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Fixing Bad Behavior: Schools look for answers

Fixing Bad Behavior: Schools look for answers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

Instead of the old, zero-tolerance approach, principals now have more discretion to weigh the factors behind kids’ behavior. School-safety officers act as mediators rather than just security guards. And many of the violations that once sent teenagers home for a week, or a month, get addressed through in-school suspension — generally, a drab classroom where students spend entire days reflecting on their poor choices and, in theory, keeping up with classwork.

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Leading Schools
Improving Schools Through Enhanced Leadership
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 

 

In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.

 

In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.

 

Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?

 

Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.

 

Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson

 

• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).

 

Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)

 

• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Dorothy R. Cook 's curator insight, April 24, 2017 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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The Enduring Power of Relational Teaching

The Enduring Power of Relational Teaching | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
When a teacher makes a student feel seen—and understood—it can lead to incredible learning, says educational consultant Nat Damon. And that doesn’t call for grand gestures: Taking few seconds to tell a student she was great in the soccer game can be profound. “These micro moments matter,” Damon says. “When students sense their teachers know them as people, amazing things can happen.”

That is the core of relational teaching, an educational approach that emphasizes the importance of connectivity and relationships. It’s also what Damon believes is the key to helping students really learn. When a student feels valued and part of a safe community, they will be open to expanding their mind, to exploring and engaging. “Only through this connection can you really challenge,” Damon says. “Learning is hard. And long-term retention doesn’t happen in a passive manner.”

Damon says that he “proselytizes the message” of how important connection in the classroom is in his new book, Time to Teach, Time to Reach. Published by the Relational Schools Foundation, the book explores the how behind teaching. Damon interviewed more than one hundred K through 12 teachers and educational experts from the United States, Finland, and England about their processes. How do they make students feel seen? How do they create a safe space for authenticity? How do they incorporate relational teaching? Each educator makes a compelling case that teaching is equally cognitive and emotional. Connection isn’t just obvious for successful teaching (and learning)—it’s essential. “We’re all wondering how we can grow our kids to give them confidence but also to be human with each other,” Damon says. “The best thing we can do is invest in them.”
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John McPhee On Teaching Good Writing

John McPhee, a master of telling nonfiction stories, became a teacher by accident 43 years ago when Princeton University needed a last-minute.


 


“One analogy that I've often used is a sort of age-old sore question: Do you really think you can teach writing? And this is almost rhetorical because the person who's asking the question believes you can't. And my response to that is that I was a Red Cross Water Safety Instructor at a camp in Vermont, and I taught lifesaving, swimming and everything else. Everybody I dealt with—they were older kids—could swim. So what did I teach them? I taught them how to move through the water a little more smoothly and efficiently. I taught them this and that about swimming in a better way, and that's what I do as a writing teacher. I look at stuff and do this, but I don't create the writer at all.”

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When students miss school, they fall behind. Here’s how one group is curbing absenteeism.

When students miss school, they fall behind. Here’s how one group is curbing absenteeism. | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Research has shown chronic absenteeism is linked to negative outcomes for students, including lower test scores, higher dropout rates, and even a greater risk of entering the criminal justice system.

Absenteeism has such a large impact on learning, districts are under pressure from new national legislation to include chronic absenteeism data in how they evaluate schools.
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Give Some 'Snaps': Introducing Students to Classroom Routines (Video)

Give Some 'Snaps': Introducing Students to Classroom Routines (Video) | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
High school teacher Sarah Brown Wessling likes to snap her fingers to show appreciation and affirmation for students' contributions in her English class. She describes how she introduces students to this classroom routine—even when her high schoolers find it awkward at first. 
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6 Strategies for Taking High-Quality Notes

6 Strategies for Taking High-Quality Notes | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Get your students thinking deeply while they’re taking notes—and show them how to make the most of those notes later.
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Building Coach-Teacher Relationships

Building Coach-Teacher Relationships | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Joshua Parker and Marquis Colquitt discuss how they build a strong professional relationship. Joshua Parker helps new teacher Marquis Colquitt improve his teaching practice through instructional coaching. In order for the coaching to have a positive impact, both Marquis and Joshua work on building their relationship. They share their tips for keeping the relationship professional while having fun at the same time.
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Co-Teaching: It's a Marriage

Co-Teaching: It's a Marriage | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Co-teaching is a marriage. There are good times and bad times, and you learn to weather them together for the children.

How can you make it work? Here are five tips I have learned over my eight years of successful co-teaching.

Be Realistic
Some teachers think that having a co-teacher will be half the work. Wrong! I would consider it double the work because it’s likely that you’ll enter this relationship without knowing much about the other. Be mindful that you’ve got two sets of everything now—ideas, beliefs, practices, etc. You’re going to be busy learning about each other and your students, so be realistic about what you expect to accomplish as a team right away. Get to know each other so that you can set realistic goals and expectations for yourself and your partnership. There is a lot to get used to when you are working with someone else, and it is easy to get overwhelmed by getting to know your partner and maintaining your workload.
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Welcoming Students With a Smile

Welcoming Students With a Smile | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A widely cited 2007 study claimed that teachers greeting students at the classroom door led to a 27 percent increase in academic engagement. The problem? It included just three students.

Now a new, much larger and more credible study—comprising 203 students in 10 classrooms—validates that claim: Greeting students at the door sets a positive tone and can increase engagement and reduce disruptive behavior. Spending a few moments welcoming students promotes a sense of belonging, giving them social and emotional support that helps them feel invested in their learning.

The first few minutes of class are often the most chaotic, as students transition from busy areas such as the hallway or playground. Left unchecked, disruptions can become difficult to manage, but a proactive approach to classroom management can help students get focused and ready to learn. Rather than address disruptive behavior as it happens, proactive techniques—like greeting students at the door and modeling good behavior—reduce the occurrence of such behavior as teachers and students build a positive classroom culture together.
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To Build Student–Teacher Relationships Create Routines, Routines, and More Routines

Create routines, routines, and more routines.


Don't start picturing Charlie Brown's teacher! "Routine" does not have to be synonymous with "dull and boring." I create a routine for any task, activity, or possible problem that may arise in my classroom from day one. This strategy does not mean that I teach them every routine right off the bat. It just means that I choose the routines that give me the most bang for the buck, such as those that will address the "I have to go to the bathroom" or "I need a pencil" or "Where do I put this?" issues. I try to teach only a few routines per day for the first few weeks of school because I want students to remember what we talk about and not become overwhelmed with too much new information.


I also try to strike a healthy balance between the ho-hum routines and the more exciting ones, such as teaching brain breaks (a few minutes to refocus with dance, jumping jacks, Simon Says, or other recharging movement). When I teach any routine, I explicitly model what it should look like before we practice it together. If students make mistakes—which should be expected any time they are learning something new—we discuss them and try again, which nurtures a growth mindset.

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22 Powerful Lesson Closure Activities

22 Powerful Lesson Closure Activities | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Too many university supervisors and administrators criticize the absence of lesson closure, a dubious assessment practice likely caused by the improper use of Madeline Hunter’s lesson plan model (PDF) as a de facto checklist of eight mandatory teaching practices -- anticipatory set, objective and purpose, input, modeling, checking for understanding, guided practice, independent practice, and closure -- a custom that Hunter decried in 1985 (PDF). Although it offers multiple benefits, please don't view closure as a professional must-do.

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6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students

6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
What’s the opposite of scaffolding a lesson? Saying to students, “Read this nine-page science article, write a detailed essay on the topic it explores, and turn it in by Wednesday.” Yikes—no safety net, no parachute, no scaffolding—they’re just left blowing in the wind.

Let’s start by agreeing that scaffolding a lesson and differentiating instruction are two different things. Scaffolding is breaking up the learning into chunks and then providing a tool, or structure, with each chunk. When scaffolding reading, for example, you might preview the text and discuss key vocabulary, or chunk the text and then read and discuss as you go. With differentiation, you might give a child an entirely different piece of text to read, or shorten the text or alter it, and/or modify the writing assignment that follows.
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Carol Dweck responds to recent criticisms of #growthmindset research

Carol Dweck responds to recent criticisms of #growthmindset research | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Brooke Macnamara and her colleagues, who conducted a meta-analysis of growth mindset interventions, found that when students were taught a growth mindset, they showed significantly higher achievement. But Macnamara believes that the effects of these programs or interventions, while statistically significant, are too small to be practically meaningful.

My colleagues and I, along with educational evaluation experts, economists and the World Bank, disagree.

You’re probably thinking that of course I would say the effects of growth mindset intervention are meaningful since my research is what led to their creation.

Yet our disagreement with Macnamara rests on exactly what one considers to be a meaningful effect size for an educational intervention. An effect size is a way to standardize treatment benefits across very different outcomes, like test scores and grade point averages.

Macnamara states that the average or typical effect size for an educational intervention is .57. In the case of grade point averages, this would mean that students in a typical intervention group would have grades that are about .57 points higher than a control group on a 4.0 scale.
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The Best (and Worst) States For Teachers in 2018

The Best (and Worst) States For Teachers in 2018 | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
However, Burns says it's not fair to compare public schools in the U.S. with international schools like that based on how different the 

Finland's total population is approximately five million, and Singapore is just under six million. The U.S. population is just under 270 million people. It is literally impossible to compare the school and teaching capacities due to those differences alone, even using sophisticated statistical techniques.

And when the studies are controlled for poverty levels, the education system in the U.S. ranks #1 across all metrics, Burns says. 

Teachers here are never credited for their enormous success in the face of these realities. They are constantly compared unfavorably with other nation's schools that simply do not educate their youth in the same ways, or to the same level.

Burns also points out much of a student's sucess in school depends on outside factors beyond the teacher or school district's control. According to the RAND corporation, a teacher's quality *may* only account for up to 14% of a student's achievement in the classroom. 

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How Microsoft Uses a Growth Mindset to Develop Leaders

How Microsoft Uses a Growth Mindset to Develop Leaders | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Research shows that managers see far more leadership potential in their employees when their companies adopt a growth mindset — the belief that talent should be developed in everyone, not viewed as a fixed, innate gift that some have and others don’t. But what are those organizations doing to nurture their talent?

To explore this question, let’s look at Microsoft, which is deliberately creating a growth-mindset culture and, in that context, rethinking its approach to development. As a result, previously unidentified — yet skilled — leaders are rising to levels they might not have in a traditional development model.
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Installing Routines and Procedures While Teaching Content

Installing Routines and Procedures While Teaching Content | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Before the start of every school year, I was always gripped by the tension between two things that felt equally urgent in the first days: On one hand there was the long term imperative of establishing strong procedures and routines for the things my class would do over and over during the year, and on the other there was the urgency of digging into rich academic content- there was just no time to wait in getting started learning.

Sometimes these imperatives seemed to conflict – how could I find the time to reinforce both strong procedures and deep academics in the first days of school? By focusing on one, wouldn’t I be sacrificing the other?
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Educators' Powerful Role in Motivation and Engagement

Educators' Powerful Role in Motivation and Engagement | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Research is clear that emotions have a direct impact on learning and how we process and interpret our surrounding environment. "Students learn and perform more successfully when they feel secure, happy, and excited about the subject matter" (Boekaerts, 1993; Oatly & Nundy,1996). Emotions are the fast lane to the brain!

Regardless of one's title, every interaction with a student, no matter how brief, sends a message about the organization's philosophy on the role of positive connections and importance of a safe, welcoming learning environment. Addressing students' social and emotional needs is a foundational step toward delivering on academics. As I say, "You can't get to Bloom's Taxonomy without going through Maslow's Hierarchy." As much as some may want to focus primarily on rigor, without the relationship and relevance, the motivational on-switch won't flip.

If a student doesn't feel supported, accepted, and emotionally and physically safe, engagement and motivation won't exist because their basic needs aren't being met. The brain will remain in the hyperactive state of protection and vigilance until steps are taken to allow for a feeling of safety to enter. School communities that spend time and intentional effort putting emotional deposits in the bank accounts of students see tremendous benefits both academically and socially.
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'Homework Gap' Hits Minority, Impoverished Students Hardest

The lack of access to technology and internet connectivity at home is especially severe among poor, rural, and minority students, a new survey from ACT reveals.
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How To Deal With A Talkative Class: 3 Tips

How To Deal With A Talkative Class: 3 Tips | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
How do you handle a class that is apt to talk to each other rather than listen to the instructor or other students? Here are 3 tips that you can incorporate to help reduce the chattiness of your class.
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Millions of Students in the US Lack Access to Technology and High-Speed Internet

Millions of Students in the US Lack Access to Technology and High-Speed Internet | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Technology and the internet have become a vital part of modern living. Both crucially enable people to share information and ideas, and facilitate learning. Yet billions of people around the world lack access to these tools.
In the US alone, 24 million people don’t have access to high-speed internet and more than 20% of households do not have a computer. People living in low-income households or in poverty are more likely to experience difficulties accessing technology, according to the Pew Research Center. 
This situation has created a digital divide in the educational attainment and income of those who can readily access technology and those who cannot. The digital divide also means that millions of students in the US struggle to realize their full potential.
Many schools, particularly in rural and low-income areas, do not have technological tools they need to enhance students’ learning and about a quarter of school districts in the US do not have high-speed internet.
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How do you focus and hold students’ attention? The 10 Minute Rule

How do you focus and hold students’ attention? The 10 Minute Rule | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The brain is easily bored. This one fact explains why Apple does what it does in its product launches. A presentation based on the fundamentals of neuroscience includes frequent changes to keep people interested. But how frequent is 'frequent' change? 

The answer: 10 minutes. 

Neuroscientists say our brains have a built-in stopwatch that ends around 10 minutes. In my conversations with University of Washington Medical School molecular biologist, John Medina, he cites peer-reviewed studies that show people tune out of a presentation in the first ten minutes. "The brain seems to be making choices according to some stubborn timing pattern, undoubtedly influenced by both culture and gene," he says. "This fact suggests a teaching and business imperative: Find a way to arouse and then hold somebody's attention for a specific period of time."

Medina and other neuroscientists say that speakers can re-engage an audience every ten minutes if they introduce a change. A change can include a video, a story, a demonstration, etc. 
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Differentiating Instruction: It's Not as Hard as You Think (Video)

Differentiating Instruction: It's Not as Hard as You Think (Video) | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
To some educators, it conjures visions of having to create a different lesson for every student in the room, and long nights of planning and grading," says veteran teacher and writer Larry Ferlazzo in a new explainer video for Education Week. "That insanity is not what differentation is all about." 
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The start of high school doesn't have to be stressful

Consider that nearly two-thirds of students will experience the “ninth-grade shock,” which refers to a dramatic drop in a student’s academic performance.

Some students cope with this shock by avoiding challenges. For instance, they may drop rigorous coursework. Others may experience a hopelessness that results in failing their core classes, such as English, science and math.

This should matter a great deal to parents, teachers and policymakers. Ultimately it should matter to the students themselves and society at large.

One of the biggest reasons it should matter is because students’ fate as they transition to ninth grade can have long-term consequences not only for the students but for their home communities. We make these observations as research psychologists who have studied how schools and families can help young people thrive.
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Teacher turnover is a problem – here’s how to fix it

Teacher turnover is a problem – here’s how to fix it | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
An average of 16 percent of public school teachers change schools or leave teaching every year. This is over half a million teachers nationwide.

Welcome to the world of teacher turnover – a problem that can potentially set a child’s learning experience back significantly. Teacher turnover is one of the more disruptive things that I’ve discovered in my research on education policy and school improvement.
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The Difference Between Mission Vision Purpose Strategy and Goals

The Difference Between Mission Vision Purpose Strategy and Goals | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
if you focus on goal-setting without considering the larger vision, you are likely to end up with goals that don’t matter.
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Is Listening As Good For You As Reading? Here’s What Experts Say

Is Listening As Good For You As Reading? Here’s What Experts Say | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Daniel coauthored a 2010 study that found students who listened to a podcast lesson performed worse on a comprehension quiz than students who read the same lesson on paper. “And the podcast group did a lot worse, not a little worse,” he says. Compared to the readers, the listeners scored an average of 28% lower on the quiz—about the difference between an A or a D grade, he says.

Interestingly, at the start of the experiment, almost all the students wanted to be in the podcast group. “But then right before I gave them the quiz, I asked them again which group they would want to be in, and most of them had changed their minds—they wanted to be in the reading group,” Daniel says. “They knew they hadn’t learned as much.”
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