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Improving Schools Through Enhanced Leadership
Curated by Mel Riddile
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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.

Mel Riddile's insight:

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 

 

In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.

 

In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.

 

Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?

 

Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.

 

Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson

 

• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).

 

Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)

 

• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 6:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 11:34 AM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


K.I.R.M. God is Business " From Day One"'s curator insight, April 24, 2017 6:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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Later Start Times In Seattle Schools Results In Improved Attendance, Better Grades – And More Sleep

Later Start Times In Seattle Schools Results In Improved Attendance, Better Grades – And More Sleep | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In an experiment that everyone in the education world is going to be hearing a lot about, middle and high schools in Seattle delayed their starting times until 8:45 AM.

Researchers found that it resulted in more sleep for students, and better attendance and grades.

You can read more about it at:

Teens get more sleep with later school start time, researchers find at the Science Daily.

Sleepless No More In Seattle — Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens is from NPR.

Starting School Later Really Does Help Teens Get Sleep is from The NY Times.

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How A Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens

How A Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Researchers at the University of Washington studied the high school students both before and after the start-time change. Their findings appear in a study published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances. They found students got 34 minutes more sleep on average with the later school start time. This boosted their total nightly sleep from 6 hours and 50 minutes to 7 hours and 24 minutes.

"This study shows a significant improvement in the sleep duration of students, all by delaying school start times so they're more in line with the natural wake-up times of adolescents," says senior author Horacio de la Iglesia, a University of Washington researcher and professor of biology.
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Digital Tools Are Largely Unused-in Many Schools

Digital Tools Are Largely Unused-in Many Schools | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
30 percent of the ed-tech licenses purchased by K-12 districts–as tracked through a proprietary platform–are never used. And a median of 97.6 ed-tech licenses are never used “intensively,” according to a report by Brightbytes, a San Francisco-based company focused on data use and analytics in schools.
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Modernizing Career and Technical Education

Modernizing Career and Technical Education | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
While popular in the 1960s and ’70s, vocationally based career and technical education (CTE) programs started a slow decline in schools by the ’80s, as reform movements inspired by A Nation at Risk—the landmark 1983 report that called out U.S. schools for poor performance—pushed for more students to take courses preparing them for college and white collar jobs. By 1998, only 8 percent of students concentrated in vocational training, down from nearly one-third of high school students in 1982.

But in recent years, school systems have revived and modernized their programs, as a growing body of data shows that many jobs will disappear or require new skills in the next few decades. According to a 2017 Brookings Institution report, in 2015 alone 39 states created 125 new laws, policies, or regulations concerning CTE, some of which involved the allocation of state funding.

In response to the perceived need, school districts have developed comprehensive career training programs or academies, and built partnerships with community organizations and businesses to provide students with work-aligned experiences outside school. School leaders believe these programs will not only help students develop necessary skills for today’s job market but encourage students to see themselves in professions before they graduate.
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Is It Better for Young Children to 'Be' or 'Do'?

Is It Better for Young Children to 'Be' or 'Do'? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A lot of the time parents and teachers think those [identity] statements are OK as long as they don't express anything negative," Rhodes said. "But what we had found is that often when young children hear a bunch of statements like that, it really reinforces this idea to them that there're these sharp category boundaries. ... It makes them more susceptible to develop negative stereotypes ... and a whole bunch of things that might not be helpful for them to believe."

In a separate, forthcoming series of experiments, Rhodes and her colleagues have found similar results when asking slightly older students to "be a scientist" or "do science" before challenging science tasks. "It's kind of similar across the academic and social domains... for these categories that children have the potential to think of as fundamental to their identity and then worry about whether they are members or not," Rhodes said.

She cautioned, however, that framing tasks as actions rather than pieces of identity may not have the same effect for older students. Prior studies have found, for example, that adolescents often see teachers praising their effort as a sign the adult does not believe in their ability.
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Increase Student Engagement Through A Positive, Genuine, Inclusive Cold Call

Increase Student Engagement Through A Positive, Genuine, Inclusive Cold Call | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
  I wanted to share an really nice video of Emily Badillo using Cold Call.  It’s a crisp 30 second case study in how to use Cold Call to set expectations high while remaining positive, genuine and inclusive.   We’re watching her with her 4th grade reading group and there are two Cold Calls. EA.ColdCall.GR4.Badillo.’Interestin
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How We Build Relationships and Other Insights

How We Build Relationships and Other Insights | Leading Schools | Scoop.it

Relationships come when we show learners:


 


Your success is important to me


I believe in you


I am highly aware of your progress in this endeavor


I will help you succeed


 


  Yesterday was one of the most intellectually intense days I’ve had in some time, and I came to realize some important things about Check for Understanding. I’m going to try to summarize some of them here. 1) Check for Understanding is quite possibly the single most important group of techniques in terms of buildin

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Questions About Credit Recovery

Questions About Credit Recovery | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Credit recovery has come under increasing scrutiny as a quick, sub-par way to get high school diplomas into the hands of academically struggling students. And the schools likeliest to rely heavily on credit recovery are the ones that serve large populations of low-income and minority students, according to a study published Thursday.

The report, issued by the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, represents the most recent attempt to compose a heat map of the places that use credit recovery to help students graduate. With that map laid out, and questions about the misuse of credit recovery multiplying, the report poses the question: What should be done to
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5 Common Mental Errors That Sway Your Decision Making

5 Common Mental Errors That Sway Your Decision Making | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The Grandaddy of Them All. Confirmation bias refers to our tendency to search for and favor information that confirms our beliefs while simultaneously ignoring or devaluing information that contradicts our beliefs.

For example, Person A believes climate change is a serious issue and they only search out and read stories about environmental conservation, climate change, and renewable energy. As a result, Person A continues to confirm and support their current beliefs.
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Andrea Carvalho's curator insight, November 29, 11:26 AM
Tomada de decisão: entre as crenças e os fatos
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How to Use the Concept Attainment Strategy

How to Use the Concept Attainment Strategy | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
the reason this strategy results in deep understanding is because it works with the way human beings instinctively learn. As we experience the world, we naturally organize things into categories based on common attributes. Concept Attainment is structured in the same way.

 


Step-by-step instructions for using this engaging instructional strategy; video included!

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Learning Doesn't Happen From a Textbook, It Develops With Relationships

Learning Doesn't Happen From a Textbook, It Develops With Relationships | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
content or skills is never enough to be successful in a classroom.

Each child in our learning spaces has a story. There are learning strengths and challenges to be highlighted and developed. It is our job as students' teachers to find their strengths and play to them, building confidence as they venture into the skill-building and content areas of less proficiency.

In the assessment- and accountability-heavy world we live in right now, it is imperative for us to fight the urge to do what is easy; purchasing the textbook of the test-maker and following it with fidelity. 

Students need an immersive experience that inspires and challenges their beliefs and empowers them beyond our current expectations. It is our duty to encourage their inquiry and curiosity and then follow the path that leads them.
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Why Should School Leaders Be Coached?

Why Should School Leaders Be Coached? | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Many leaders agree that coaching is an important way to grow.

Let's rewrite that...

Many leaders believe instructional coaching is a great way for their teachers to grow. They understand how instructional coaches will work on a co-constructed goal with teachers, and can easily see how the relationship is beneficial because those leaders often see the impact of instructional coaching when they walk into classrooms to do their "learning walks," "walk throughs," or..."rigor walks." 

What's interesting, is that when the coaching relationship is offered up to leaders, their openness to working with a coach isn't always immediately evident. And it's often for the same reasons that teachers aren't always open to being coached. Some of those reasons may be:

Insecurity sets in. They suddenly become insecure that they're doing something wrong or are no longer good enough for the position
They don't want others to know they are being coached because of the perception that may create...are they now seen as a bad leader? 
They don't have time to be coached. They have much more important things to do. 
What could the coach offer them, that they as the leader, don't already know? 
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Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens

Later School Start Time Pays Off For Teens | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In Seattle, school and city officials recently made the shift. Beginning with the 2016-2017 school year, the district moved the official start times for middle and high schools nearly an hour later, from 7:50 a.m. to 8:45 a.m. This was no easy feat; it meant rescheduling extracurricular activities and bus routes. But the bottom line goal was met: Teenagers used the extra time to sleep in.

Researchers at the University of Washington studied the high school students both before and after the start-time change. Their findings appear in a study published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances. They found students got 34 minutes more sleep on average with the later school start time. This boosted their total nightly sleep from 6 hours and 50 minutes to 7 hours and 24 minutes.
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Do Teachers Have Sway in School Decisions? Depends Who You Ask

Do Teachers Have Sway in School Decisions? Depends Who You Ask | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Almost all school leaders think that teachers are involved in making important school decisions—but just over half of teachers would agree.

That's according to a new survey from the RAND Corporation. In May 2017, researchers surveyed RAND's American Educator Panel, a nationally representative group of teachers and principals, about a variety of topics, including teacher influence. The survey was administered online, and 18,354 teachers and school leaders responded. 

Past research has found that when teachers have decision-making roles outside of the classroom, their students perform better on state tests. But the RAND study revealed a disconnect between the leadership opportunities principals think they're providing, and how teachers perceive their own influence in schools. 

The RAND study also found that almost all school leaders agree or strongly agree that teachers have a lot of informal opportunities to influence what happens at their school, but just 62 percent of teachers would say the same. And 31 percent of teachers said they are not comfortable voicing concerns about their schools—but 97 percent of school leaders said that teachers in their schools are comfortable sharing concerns. 
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Blocked, Serial and Random Practice

Blocked, Serial and Random Practice | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
In New Zealand cognitive psychologist Nathan Wallis pointed out that the field learned more about how the brain worked in the 1990s than in the 300 previous years of science combines- and the pace has probably increased since.  There’s real knowledge out there and sports franchises are moving faster to embrace the insights than are many schools.

Anyway, during this latest visit I sat in on a presentation by Nick Winkelman. Nick is a cognitive scientist who did his PhD on motor learning acquisition and is now Head of Athletic Performance and Science for the Irish Rugby Union.

One of the topics he discussed was the difference between blocked and interleaved practice. This concept is relatively straightforward and has—I hope—increasingly become research that is familiar to educators.  But his treatment of it was useful and pushed coaches to think about some key implementation issues.

The idea is this. When you are first learning a skill you do blocked practice—steady and predictable repetition of the skill–until participants can execute it with some reliability, until, as Winkelman put it, the skill is ‘stable.’
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Enough with the "Learning Styles" Already!

Enough with the "Learning Styles" Already! | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
The notion of "learning styles"-- that teaching to students' preferred learning style will increase learning outcomes-- is one of those persistent "neuromythologies" in education that just won't go away. Studies around the world have found that 90%-97% of teachers believe that there is an optimal delivery style for each learner. While a number of different learning style models exist-- ranging from 3 to 170 learning styles-- one of the most popular is the "VAK Learning Styles" model. The idea of the VAK model is that students can be tested to learn their dominant learning style-- visual (V), auditory (A), or kinesthetic (K)-- and then students should be taught in a way that best matches that style. Some schools even puts the labels V, A, and K on the shirts of students in the classroom!
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Better studying = less studying. Wait, what? @DanWillingham

Better studying = less studying. Wait, what? @DanWillingham | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Readers of this blog probably know about "the testing effect," later rechristened "retrieval practice." It refers to the fact that trying to remember something can actually help cement things in memory more effectively than further study.
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Breaking the Link Between Parents' Math Anxiety and Students' Progress

Breaking the Link Between Parents' Math Anxiety and Students' Progress | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Out-of-school family time around math may help children succeed even when their parents dread the subject, according to a new study in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

As part of an evaluation of Bedtime Math, a free math app, the researchers tracked the math achievement of 587 elementary students in 40 Chicago-area classrooms. As 1st graders, two-thirds of the children and their families had been randomly assigned tablets installed with a version of the app, which provided a daily short story accompanied by five related math puzzles and problems ranging from 1st to 5th grade difficulty, for parents to read with their children. A randomly chosen control group received tablets loaded with a similar reading app that included comprehension questions rather than math-related questions. At the beginning and end of grades 1 through 3, the children were tested in reading and math, and their parents completed surveys around their own feelings about math.
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Category: Welcome Back

Category: Welcome Back | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Educators recognize that excessive absence comes with elevated anxiety and decreased educational self-efficacy.  By intentionally reaching out during and after attendance struggles, educators provide students with HOPE.

 

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'Learning Styles' Aren't a Reliable Way to Categorize Students

'Learning Styles' Aren't a Reliable Way to Categorize Students | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
many researchers consider learning styles to be a myth. Prior research has shown little evidence that learning-style theory holds up. A 2009 meta-analysis of thousands of articles published on the subject found that most didn't test the concept in an experimental setting. Of those that did, several offered results that contradicted the theory.

But the idea's popularity in education circles persists—in part, said Papadatou-Pastou, because there are, of course, real differences among learners. "The intuitive appeal of learning styles rests on this reality," she said.
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war on teachers: Here’s what superintendents say is causing teacher shortages

war on teachers: Here’s what superintendents say is causing teacher shortages | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
Out of the 220 districts that responded to the survey, 91 percent reported experiencing a teacher shortage, with most feeling the pinch in science, math, and special education.

Eighty-five percent of the surveyed districts applied for emergency permits for people who don’t have teaching licenses, or educators who are hired to teach subjects outside their licensure.

Superintendents overwhelmingly said it was difficult to find qualified job candidates, and many mentioned high teacher turnover rates. They often pointed to low pay as the cause, competing against other higher-paying districts or the private sector.
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Feedback: How much works best?

In terms of the amount, these are some guiding principles:

Feedback should correct major issues and misconceptions.
Feedback should provide students a guide on where to go next and what to focus on.
Teachers must realize that 100% mastery of the subject matter is not realistic for most.
It takes time and experience to learn to gauge the appropriate amount of feedback for each student.  It will vary by student and lesson content.
It is critical that students are not overwhelmed by feedback that tries to correct everything so prioritization by the instruction is important.
Examples – select two or three points in a paper to comment on and be sure to comment on strengths as well as weaknesses.
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Teaching the art of listening in the age of me, me me | Tes News

Teaching the art of listening in the age of me, me me | Tes News | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
A period of rapid social change and the rise of social media may be shaping a society in which opinions are increasingly formed with little regard for the views of others. Turning this around starts with probing how we approach discussion in the classroom, says Doug Lemov, who suggests five steps to do just that
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To Learn, Students Need to DO Something

To Learn, Students Need to DO Something | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
If we want our students to actually learn the facts and concepts and ideas we’re trying to teach them, they have to experience those things in some way that rises above abstract words on paper. They have to process them. Manipulate them.

To really learn in a way that will stick, they have to DO something.
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The Seven Most Powerful Words In Education

The Seven Most Powerful Words In Education | Leading Schools | Scoop.it
What can I do to help you?

These words are hugely powerful and tragically underused at every level of the education world.

In the classroom, teachers have been taught since the dawn of time that they should be clear about their expectations. This is excellent practice; let the student know exactly what you want from her. If she has trouble meeting that expectation, be certain that you are explaining the expectation clearly. And then ask the student, "What can I do to help you?"

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