath the dense clouds covering Jupiter. On July 4, 2016, it finally reached the planet’s orbit. Since then it’s been orbiting the planet, taking pictures and measuring the planet’s profile in infrared, microwave, ultraviolet, gravity and magnetism—and answering questions scientists have had about Jupiter for decades.

 

One of these was the question of what lay at its elusive poles. When scientists got the first images, they were stunned. At the north pole, eight storms surrounded one storm at the center. At the south pole, it was the same arrangement, only with five storms. But the numbers stayed oddly constant; the storms weren’t drifting and merging, as our current understanding of the science suggested they should.

 

“They are extraordinarily stable arrangements of such chaotic elements,” said Morgan O’Neill, a University of Chicago postdoctoral scholar and a co-author on the paper. “We’d never seen anything like it.”


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Surprise: A Virus-Like Protein is Important for Cognition and Memory

Surprise: A Virus-Like Protein is Important for Cognition and Memory | LGN | Scoop.it

A protein involved in cognition and storing long-term memories looks and acts like a capsid protein from viruses. The protein, called Arc, has properties similar to those that viruses use for infecting host cells, and originated from a chance evolutionary event that occurred hundreds of millions of years ago.

 

The prospect that virus-like proteins could be the basis for a novel form of cell-to-cell communication in the brain could change our understanding of how memories are made, according to Jason Shepherd, a neuroscientist at University of Utah Health and senior author of the study publishing in the journal Cell on Jan. 11., 2018. Shepherd first suspected that something was different about Arc when his colleagues captured an image of the protein showing that Arc was assembling into large structures. With a shape that resembles a capsule from a lunar lander, these structures looked a lot like the retrovirus HIV.

 

“At the time, we didn’t know much about the molecular function or evolutionary history of Arc,” says Shepherd who has researched the protein for 15 years. “I had almost lost interest in the protein, to be honest. After seeing the capsids, we knew we were onto something interesting.”

 

The gap in research was not for want of an interesting subject. Prior work had shown that mice lacking Arc forgot things they had learned a mere 24 hours earlier. Further, their brains lacked plasticity. There is a window of time early in life when the brain is like a sponge, easily soaking up new knowledge and skills. Without Arc, the window never opens.

 

Scientists had never considered that mechanisms responsible for acquiring knowledge could stem from foreign origins. Now, the work by Shepherd and his team has raised this intriguing possibility. Seeing Arc’s unusual propensity to form virus-like structures prompted Shepherd to scrutinize the protein sequence with a new set of eyes. He found that regions of the code were similar to that from viral capsids. An essential tool for viral infection, capsids carry virus’ genetic information and deliver it from cell to cell in its victim.

 

Given that Arc looks like a viral protein, Shepherd and his colleagues designed a set of experiments to test whether it also acts like one. They first determined that several copies of Arc self-assemble into hollow virus-like capsids and stash its own genetic material, in this case mRNA, inside them. When the scientists added the capsids to mouse brain cells, or neurons, growing in a dish, Arc transferred its genetic cargo into the cells.

 

After viruses invade host cells, they emerge ready to infect once again. It appears that Arc works in a similar way. The scientists gathered Arc that had been released from mouse neurons and determined that the proteins and their cargo could be taken up by another set of neurons. Unlike for viruses, activating neurons mobilizes Arc, triggering the release of capsids.

 

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How German companies adopted English as their lingua franca

How German companies adopted English as their lingua franca | LGN | Scoop.it
German firms are switching to English as their primary language to the chagrin of some linguists and executives.

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Bloom's Digital Taxonomy

Bloom's Digital Taxonomy | LGN | Scoop.it

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Volkmar Langer's curator insight, March 4, 2:31 PM
...it´s not about tools or technologies...
Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, March 5, 1:25 AM
Bloom's Digital Taxonomy
Joe Boutte's curator insight, March 16, 11:26 AM

I like this view of Bloom's Taxonomy and how it applies to modern communications and learning.  

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Open Source Drug Discovery: Highly Potent Antimalarial Compounds Derived from the Tres Cantos Arylpyrroles

Open Source Drug Discovery: Highly Potent Antimalarial Compounds Derived from the Tres Cantos Arylpyrroles | LGN | Scoop.it

The development of new antimalarial compounds remains a pivotal part of the strategy for malaria elimination. Recent large-scale phenotypic screens have provided a wealth of potential starting points for hit-to-lead campaigns. One such public set is explored, employing an open source research mechanism in which all data and ideas were shared in real time, anyone was able to participate, and patents were not sought. One chemical subseries was found to exhibit oral activity but contained a labile ester that could not be replaced without loss of activity, and the original hit exhibited remarkable sensitivity to minor structural change. A second subseries displayed high potency, including activity within gametocyte and liver stage assays, but at the cost of low solubility. As an open source research project, unexplored avenues are clearly identified and may be explored further by the community; new findings may be cumulatively added to the present work.

 

Alice E. Williamson†, Paul M. Ylioja†, Murray N. Robertson†, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch§, Vicky Avery∥, Jonathan B. Baell⊥, Harikrishna Batchu#, Sanjay Batra#, Jeremy N. Burrows¶, Soumya Bhattacharyya#, Felix Calderonα, Susan A. Charman⊥, Julie Clarkβ, Benigno Crespoα, Matin Dean†, Stefan L. Debbertγ, Michael Delvesδ, Adelaide S. M. Dennisϵ, Frederik Derooseζ, Sandra Duffy∥, Sabine Fletcher∥, Guri Giaeverη, Irene Hallyburtonθ, Francisco-Javier Gamoα, Marinella Gebbiaη, R. Kiplin Guyβ, Zoe Hungerford†, Kiaran Kirkϵ, Maria J. Lafuente-Monasterioα, Anna Leeη, Stephan Meister§, Corey Nislowη, John P. Overingtonι, George Papadatosι, Luc Patinyκ, James Phamλ, Stuart A. Ralphλ, Andrea Rueckerδ, Eileen Ryan⊥, Christopher Southanμ, Kumkum Srivastava#, Chris Swainν, Matthew J. Tarnowski†, Patrick Thomsonξ, Peter Turner†, Iain M. Wallaceι, Timothy N. C. Wells¶, Karen White⊥, Laura White†, Paul Willis¶, Elizabeth A. Winzeler§, Sergio Wittlinπ, and Matthew H. Todd*†
ACS Cent. Sci., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.6b00086
Publication Date (Web): September 14, 2016

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NatProdChem's curator insight, September 18, 2016 2:30 AM

Open Source Power !

The way to go ....

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Natural products from myxobacteria: novel metabolites and bioactivities  

Natural products from myxobacteria: novel metabolites and bioactivities   | LGN | Scoop.it

Myxobacteria are a rich source for structurally diverse secondary metabolites with intriguing biological activities. Here we report on new natural products that were isolated from myxobacteria in the period of 2011 to July 2016. Some examples of recent advances on modes-of-action are also summarised along with a more detailed overview on five compound classes currently assessed in preclinical studies.

 

J. Herrmann,ab   A. Abou Fayadab and   R. Müller*ab  
 
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Nat. Prod. Rep., 2017, Advance Article

DOI: 10.1039/C6NP00106H

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NatProdChem's curator insight, December 3, 2016 7:07 AM

Amazing organisms, nice chemistry !

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Culture-independent discovery of the malacidins as calcium-dependent antibiotics with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens

Culture-independent discovery of the malacidins as calcium-dependent antibiotics with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens | LGN | Scoop.it
Letter

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NatProdChem's curator insight, February 23, 3:52 PM

Amazing work there, check the platform http://esnapd2.rockefeller.edu/