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In "my 20 years as an educator in an urban district I have seen student behavior get worse, not better."

In "my 20 years as an educator in an urban district I have seen student behavior get worse, not better." | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

The Los Angeles Unified School District’s recent vote to ban student suspensions for “willful defiance”...

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Ben Bempong's curator insight, August 1, 2015 12:40 AM

Student behavior will continue to get worse.  The World is changing for the worst and not for the better.  Crime is increasing, parents are not being parents, and students are becoming close to being not managable. 

Leading Schools
Improving Schools Through Enhanced Leadership
Curated by Mel Riddile
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 

 

In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.

 

In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.

 

Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?

 

Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.

 

Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson

 

• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).

 

Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)

 

• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 10:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 3:34 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


K.I.R.M. God is Business " From Day One"'s curator insight, April 24, 2017 11:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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The ‘Do Now’: A Primer

The ‘Do Now’: A Primer | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The Do Now

The first step in a great lesson is a “Do Now”– a short activity that you have written on the board or that is waiting for students as they enter.  It often starts working before you do.  While you are greeting students at the door, or finding that stack of copies, or erasing the mark-ups you made to your overhead from the last lesson, students should already be busy, via the Do Now with scholarly work that prepares them to succeed. In fact, students entering your room should never have to ask themselves, “What am I supposed to be doing?” That much should go without saying. The habits of a good classroom should answer, “You should be doing the Do Now, because we always start with the Do Now.”
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On The Raising of Hands

Perceiving questions as different events teaches students to notice the differences between questions. In fact, a person who’s truly engaged in a discussion is often engaged because he or she attends to the differences among questions and becomes increasingly interested in those differences. A discussion, to that person, is not one event, but a series of fascinating events that come up in unpredictable order. To raise and lower your hand at each question is an acknowledgment that the questions are important and distinct; doing so also communicates respect for your peers because, as the first student demonstrated, you can’t really listen and have your hand up at the same time. A classroom where hands are up while someone is speaking is a classroom where people are saying, essentially, “What you’re saying doesn’t matter much to me; it won’t change what I want to say.”
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How to Make Co-Teaching Work

How to Make Co-Teaching Work | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Co-teaching requires a delicate balance, but will deliver powerful results if the execution is smooth. Does that mean more work? Will the co-teacher and I get along? Will our instructional beliefs match?
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Broadband connectivity is rising in K-12 as cost falls, report finds

Broadband connectivity is rising in K-12 as cost falls, report finds | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Wi-Fi and broadband connectivity is expanding in K-12 school districts across the U.S. as costs continue to decline, according to annual survey findings released Friday by the Consortium for School Networking.

The group attributes these gains to increased rural investment funneled through state governments and the 2014 overhaul of the Federal Communication Commission’s E-Rate program, which provides a maximum of $3.9 billion annually for school and library internet connectivity projects.

In surveying nearly 400 school districts, the Washington D.C.-based association shows in its 2018-19 report that 69 percent of school IT administrators are “very confident” in their wireless network’s ability to support one device per student, a common benchmark for school broadband efficacy. This is an increase over last year’s figure of 58 percent.
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Why Millions Of Kids Can't Read, And What Schools Can Do About It

Why Millions Of Kids Can't Read, And What Schools Can Do About It | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
scientists from around the world have done thousands of studies on how people learn to read and have concluded that theory is wrong.

One big takeaway from all that research is that reading is not natural; we are not wired to read from birth. People become skilled readers by learning that written text is a code for speech sounds. The primary task for a beginning reader is to crack the code. Even skilled readers rely on decoding.
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3 Rules for Leading Change

3 Rules for Leading Change | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Alignment Rule: Be crystal clear on “the goal” and accept nothing less than getting there. If your people don’t understand the goal, you are all spinning your wheels, and all of the other leadership suggestions in this article will be for naught.

7X Rule: Change doesn’t happen overnight.  No matter how big or small the change, you have to be patient and keep telling your story over and over again. I’ve found 7 to be the magic number. You’ll know that it worked when you hear your people telling your story in their own words.

24 Hour Rule: Sleep on all big decisions. Never respond to anything that is really important, positively or negatively, until you have slept on it. Everything looks different in the morning.  Emotional, knee-jerk responses may hurt morale and create more work for you as the CEO.
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American Teachers Are Quitting at Record Rates: Report

American Teachers Are Quitting at Record Rates: Report | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Frustrated by little pay and better opportunities elsewhere, public school teachers and education employees in the United States are quitting their jobs at the fastest rate on record.

During the first 10 months of the year, public educators, including teachers, community college faculty members, and school psychologists, quit their positions at a rate of 83 per 10,000, Labor Department figures obtained by The Wall Street Journal show. That’s the highest rate since the government started collecting the data in 2001. It’s also nearly double the 48 per 10,000 educators who quit their positions in 2009, the year with the lowest number of departures.
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The Spacing Effect: How to Improve Learning and Maximize Retention

The Spacing Effect: How to Improve Learning and Maximize Retention | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The most important metaskill you can learn is how to learn. Learning allows you to adapt. As Darwin hinted, it’s not the strongest who survives. It’s the one who easily adapts to a changing environment. Learning how to learn is a part of a “work smarter, not harder” approach to life—one that probabilistically helps you avoid becoming irrelevant. Your time is precious, and you don’t want to waste it on something which will just be forgotten.

During the school years, most of us got used to spending hours at a time memorizing facts, equations, the names of the elements, French verbs, dates of key historical events. We found ourselves frantically cramming the night before a test. We probably read through our notes over and over, a gallon of coffee in hand, in the hope that the information would somehow lodge in our brains. Once the test was over, we doubtless forgot everything straight away.1
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It's not impossible to teach teens to read. But it takes serious investment

It's not impossible to teach teens to read. But it takes serious investment | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Shanahan, formerly of Chicago Public Schools, recommended that the district push for about 50 minutes of phonics instruction a day in grades K-5.

“That’s how you figure out words in those early grades,” said Shanahan, a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he was founding director of the UIC Center for Literacy. “But I’d be very surprised if that’s true at more than half the [district] schools.”

Shanahan also served on the National Reading Panel, which Congress convened to evaluate research about teaching reading. The panel’s findings favored a focus on decoding words by breaking them into parts and sounding them out. That’s as opposed to the “whole language” approach many schools across the nation have pushed, where students learn to use pictures or context clues to fill in ideas and recognize words.
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Later Start Times In Seattle Schools Results In Improved Attendance, Better Grades – And More Sleep

Later Start Times In Seattle Schools Results In Improved Attendance, Better Grades – And More Sleep | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In an experiment that everyone in the education world is going to be hearing a lot about, middle and high schools in Seattle delayed their starting times until 8:45 AM.

Researchers found that it resulted in more sleep for students, and better attendance and grades.

You can read more about it at:

Teens get more sleep with later school start time, researchers find at the Science Daily.

Sleepless No More In Seattle — Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens is from NPR.

Starting School Later Really Does Help Teens Get Sleep is from The NY Times.

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How A Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens

How A Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of Washington studied the high school students both before and after the start-time change. Their findings appear in a study published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances. They found students got 34 minutes more sleep on average with the later school start time. This boosted their total nightly sleep from 6 hours and 50 minutes to 7 hours and 24 minutes.

"This study shows a significant improvement in the sleep duration of students, all by delaying school start times so they're more in line with the natural wake-up times of adolescents," says senior author Horacio de la Iglesia, a University of Washington researcher and professor of biology.
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Digital Tools Are Largely Unused-in Many Schools

Digital Tools Are Largely Unused-in Many Schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
30 percent of the ed-tech licenses purchased by K-12 districts–as tracked through a proprietary platform–are never used. And a median of 97.6 ed-tech licenses are never used “intensively,” according to a report by Brightbytes, a San Francisco-based company focused on data use and analytics in schools.
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Why We're Teaching Reading Comprehension In A Way That Doesn't Work

Why We're Teaching Reading Comprehension In A Way That Doesn't Work | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Even when teachers focus on a strategy that is backed by evidence, they don’t implement it in the way supported by research. Rather than putting a difficult text in the foreground and modeling whatever strategies might help students extract its meaning, teachers put a strategy in the foreground and choose simple texts that lend themselves to demonstrating it, without regard to their topics. And they teach comprehension day after day, year after year—sometimes through high school. But studies have shown that after only two weeks of strategy instruction, students stop getting benefits.
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Things To Do When You Don't Get Many Hands

Things To Do When You Don't Get Many Hands | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Here’s a great video of Alonte Johnson, some time English Teacher and full time Dean of Curriculum and Instruction at Uncommon’s Leadership Prep Ocean Hill Middle Academy, that shows a high level model of one solution– we call it a “Responsive Turn and Talk” because the Turn and Talk is a response to a low number of hands.
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“classroom space always influences the implementation of active learning”

“classroom space always influences the implementation of active learning” | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
classroom space always influences the implementation of active learning
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How We Can Help Our Students Remember More

How We Can Help Our Students Remember More | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The truth is that our brains are wired for two things: remembering – and forgetting. Forgetting isn’t necessarily a bad thing.

After all, there are some obvious advantages to forgetting outdated or unnecessary information such as what you had for breakfast last week, a phone number you never use any more, or what a Pepsi can used to look like 20 years ago.

Forgetting is the brain’s way to trim, prune, and make room for more important information (Nørby, 2015). But it’s bothersome – and sometimes problematic – when the things we need to remember simply disappear. Perhaps the biggest influence on whether or not our brains retain something is time. According to something called the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve, as soon as we learn something, forgetting occurs rapidly at first then eventually slows down. To help our students combat this and retain new information/skills, teachers must design activities that provide students multiple opportunities to revisit concepts/skills in a variety of ways.

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Why Schools Should Start Later and Teens Should Sleep More

Why Schools Should Start Later and Teens Should Sleep More | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
school start later could potentially lead to better test scores, healthier teens, and fewer drowsy driving accidents, why hasn't it been done? Well, there may be a few reasons. The stereotype that teens are lazy could be one of them.
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How to Move From Digital Substitution to ‘Deeper Learning’ 

How to Move From Digital Substitution to ‘Deeper Learning’  | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Scott McLeod, associate professor of education leadership at the University of Colorado in Denver. He’s the author of “Harnessing Technology for Deeper Learning,” which explores how his “four shifts” protocol can help educators test whether their practices and pedagogies support the goals of learning in the digital age.

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What It Takes to Make Co-Teaching Work

What It Takes to Make Co-Teaching Work | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Co-teaching, in which a special educator and a general educator share the responsibility of instructing and assessing students, has long been a standby in inclusion classrooms, which encompass both general education students and those with disabilities.
When done well, co-teaching should enable students with disabilities to receive the general education curriculum and special services that they need in the same setting, said Sara Cook, an assistant professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, who researches special education.
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Principals' Top 10: From 'Juuling' to 'Toxic' Staffers, News They Could Use

Principals' Top 10: From 'Juuling' to 'Toxic' Staffers, News They Could Use | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Principals told us repeatedly in 2018 that they wanted actionable information they could use in their buildings to help students and staff.

They were busy. They didn't have time to read long articles. They wanted tips on how to address challenges their students were facing—from vaping on campus, school shootings, to students' social-and-emotional needs.

But they also needed help managing the incredibly long hours that they put in each day and working with difficult staff members.
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Incorporating Youth Apprenticeships in Career Technical Education Pathways

Incorporating Youth Apprenticeships in Career Technical Education Pathways | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
By integrating classroom instruction and hands-on learning, both youth apprenticeships and Career Technical Education (CTE) can enhance a learner’s educational experience and better prepare them for future career success. Putting Learner Success First: A Shared Vision for the Future of CTE underscores the significance of coordinating high-quality youth apprenticeships and CTE, empowering learners through work-based learning and strong systems alignment anchored in learner success. Rather than isolating CTE as a separate educational strategy, an integrated approach to education and training can ensure that all learners have opportunities to succeed in a career of their choosing.
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Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens

Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In Seattle, school and city officials recently made the shift. Beginning with the 2016-2017 school year, the district moved the official start times for middle and high schools nearly an hour later, from 7:50 a.m. to 8:45 a.m. This was no easy feat; it meant rescheduling extracurricular activities and bus routes. But the bottom line goal was met: Teenagers used the extra time to sleep in.

Researchers at the University of Washington studied the high school students both before and after the start-time change. Their findings appear in a study published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances. They found students got 34 minutes more sleep on average with the later school start time. This boosted their total nightly sleep from 6 hours and 50 minutes to 7 hours and 24 minutes.
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Do Teachers Have Sway in School Decisions? Depends Who You Ask

Do Teachers Have Sway in School Decisions? Depends Who You Ask | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Almost all school leaders think that teachers are involved in making important school decisions—but just over half of teachers would agree.

That's according to a new survey from the RAND Corporation. In May 2017, researchers surveyed RAND's American Educator Panel, a nationally representative group of teachers and principals, about a variety of topics, including teacher influence. The survey was administered online, and 18,354 teachers and school leaders responded. 

Past research has found that when teachers have decision-making roles outside of the classroom, their students perform better on state tests. But the RAND study revealed a disconnect between the leadership opportunities principals think they're providing, and how teachers perceive their own influence in schools. 

The RAND study also found that almost all school leaders agree or strongly agree that teachers have a lot of informal opportunities to influence what happens at their school, but just 62 percent of teachers would say the same. And 31 percent of teachers said they are not comfortable voicing concerns about their schools—but 97 percent of school leaders said that teachers in their schools are comfortable sharing concerns. 
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Blocked, Serial and Random Practice

Blocked, Serial and Random Practice | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In New Zealand cognitive psychologist Nathan Wallis pointed out that the field learned more about how the brain worked in the 1990s than in the 300 previous years of science combines- and the pace has probably increased since.  There’s real knowledge out there and sports franchises are moving faster to embrace the insights than are many schools.

Anyway, during this latest visit I sat in on a presentation by Nick Winkelman. Nick is a cognitive scientist who did his PhD on motor learning acquisition and is now Head of Athletic Performance and Science for the Irish Rugby Union.

One of the topics he discussed was the difference between blocked and interleaved practice. This concept is relatively straightforward and has—I hope—increasingly become research that is familiar to educators.  But his treatment of it was useful and pushed coaches to think about some key implementation issues.

The idea is this. When you are first learning a skill you do blocked practice—steady and predictable repetition of the skill–until participants can execute it with some reliability, until, as Winkelman put it, the skill is ‘stable.’
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Enough with the "Learning Styles" Already!

Enough with the "Learning Styles" Already! | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The notion of "learning styles"-- that teaching to students' preferred learning style will increase learning outcomes-- is one of those persistent "neuromythologies" in education that just won't go away. Studies around the world have found that 90%-97% of teachers believe that there is an optimal delivery style for each learner. While a number of different learning style models exist-- ranging from 3 to 170 learning styles-- one of the most popular is the "VAK Learning Styles" model. The idea of the VAK model is that students can be tested to learn their dominant learning style-- visual (V), auditory (A), or kinesthetic (K)-- and then students should be taught in a way that best matches that style. Some schools even puts the labels V, A, and K on the shirts of students in the classroom!
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