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Why don't students remember what they’ve learned?

Why don't students remember what they’ve learned? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Curricula and assessment aren’t designed with memory in mind   We’ve all had the experience of cramming for an exam and forgetting most of what we learned within a few weeks or days.
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 

 

In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.

 

In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.

 

Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?

 

Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.

 

Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson

 

• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).

 

Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)

 

• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Dorothy R. Cook 's curator insight, April 24, 2017 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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Using Feedback to Empower Learners

Using Feedback to Empower Learners | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The most successful companies are successful because they are always looking for ways to improve.  When it comes to their employees, there is no ceiling as they are continually pursuing pathways and allocating resources to help the best get even better. The same philosophy can be applied to our schools. Continuous feedback for all learners, regardless of their abilities or where they are at, is pivotal if the goal is to help them evolve into their best. The research fully supports this proclamation.  Goodwin & Miller (2012) provided this summary:
In Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock's 2001 meta-analysis, McREL researchers found an effect size for feedback of 0.76, which translates roughly into a 28-percentile point difference in average achievement (Beesley & Apthorp, 2010; Dean, Pitler, Hubbell, & Stone, 2012). John Hattie (2009) found a similar effect size of 0.73 for feedback in his synthesis of 800 meta-analyses of education research studies; in fact, feedback ranked among the highest of hundreds of education practices he studied.
The bottom line here is that feedback matters in the context of learning. It should also be noted how it differs from assessment. Feedback justifies a grade, establishes criteria for improvement, provides motivation for the next assessment, reinforces good work, and serves as a catalyst for reflection. The assessment determines whether learning occurred, what learning occurred, and if the learning relates to stated targets, standards, and objectives. In reality, formative assessment is an advanced form of feedback. 
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How to Model Your Own Love of Reading in the Classroom (and Why It’s Important)

How to Model Your Own Love of Reading in the Classroom (and Why It’s Important) | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
As teachers, we work to create an impactful learning community in our classrooms, a place where children not only see themselves as readers but also love to read. Sharing our own love of reading with students is an important part of reaching this goal. It models what a readerly lifestyle looks like and makes us better reading teachers. Not to mention, sharing our enthusiasm for books might be the first time a student sees an adult excited about reading.

Sharing Your Love of Books Is Important

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Why Do Some of the Nation's Wealthiest Districts Have the Worst Gender Gaps in Math and Reading?

Why Do Some of the Nation's Wealthiest Districts Have the Worst Gender Gaps in Math and Reading? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
From 2008 to 2015, gender gaps in both math and reading have narrowed, though they are closing much faster in math than in reading. In fact, average gaps favored girls in reading in every grade and year. Boys did not outperform girls in any district in the study.

And unlike in math, those reading gaps widened over time: While girls on average outperformed boys by about a half of a grade level in 4th grade, girls performed a full year ahead of boys by 8th grade. 

"Gender does hinder children's educational opportunities," said Erin Fahle, a co-author of the study and an education policy doctoral researcher who will soon join the faculty at St. John's University in New York City.
Mel Riddile's insight:

“In the places where boys are doing better, we need to figure out how to make sure girls are getting the same opportunities and attention as boys. In places where girls are doing better, we might need to help boys identify with school and see academic achievement as a 'masculine' thing."

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5 Common Mistakes of First-Year Principals

5 Common Mistakes of First-Year Principals | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
You’re absolutely ecstatic because you finally got that principal position you’ve been wanting for a long time! Since the moment you were named principal of your school, your mind has been racing about all the things you’re going to do, right? Well, take a deep breath. My first piece of advice is to slow down. Take a moment to think about what mistakes you don’t want to make as you begin this exciting journey as a principal.

Giving Away Your Time

As a new principal, it’s natural that you want to meet everyone who wants to see you, you want to drop whatever it is you’re doing when people walk into your office, you take every phone call that gets put through to you, etc. And of course, you need to do that, as we know visibility and building relationships is the key to being a successful principal.
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How Many Teachers Are Chronically Absent From Class in Your State?

How Many Teachers Are Chronically Absent From Class in Your State? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Students Face Schools With Absent Teachers

Additionally, the Education Week Research Center found nearly a quarter of a million students attended schools where most teachers were deemed to be chronically absent. In other words, more than 1 out of 10 schools were places where most teachers missed 10 or more days of school. Explore the database below to find schools that were identified as having most teachers being absent by state or school name:
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Poll: Low marks for grading teachers based on kids' tests

Many Americans, especially public-school parents, give low marks to rating a teacher based partly on how students perform on standardized tests, according to a survey.

The Gallup Poll released Sunday found 55 percent opposed linking teacher evaluations to their students’ test scores. Among those with children in public schools opposition was stronger, at 63 percent.

Standardized tests are necessary, but there’s an overreliance on them, said Joshua Starr, CEO of Phi Delta Kappa International, an association for educators, and a former schools superintendent. PDK, which supports teachers and educational research, paid for the poll conducted by Gallup.
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When Overtaxed Working Memory Knocks Your Brain Out of Sync

When Overtaxed Working Memory Knocks Your Brain Out of Sync | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Researchers find that when working memory gets overburdened, dialog between three brain regions breaks down. The discovery provides new support for a broader theory about how the brain operates.
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9 Things to Know About School Resource Officers

9 Things to Know About School Resource Officers | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
School resource officers have one of the most unique assignments in law enforcement, yet relatively little is known about them. Who are they? How do they see their roles in schools? What kind of training have they received?

The Education Week Research Center surveyed 400 members of this relatively unknown group, capturing information about the profession, how they view their role, and more. This video explores the results.

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Are the 'wheels are falling off technology' in schools? Tech puts more demands on teachers not less!

Are the 'wheels are falling off technology' in schools? Tech puts more demands on teachers not less! | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Computer giant Microsoft warns clumsy use of technology is hurting rather than helping learning, and says schools must stop blindly letting students use devices without understanding whether they're engaging or simply entertaining them.

The global company will on Tuesday launch Transforming Education, a book it describes as an ''intervention''. It argues schools across the world have not paid enough attention to planning for technology or understanding how it can help.
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How to Teach Kids to Have a #GrowthMindset

How to Teach Kids to Have a #GrowthMindset | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Did you know that intelligence isn't set in stone? You may have been brought up to believe that some people were just good at challenging subjects, and others just didn't have the natural ability to learn how to solve very complex math and science problems.


You might be surprised to find out that education and brain research in recent decades has shown otherwise. Researchers have found that children and adults can develop and train for intelligence. One of the important factors for being able to develop this intelligence is the belief that intelligence is the result of hard work and study.

Teachers call this a growth mindset. The term was coined by Stanford educational researcher Dr. Carol Dweck.  Dweck compares her growth mindset to a fixed mindset. While people with a growth mindset believe that they can develop their intelligence, people with fixed mindsets believe that intelligence cannot be developed. Essentially, researchers now believe that the ability to learn difficult and challenging material comes from a belief that you can.
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Here Are Three Prompts to Get Students Engaged in Persuasive Writing (Video)

Here Are Three Prompts to Get Students Engaged in Persuasive Writing (Video) | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Youth Radio program leader and educator Teresa Chin introduces a writing prompt to help high school students in Oakland, Calif., brainstorm topics for a persuasive writing assignment about their personal experiences. She gives students a graphic organizer where they list topics they know about, care about, and wish other people would know about.
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Some High-Achieving Students are pushing themselves to unhealthy limits. Here’s how teachers can help

All of us feel sympathy for students who experience anguish and who make poor decisions. I don’t understand all the underlying causes of complex and difficult emotions, but I have done my best to reach out to experts for ways to help my students learn from setbacks and then move on.

1. Give frequent low-stakes assessments

Failure on big tests suggests to anxious students that growth is unattainable, and that it’s easier to give up. To combat that thinking, I favor frequent low-stakes assessments, where a few bad performances don’t devastate an individual’s overall grade.
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Want to Improve Math Teaching? Try Coaching the Coaches

Want to Improve Math Teaching? Try Coaching the Coaches | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
when coaches and teachers had deep and specific conversations while planning lessons, the teachers were better able to orchestrate high-level and open-ended mathematics tasks in the classroom. They became more skilled at helping students better understand math concepts.
Teachers also became more comfortable allowing students to do most of the thinking about math problems, rather than jumping in and providing assistance as soon as students started to struggle, Russell said.
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Literacy Development in Primary Grades Is More Important than an A+

Literacy Development in Primary Grades Is More Important than an A+ | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Today, literacy skills can be linked directly to employment and earnings, which are ultimately linked to poverty, incarceration, and massive expenditures for welfare supports. Over the past half century, the world has been losing jobs designed for an economy needing low- or semiskilled workers. Our economy now demands a  more highly educated workforce.

In the past, our manufacturing economy needed workers who were willing to perform assembly-line tasks for 30-plus years, assuming one day they would retire with paid health and retirement benefits for the rest of their lives. At that time, it was acceptable for our schools to produce significant numbers of low- or semiskilled workers suitable for our country’s economic needs. For several generations, these workers were able to grow a middle-class family and experience their children climbing even higher on the social mobility ladder. For major segments of our society, these days are over. Our economy can no longer support the 50 percent of our high school graduates who are undereducated and not prepared for college or a career.

The need for more highly educated workers requires an extensive paradigm shift in schools, with a focus on doubling the number of graduates who are either college- or career-ready. To double the number of capable high school graduates, we must begin by at least doubling the number of proficient readers entering grade four. Currently, only about 35 percent of fourth graders are considered proficient readers (National Center for Education Statistics, 2015).

In Beyond the Grade, the authors provide evidence and strategies to increase the numbers of early proficient readers. Specifically, we provide evidence to support the shift from traditional to standards-based grading along with instructional guides and sample school schedules that, if implemented as intended, can be catalysts to support institutional changes that are linked to student success. We believe the information presented in Beyond the Grade can help at least 70 to 80 percent of students with English as their primary language become proficient readers by grade four, regardless of their socioeconomic status. To reach this goal, many students will have to obtain six years of literacy growth in the first four years in school, for an average of 1.5 years of growth per year (Cunningham & Allington, 2011).
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Reducing the Need for Reading Intervention

Graphic organizers should be a part of good classroom instruction, and reading strategies should be embedded across the curriculum.

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Building a Dual-Enrollment Culture

Building a Dual-Enrollment Culture | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
some states are actively building a culture of dual enrollment. In Iowa, half of all high school graduates have also completed college classes. Kentucky and New Hampshire also stand out; there 34 percent of those entering community college were high school students according to a study by the Teachers College at Columbia University. Compare that to New Jersey South Dakota where, respectively, only where only four and two percent of those entering community college were dual-enrollment students. The term “dual enrollment” is simply not in the lexicon of many families in these states and others.

Perhaps most importantly, compared to their peers, dual-enrollment students are more likely to complete college. According to the Columbia University study, 88 percent of dual enrollment students continued onto college after high school, and most earned a degree. Thus, dual enrollment can change the entire trajectory of students’ lives.

Sometimes these programs even empower high school students to graduate already having completed a college degree. Ian Marchinton, a 16-year-old from Waynesboro, Georgia, is graduating from Georgia Cyber Academy, an online public charter school, having completed an Associate’s Degree in General Studies after taking both online and on-campus classes. To nurture his passion for epidemiology, this fall Ian plans to attend Georgia College & State University where he will major in Biology/Pre-Med.
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What Predicts College Completion? High School GPA Beats SAT Score

What Predicts College Completion? High School GPA Beats SAT Score | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
One of the most pressing problems in American higher education is the high college dropout rate. Spending time in college without a degree to show for it means students will lose opportunities to work or cultivate skills elsewhere. College dropouts are also far more likely than graduates to default on their student loans. In many ways, dropping out of college is worse than not going to college at all.

Knowing which factors predict completion, and intervening accordingly, can save students and colleges a world of grief. That’s where a new report by Matthew Chingos of the Urban Institute comes in. (The report was published through the American Enterprise Institute, my employer, but I had no involvement with its production.)
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8 phrases a great boss will constantly tell their employees

The characteristics that make a good boss differ greatly from those that make an average or subpar one. And communication can play a large role in determining your effectiveness and success as a leader.

How you communicate with your employees can either show them they are valued or make them feel disposable. Great bosses find themselves using the following positive reinforcements, questions, and statements of gratitude on a daily basis.

1. “Good job.”

Good bosses let employees know when they’ve succeeded at a task. Offering positive reinforcement encourages workers and assures them that their hard work is appreciated and noticed.

Giving an employee praise can be equally as effective as giving an employee constructive criticism. Both help a worker to continue to improve his/her professional performance.

2. “What’s our goal?”

A great boss wants to keep his/her employees motivated.

By creating a goal-oriented environment, a boss can encourage employees to focus on an end-point make decisions that will lead them to achieve their goals. And by saying “our,” that employee knows the boss is working toward this goal with her.
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Mindful Literacy Assessment –

Mindful Literacy Assessment – | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
When we limit ourselves to only one way of assessing student learning, we become dependent on the tools we use. An outcome is usually a number or a level. The assessments that lead to these results are often commercial products with little opportunity for local control. We can blame the tools, but what good does that do?

This lack of agency over the results of student learning could be described as “mindless assessment”. We accept the results as gospel even if they cause anxiety rather than inform our practice. To question them runs counter to the proclamation by the assessment companies that their technologies are “valid” and “reliable” to ensure fidelity within RtI. Yet when you look closely at the research to support some of these tools, many of the studies are self-funded and self-selected. The anecdotal and circumstantial evidence we collect in classrooms is, conversely, often viewed with skepticism.
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How Do We Know If Ed Tech Even Works?

In April, the newest National Assessment of Educational Progress scores once again showed minimal progress in U.S. math and reading achievement and a widening achievement gap between our highest and lowest performers. Against this backdrop, educators today are eager for solutions that have long seemed elusive to age-old challenges in education.
Education technology will be part of the solution. Technology today allows teachers to adapt instruction to wide-ranging student needs. Students can use software to receive rapid, specific feedback and work through richer, more realistic problems. Education technology is now ubiquitous in many U.S. classrooms—with annual pre-K-12 spending on software reaching a staggering $8.3 billion, according to a 2015 estimate from the Software and Information Industry Association.
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Price’s Law: Why only a few people generate half of the results

50% of the work is done by the square root of the total number of people who participate in the work.

In my example, that means 5 people (square root of 25) should bring in 50% of the sales. That means Price’s law is pretty accurate. On my floor, 4 people brought in about 50%-60% of the sales.

After my first job, I noticed the same ratio at every single company I’ve worked with. The contrast was the biggest when I worked in London for a major corporation, where top sales performers were rewarded big.

Again, the number of people who were rewarded were the square root of the total salespeople. It’s also true for our family business. In every workplace, the relationship between value and people is asymmetric.

Only a handful of people are responsible for the majority of the value creation. It’s very similar to the Pareto principle (the difference is that Price looked at the relationship between people and the work they produced).
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Retrieval Practice is the Perfect Tool to 'Win Back the Margins'

Stray minutes can really add up. Winning back three minutes on the margins of each day—a minute waiting for the rest of the class to show up; a minute at the end of class when there’s not time to start something new; a minute of unproductive time put to use–would translates into 60 minutes of instruction each month or ten hours of teaching over the course of a year.
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The College Dropout Problem

The College Dropout Problem | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In 2016, more than 48% of first-time, full-time students who started at a four-year college six years earlier had not yet earned a degree. For these schools, the four-year completion rate—that is, the share of students who complete a bachelor’s degree in the time the program is expected to take—is just 28%. Put another way, nearly 2 million students who begin college each year will drop out before earning a diploma. The picture at community colleges is no better. At public two-year colleges, only about 26% of full-time, first-time students complete their degree within three years.

Lackluster completion rates yield significant costs. Students wind up burdened by debt, waste their time, and see their expected earnings markedly reduced. Taxpayers wind up shelling out for grants and subsidies that go to waste, and for federal loans that are unlikely to get repaid. (For more on the numbers, check out the new set of papers issued jointly by the education teams at the American Enterprise Institute and Third Way, at Elevating College Completion.)
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There Are Now More High Schools With Low Graduation Rates. Why?

There Are Now More High Schools With Low Graduation Rates. Why? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Johns Hopkins University researcher Robert Balfanz, one of the report's co-authors, said that most of the change is explained by a rise in the number of alternative schools. In 2016, the most recent year of data available, there were 878 alternative high schools with low graduation rates. Only two years earlier, in 2014, there were 677.

Shifts like these are important to note as the country struggles to understand how well its high schools are serving students. That's not as easy task, as cause for celebration and skepticism compete for our attention.

Federal data released in December show the highest graduation rate in history. But investigations and audits are stacking up that show schools, districts or states playing a variety of games with their graduation-rate calculations.
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Scooped by Mel Riddile
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The Key to 21st Century Classrooms Isn't Tech. It's Evolved Teaching. 

I often hear people question whether teachers are willing to embrace technology, but if we really want to transform teaching and learning, I think the better question is, “Are we willing to change our expectations for how and what students learn?”

If we only focus on the latest programs, makerspaces or the devices rather than on creating powerful learning experiences that align with the type of skills and character traits we want students to develop, we will continue to perpetuate the same norms in education with more expensive tools.
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