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Moving Top Teachers to Struggling Schools Has Benefits

Moving Top Teachers to Struggling Schools Has Benefits | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A new study finds that effective educators help their new students learn more. But the problem is, many are reluctant to transfer to another school.
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Improving Schools Through Enhanced Leadership
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 

 

In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.

 

In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.

 

Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?

 

Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.

 

Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson

 

• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).

 

Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)

 

• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Dorothy R. Cook 's curator insight, April 24, 2017 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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Another state lowers requirements for teacher licensing, but not expectations for student achievement?

Another state lowers requirements for teacher licensing, but not expectations for student achievement? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Some prospective middle school and high school math teachers who fell short of meeting the passing score on a required certification might now meet state standards under a policy change approved by the state Board of Education.

At their May 17 meeting, board members voted to lower the required score for the Praxis 5161 mathematics test from a 160 to 152 with the change taking effect immediately and putting Mississippi in line with several other states. 

Cory Murphy, director of the state division of educator licensure, said previous test takers with a minimum score of 152 who met other requirements, such as the completion of an alternate route or traditional teacher preparation program, are now eligible for certification.
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Reflective Writing Activities: Fostering Metacognitive Awareness for Learning Transfer

Reflective Writing Activities: Fostering Metacognitive Awareness for Learning Transfer
Sarah C. Johnson
Today's students are taking in information all day long, from multiple sources, and at any given moment. This constant stream provides little time for processing and even less time for reflecting. And yet processing and reflecting are crucial to cognition; they are vital to meaning-making, which makes learning transferable from one context to another.
That's why our high school made reflective writing for metacognitive awareness and transferable learning the centerpiece of our new approach to writing across the curriculum. The following strategies have helped guide our developing classroom practices with reflective writing.
Make Reflective Writing Low Stakes and Informal
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Fun End-of-Year Review Activities

Fun End-of-Year Review Activities | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The 2017-18 school year is winding down for many of us and that means lots of end-of-year review and reflection activities will be taking place. It’s this time of the year that I get a lot of requests for suggestions for tools to create review activities. Here are three types of review activities and tools for conducting them with your students.
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Two studies point to the power of teacher-student relationships to boost learning

Two studies point to the power of teacher-student relationships to boost learning | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Two studies on how best to teach elementary schools students — one on the popular trend of “platooning” and one on the far less common practice of “looping” — at first would seem totally unrelated other than the fact that they both use silly words with double-o’s. “Platooning” refers to having teachers specialize in a particular subject, such as math or English, and young students switch teachers for each class. “Looping” is a term used when kids keep the same teacher for two years in a row. They don’t switch teachers for each subject and don’t switch each year.
One economist found that platooning might be harming kids and two other economists found that looping is quite beneficial. The reason one doesn’t work and the other does may be related.
“These studies are important because they tell us that teacher-student relationships matter,” said Tyrone Howard, a professor of education at the University of California, Los Angeles, who is writing a book on the research about students’ relationships with their teachers and how well they learn. ”I think schools in many ways have put the cart before the horse. What they’ve done is they want to jump right into academics and really dismiss or minimize the importance of relationships.”
Mel Riddile's insight:

It seems that the ostensible benefits of specialization were outweighed by the fact teachers had fewer interactions with each student. No one was minding the whole student throughout the whole day or providing continuous emotional support, keeping an eye on a kid who had an argument in the morning or whose mouth was achy from a loose tooth.

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How Helping Students to Ask Better Questions Can Transform Classrooms

How Helping Students to Ask Better Questions Can Transform Classrooms | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The Question Formulation Technique started out as a parent engagement tool and has slowly been making its way into many classrooms. In the 1990s Dan Rothstein and Luz Santana were trying to encourage low-income parents to engage more with their children’s schools. When they sat down with parents and asked them why they didn’t participate, many said they felt intimidated at school events because they didn’t know what to ask.

One easy solution to this problem is to give parents a list of questions to ask when interacting with teachers or school administrators around their child’s learning, but Rothstein and Santana quickly realized that supporting parents to develop their own questions was a much more empowering and long-lasting way to approach the problem. And so the Question Formulation Technique (QFT) was born.

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Schools use app to promote summer reading & reduce summer slide

Schools use app to promote summer reading & reduce summer slide | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The summer slide gets harder to correct as students advance, Kaatz said. “The gaps are smaller now,” she said. “We want to get kids charged up to read as young as possible.”
Reading Rangers “game-ifies” the activity, Kaatz said. Using an online program that assigns points for books, based on the number of pages, students become “superheroes” who set goals and level up after they accomplish reading missions.
The third annual program kicked off Saturday at the Boulevard Mall, 3528 S. Maryland Parkway. Elementary school teachers and staff set up activity tables for children to make crafts, such as crowns, superhero masks and capes. Other booths handed out bookmarks, coloring books and balloon animals and swords.
Students also got to pick out free books to take home, which were donated by nonprofit Spread the Word Nevada. The organization, started in 2001, collects used children’s books from thrift stores in several states, cleans them and donates them to more than 50 schools in low-income areas. The organization gives out more than 50,000 books a month, and it brought 2,000 books to Saturday’s event, program assistant Kelly Evans said.
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Why Johnny Still Can't Read -- And What To Do About It

Why Johnny Still Can't Read -- And What To Do About It | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
For decades, there’s been an overwhelming scientific consensus on the best way to teach kids to read. But millions of kids still don’t get the kind of instruction that works.

In the early 1950s, Rudolf Flesch offered to tutor a boy who’d been held back in sixth grade because he couldn’t read. Flesch was horrified to discover that, at age twelve, Johnny couldn’t even decipher a simple word like kid.

The problem, Flesch realized, was that no one had taught him how to sound words out, or “decode.” Once Flesch introduced Johnny to the rules of phonics, he was off and running.
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Behaviors of Leaders Who Embrace Change: Clarity of Purpose

Share a compelling, clear purpose:

 


Purpose is the guardrail for actions. Change agility requires an answer to the question “Why?”, so that people can fight the natural instinct to resist change. The answer needs to tap into what’s meaningful and important, providing an irresistible invitation to come along. As CEO Shoei Yamana of Konica Minolta has said, “My belief is that people don’t work for numbers…they need to share the same belief that they are creating value in some way.” If you can’t articulate a clear purpose behind the changes being made, it’s unlikely that your employees will be able to implement them.

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Low-Income Students: More Going to College, But Few Earning Degrees

Low-Income Students: More Going to College, But Few Earning Degrees | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A troubling good news/bad news pattern has developed among our low-income students: They're going to college in greater numbers than ever, but only a small fraction are leaving with degrees. 

A report released Thursday offers the latest opportunity to see the pattern in multicolored charts and graphs. They paint a portrait of two generations of low-income students who have raised their college sights only to stumble before securing the payoffs of a degree. Educators and activists worry that the pattern could limit their potential earnings and social mobility.

"When I look at these statistics, I think maybe we are profoundly and unequally fostering disincentives to higher education participation, especially among low-income students," Margaret Cahalan, the director of the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, said during a call with reporters last week.

The data in the report by the Pell Institute and the University of Pennsylvania Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy, known as PennAHEAD, aren't new. Other researchers, including the University of Michigan's Susan Dynarski, have pointed out that the bachelor's degree completion rates for low-income students lag far behind their college-enrollment rates.  A demographic study, highlighted by the New York Times, showed that for poor students, four-year-degree completion for children born in the 1970s and 1980s barely budged, while it soared for children from the most affluent families. 

Like other studies, the Pell report illustrates the many ways that money serves as a key barrier to college completion for low-income students. It details the rising cost of college, and the shift of a larger chunk of college costs onto families. 
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“a college degree is worth less to people who most need a boost”

“a college degree is worth less to people who most need a boost” | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
a college degree is worth less to people who most need a boost

 


It’s a cruel irony that a college degree is worth less to people who most need a boost: those born poor. This revelation was made by the economists Tim Bartik and Brad Hershbein. Using a body of data, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, which includes 50 years of interviews with 18,000 Americans, they were able to follow the lives of children born into poor, middle-class and wealthy families.


They found that for Americans born into middle-class families, a college degree does appear to be a wise investment. Those in this group who received one earned 162 percent more over their careers than those who didn’t.


But for those born into poverty, the results were far less impressive. College graduates born poor earned on average only slightly more than did high school graduates born middle class. And over time, even this small “degree bonus” ebbed away, at least for men: By middle age, male college graduates raised in poverty were earning less than nondegree holders born into the middle class. The scholars conclude, “Individuals from poorer backgrounds may be encountering a glass ceiling that even a bachelor’s degree does not break.”

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Will Lowering Teacher Certification Requirements Improve Sudent Achievement? Do Schools Need Certified Teachers? Do Children?

Will Lowering Teacher Certification Requirements Improve Sudent Achievement? Do Schools Need Certified Teachers? Do Children? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
We believe in certified professionals as teachers just like we believe in licenses for medical professionals. Are some people natural teachers? We have seen a few but most become great teachers through a process of preparation and ongoing development and practice. Because this is our belief system, we have actually been advocates of renewable certification for teachers and leaders and accredited professional development. How can those who create safe learning environments for children and help them grow into responsible and productive citizens be less than the most qualified?  
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David W. Deeds's curator insight, May 17, 3:38 AM

Thanks to Dennis Swender.

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Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching

Evidence for the superiority of guided instruction is explained in the context of our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, expert–novice differences, and cognitive load. Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, the point is made that these approaches ignore both the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture and evidence from empirical studies over the past half-century that consistently indicate that minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process. The advantage of guidance begins to recede only when learners have sufficiently high prior knowledge to provide "internal" guidance. Recent developments in instructional research and instructional design models that support guidance during instruction are briefly described.
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Calculus, Statistics, and the Future of High School Math

Calculus, Statistics, and the Future of High School Math | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The use of data in everything from physics and finance to politics and education is building momentum for a new path in high school math, emphasizing statistics and data literacy over calculus. (May 22, 2018)
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Don't Listen To An Expert Who Hasn't 'Been In The Ring'

Don't Listen To An Expert Who Hasn't 'Been In The Ring' | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

It takes a certain sort of person to aspire to leadership, to attain it, and then to survive and even enjoy it, despite the constant headaches and limitations and disappointments.

The smartest or noblest one in the room typically is not that sort of person. But she still has the opportunity to make an enormous contribution organizationally—as an adviser, coach, consultant, or lieutenant—especially after she serves some time in the ring.

Let me add a final note: This is in no way an endorsement of the controversial sport of bull-fighting. It’s simply to point out that an expert or consultant who’s faced the bull, figuratively, will give us less bull in the long run.
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The Pygmalion Effect: Proving Them Right

The Pygmalion Effect: Proving Them Right | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The Pygmalion effect is a psychological phenomenon wherein high expectations lead to improved performance in a given area. Its name comes from the story of Pygmalion, a mythical Greek sculptor. Pygmalion carved a statue of a woman and then became enamored with it. Unable to love a human, Pygmalion appealed to Aphrodite, the goddess of love. She took pity and brought the statue to life. The couple married and went on to have a daughter, Paphos.

False Beliefs Come True Over Time

In the same way Pygmalion’s fixation on the statue brought it to life, our focus on a belief or assumption can do the same. The flipside is the Golem effect, wherein low expectations lead to decreased performance. Both effects come under the category of self-fulfilling prophecies. Whether the expectation comes from us or others, the effect manifests in the same way.

The Pygmalion effect has profound ramifications in schools and organizations and with regard to social class and stereotypes. By some estimations, it is the result of our brains’ poorly distinguishing between perception and expectation. Although many people purport to want to prove their critics wrong, we often merely end up proving our supporters right.
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3 Reasons to Be Optimistic About Social and Emotional Learning

3 Reasons to Be Optimistic About Social and Emotional Learning | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
It may be glacial and overdue, but the American public school system is taking steps to embrace social and emotional learning. For a nation in crisis and considering wellness like never before, a silver lining may be a clear move to put humans at the center of our education system. A breakthrough body of work from the Aspen Institute National Commission on Social, Emotional, and Academic Development shows us the way.

Here are three reasons I'm a believer that the next few years could bring a rapid evolution of social and emotional learning in American schools.

1) People are united on this

Last month, the Commission's Council of Distinguished Educators released consensus statements affirming the necessity of weaving together social, emotional, and academic learning at all times. The Council is an Avengers-style super-team of respected practitioners and leaders in K-12 and higher education.
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Cross-Curricular Literacy Improves Students' Test Scores--and Lives

Cross-Curricular Literacy Improves Students' Test Scores--and Lives | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Teaching Literacy Across the Social Studies Curriculum

In New York, the statewide Regents Exams, which are conducted in June every year, are required for students to graduate. Each exam has five topics, including Global History/Geography, U.S. History and Government., English, Mathematics, and Science. Students are tasked with mastering these areas and showing their mastery  by writing arguments and supporting them to pass the exams. The knowledge and skills learned along the way serve the purpose of providing students with transferrable, life-long skills.

Last fall, I felt that I had tried everything, but my students were continuing to have a hard time mastering the literacy skills they needed to succeed on these exams. Not only was I on a mission to help my students, but I also wanted to make my classroom paperless. To become fully digital, I adapted a few tools at school, such as Google Classroom, Kahoot, Padlet, and ThinkCERCA as the primary medium for our writing assignments. With the help of these tools, I created a fun and engaging classroom, where students do about 30 minutes of online computer work and 10 minutes of writing each day.

I started using ThinkCERCA, which aligns with the Regents exams, last September to help my students become better thinkers, collaborators, and writers. The platform provided readings for my students in a way that truly opened their minds and worldviews--and I no longer had to search on my own for differentiating writing.

One assignment that truly stood out was about free speech. My students decided to conduct protests with my senior government class. Everyone was engaged in the reading and the assignment. It was culturally relevant and very in the moment with what's happening in the real world. From analyzing and exercising their First Amendment rights, to connecting these rights to their own lives, the students who completed this assignment started to see their work in an entirely new way.
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Show What You Know: The Shift To Competency

Show What You Know: The Shift To Competency | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
“G.P.A.’s are worthless as a criteria for hiring, and test scores are worthless,” said Laszlo Bock, former head of HR at Google. “Google famously used to ask everyone for a transcript and G.P.A.’s and test scores, but we don’t anymore, unless you’re just a few years out of school. We found that they don’t predict anything,” added Bock.

In the now famous 2013 interview with the New York Times, Bock signaled the beginning of the end of courses and credits as the primary measure of learning and the beginning of the show what you know era.
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Pro coaches know what it takes to succeed as a manager

Pro coaches know what it takes to succeed as a manager | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Doing what you love to do can be a long and painful process.
That is a lesson that comes through loudly and clearly in the remarkable documentary from Aljoscha Pause called "Trainer!"
To succeed in professional football (soccer), you need to do more than strategy and tactics.
1. Connect with players. No two players are alike, as the film makes abundantly clear. Some need clear guidelines; others are self-directed. Some need a kick up the backside; others turn off at discipline.
2. Manage your situation. Professional football clubs have a board of directors plus what we would call general managers. Coaches report to them. They must lead up -- that is, deliver what the bosses what while at the same time achieve good things for the club.
3. Handle the distractions. Savvy coaches know how to play the media: Be accessible. They also know how to please the fans: Play to their needs and be willing to participate in club events, such as autograph signings.
Managers are just like professional coaches. They must learn how to bring out the best in their employees, manage up in order to achieve their objectives and engage with the community around them.
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Recognizing and Alleviating Math Anxiety

Recognizing and Alleviating Math Anxiety | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Math anxiety is much more than a dislike for the subject—it’s a real problem for students, one that blocks the brain’s working memory and starts a self-perpetuating cycle of math avoidance, low achievement, and fear. This form of anxiety manifests as early as kindergarten, and nearly half of elementary school children experience it.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Avoidance: Math anxiety and math avoidance go hand in hand. Do you have students who seem to grasp at any reason to leave the classroom during math instruction? This could be more than just a student trying to get out of work. Students with high levels of math anxiety tend to avoid mathematics at all costs.
Mel Riddile's insight:

Math anxiety affects almost half of elementary school students.

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Under-resourced kids depend on after-school and summer programs

Under-resourced kids depend on after-school and summer programs | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Many studies have linked high quality after school and summer programs to positive student outcomes in academics, school attendance and behavior. A longitudinal study conducted by researchers at the University of California, Irvine; the University of Wisconsin, Madison and Policy Studies Associates, Inc. finds that regular participation in high quality after school programs is linked to significant gains in standardized test scores and work habits as well as reductions in behavior problems among disadvantaged students.

Afterschool and summer programs have been shown to not only improve academic outcomes, but to improve confidence, resilience and reduce the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors such as experimentation with drugs, alcohol and sex. Low-income students participating in after school and summer programming have demonstrated outcomes similar to their affluent peers.

Over 12 million children are living in poverty in the U.S., an entire generation of young people who are at increased risk of dropping out of school. Many of these children have parents or caregivers that are under-employed or working two or three jobs to meet basic needs.
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More girls are attempting suicide! Is Social Media a Contributor?

More girls are attempting suicide! Is Social Media a Contributor? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A new study out Wednesday finds that more kids are either thinking about or attempting suicide.

“When we looked at hospitalizations for suicidal ideation and suicidal encounters over the last decade, essentially 2008 to 2015, we found that the rates doubled among children that were hospitalized for suicidal thoughts or activity,” Dr. Gregory Plemmons of Vanderbilt University told NBC News.
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When Are One- or Two-Year Credentials Better Than Bachelor's Degrees?

When Are One- or Two-Year Credentials Better Than Bachelor's Degrees? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A study released Wednesday argues that young people should no longer assume that they need a bachelor's degree to have a stable job that pays well. But today's rules are contradictory, too: Students shouldn't assume they don't need a four-year degree, either.

The trick is to understand which degrees are necessary for good earnings in your chosen field of study, says the report by the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.

And that's no easy task, since the list is quickly growing longer. In 1985, higher education institutions offered 410 programs of study, the report says. By 2010, that number had more than quintupled, to 2,260. In some of those fields, young people can earn more with a one-year certificate or an associate degree than they can with a bachelor's. In others, the bachelor's degree still carries a significant wage premium.

"Five Rules of the College and Career Game" argues that the college conversation needs to shift to reflect these new realities. Lead author Anthony Carnevale suggests that students and their families should put one thing front and center in their college planning: the payoff from specific college programs. 

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Lack of Clarity is #1 Source of Stress in the Workplace

Lack of Clarity is #1 Source of Stress in the Workplace | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Stress is the perpetual enemy of workers across America. Recent research by the American Psychological Association shows that while the public’s overall stress level hasn’t changed much over the last year, people are more likely to report feeling the effects of stress (i.e. – anxiety, anger and fatigue) this year than they were last year. The most common sources of stress overall are work, money and the future of our nation, according to the research.

With April being National Stress Awareness Month, Comparably tapped its extensive culture database to find out how workers across the technology industry feel about stress, burnout, and work-life balance. The data comes from the anonymous responses hundreds of thousands of employees from small, midsize, and large public and private U.S. companies predominantly in the tech sector. Full methodology below.

Here are the key findings:

The No. 1 source of stress is ‘unclear goals’

Clarity is key. 41% of workers say having unclear goals is their top source of stress. The next-most popular responses were “commute” and “bad manager” (tied at 16%), followed by “difficult co-worker” (14%) and “too long hours% (13%).
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8 Keys to Effective Homework

8 Keys to Effective Homework | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Homework is an issue for many students and teachers. In almost every workshop that I do on classroom motivation, a teacher will ask, “How do you motivate students to do homework?” Of course, the answer is complicated. You can make students do homework by increasing rewards or punishment, but that rarely works in the long term. The real solution is to create homework assignments that students are most likely to complete and then provide the support necessary to help them be successful. Effective homework is based on 8 key principles:
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