125 views | +0 today
Research for a story about the Paraguay Revolution in the perspective of a female rebel.
Curated by Kate Dalia
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Kate Dalia

Paraguay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Paraguay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | KDParaguayRevolution | Scoop.it

-1st president following independence = Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia

-established new laws that removed powers of the church and the cabinet --> abolished freedom to gain complete power

-ex-politicians, such as Yegros, tried to strike

-Post-WWII: politically unstable because many political parties fighting for power in 1940's, brought up Paraguayan civil war of 1947

-1954 = stable government under dictator Alfredo Stroessner

-rule marked by great abuse



-PLRA (liberal party in Paraguay) leader Domingo Laino created much opposition in the late 1980's

-govt. failed to isolate him by exiling him, police tried very hard to stop him from returning

-Laino took the lead in organizing demonstrations and getting rid of opposition party infighting, unable to reach agreement regarding elections

-demonstrations were held and disbanded quickly before the arrival of the police


-opposition leaders imprisoned/harassed, Stroessner reelected

-many believed the political situation needed changes


-Feb 3, 1989, Stroessner overthrown in a military coup led by General Andrés Rodríguez

-instituted political, legal, and economic reforms and initiated an agreement with the international community


-June 1992 constitution established a democratic system of govt., greatly increased protection of basic rights

-May 1993: Colorado Party candidate Juan Carlos Wasmosy elected as Paraguay's first civilian president in almost 40 years in what international observers saw as fair and free elections


-support from US, the Organization of American states, and other countries in the region, Paraguayans were able to reject an attempt from Army Chief General Lino Oviedo to get rid of Wasmosy, very important step in in strengthening democracy


-Oviedo became candidate for 1988 election, not allowed to run, Raúl Cubas became Colorado candidate

-released Oviedo from confinement --> chaos

-Senate made it clear that Cubas would be removed from office March 29, he resigned March 28

-Senate President Luis González Macchi (Cubas opponent) peacefully sworn in as president the same day


-2003: Nicanor Duarte Frutos elected president


-2008 general elections: Colorado party = favorite, candidate was Minister of Education Blanca Ovelar (1st woman to appear as candidate for major party in Paraguayan history)


-Colorado voters ended up choosing a non-politician, former Roman Catholic Bishop Fernando Lugo - followed controversial liberation theology, backed by center-right Liberal Party (Colorados' traditional opponents)

-1st time in history govt. gave power to opposing forces in a civilized manner


-Lugo sworn in Aug. 12, 2008, but Paraguayan Congress continues to be dominated by right-wing elected officials

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

The Strange Case of Paraguay Lecture

-most unusual country in the Americas in 19th century

-isolated in the interior of South America

-most culturally/racially mixed


-geography helped shaped destiny of Paraguay

-17th Century Jesuits move Indians into Paraguay

-Missions region is between Portuguese and Spanish empires

-Jesuit republic - Totalitarian society

-Treaty of Madrid --> Jesuit missions region falls on Spanish side

-1767: Jesuits expelled from Spanish empire

-yerba mate=a strong tea, main export

-Paraguay has a local history of relative local autonomy

-ISOLATION, imperial authority still felt (taxation)

-farming economy

-Paraguay has 1 outlet to world (down the river to Buenos Aires)


Struggle for Independence 1810:

-More than 200 notable citizens assemble in Asunción and debate and discuss what course of action they should take, Creoles + others hesistate

-choose to remain loyal to the Spanish crown by affirming their loyalty to the Council of Regency in Spain

-Refuse to accept authority of Buenos Aires


-Belgrano leads force into Paraguay, Spain scared --> flee, royal officials gone



-local elites declare independence

-Paraguayans now in charge of local affairs



- 3-man junta (2 powerful landowners + Francia) tries to establish a national govt. in Paraguay


-Francia uses friendship to gain total control of country (Dictator: 1814-1840)


-tough + honest man --> negative reputation, thought of as an enemy of progress


-creates a self-sufficient nation

-Paraguay's autonomous revolution

-economic development


- 3-man --> 2-man junta (Francia and Yegros - co-consuls of republic)

-won friendship of lower classes (on a personal basis)

-elected perpetual dictator


-centralized regime, although many believed he made it totalitarian


Ideals of French Rev., equality, Enlightenment ideas

-goes after Catholic Church

-gains complete control of army

-extensive network of spies

-crushes power of landowning class

-does not abolish slavery


-Paraguay closes borders --> trade was denied


-Francia dies w/ no successor --> Lopez and his son (more dictators) until 1870


-self-sufficiency of Paraguay in 19th century, isolation saves money


-"inorganic democracy"

-Francia + Paraguay negatively portrayed

Gabby and Kamri's curator insight, March 12, 2014 1:45 PM

We chose this article because  it talks about how the geography of Paraguay has affected the country and it's development.

Scooped by Kate Dalia

Fulgencio Yegros - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fulgencio Yegros - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | KDParaguayRevolution | Scoop.it

-1807-was part of the Paraguayan troops that defended Buenos Aires during British invasions of the Rio de la Plata

-Yegros and Pedro Juan Caballero = main military figures in 1811 revolution

-following independence, he and José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia chosen as Consuls of the Republic (following model of the French Revolution)

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

Latin American wars of independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Latin American wars of independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | KDParaguayRevolution | Scoop.it

-Paraguay gained independence after plan organized by many pro-independence nationalists (Fulgencio Yegros and José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia)

-Francia = 1st leader of Paraguay following independence from Spain

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

Gale World History In Context: Battle of Paraguarí

-struggle for independence, recognized legitimacy of Spanish rule

-December 1810: Belgrano's troops crossed Alto Paraná at Itapúa, moved far into Paraguay with little resistance

-Spanish governor Bernardo Velasco prepared for defense from the Paraguayans --> told them that Belgrano's intention was to persuade them to serve for a war of expansion somewhere else in South America

-Paraguayans easily believed Velasco because the porteños had done this before

-Belgrano advanced toward Asunción, the residents fled

-January 15, 1811: porteños attacked Paraguayan army of 5,000 very close to the town of Paraguarí and were defeated

-Paraguayans led by Manuel Atanacio Cavañas, Juan Manuel Gamarra, and Fulgencio Yegros

Whigham, Thomas L. "Paraguarí, Battle of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 58-59. Gale World History In Context. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

Paraguay Independence - Gale Virtual Reference Library

Paraguay Independence - Gale Virtual Reference Library | KDParaguayRevolution | Scoop.it

-Spanish conquistadors founded Asunción in 1537, established colonial administration that governed Paraguay until 1811

-1810: Buenos Aires declared independence from Spain, sent military force to free Paraguay from Spanish rule

-However, Paraguayan forces alone defeated Argentines in battle


-1811: Paraguay declared independence from Spain, spent next 45 years struggling to maintain freedom from Argentina, it was finally recognized in 1856


Paraguay has fought 2 major international wars:

-1864-1870: War of the Triple Alliance (against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay)

-1932-1935: Chaco War (against Bolivia)


-War of the Triple Alliance resulted in death of 1/2 of the population and 1/4  of the territory lost

-won conflict over the Chaco --> stabilized control over most of the region

-stories of struggle involving these wars = significant to Paraguayan's national identity (Guaraní language)


Turner, Brian. "Paraguay." Governments of the World: A Global Guide to Citizens' Rights and Responsibilities. Ed. C. Neal Tate. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 250-256. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

ProQuest: Battle Rages Outside the Capital of Paraguay

Pre Revolution:

-city cut off from outside world

-civilians flee

-government troops and Paraguayan revolutionists locked in battle

-city is in darkness

"Battle Rages Outside Capital of Paraguay." The Hartford Courant (1887-1922): 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Hartford Courant (1764-1922). Jun 12 1922. Web. 21 Nov. 2011 <http://search.proquest.com/docview/557066818?accountid=4973&gt;.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

History of Paraguay - Independence: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History of Paraguay - Independence: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | KDParaguayRevolution | Scoop.it

-Paraguay, originally under Lima's control, became an outpost of Buenos Aires

-now at the edge of the empire --> buffer state

-Paraguayan territorial expansion blocked in the north (Portuguese), south (Indians until their expulsion), and east (Jesuits)

-Paraguayans forced into colonial militia --> severe labor shortage

-Paraguay barely had any control of the decisions made about the economy because it was so far away from the rest of the empire

-Spain appropiated much of Paraguay's wealth through extensive taxes and regulations --> poverty in Paraguay

-French Rev, rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, and war in Europe made Spain much less able to stay connected with and defend and control its colonies

-Napoleon attempted to put his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the Spanish throne

-Joseph had no support in Spanish America

-Prior to this, the Spanish king was captured -->whole colonial system no longer had legitimacy -->colonists rebelled

-May 25, 1810: Buenos Aires cabildo overthrew the Spanish viceroy (were encouraged by their previous defeat of the British troops) and vowed to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII

-porteño action --> consequences for histories of Paraguay

-citizens of Asunción shocked, greatly supported the royalist position

-bigger rivalry w/ city of Buenos Aires --> Spanish monarchy dismissed

-porteño attempted to extend control over Paraguay by choosing José Espínola y Peña as their spokesman in Asunción

-historian John Hoyt Williams said that Espinola was ""perhaps the most hated Paraguayan of his era"

-Espinola fled back to Buenos Aires, lied about the extent of porteño support in Paraguay --> Buenos Aires cabildo sent 1,100 troops under General Manuel Belgrano to bring Asunción under their control (attempt to fix problem with force)

-Paraguayans began to see that Spanish dominance was ending in South America and that they held the real power

-request by the Asunción cabildo for Portuguese military support against Belgrano's forces (settled near present-day Argentina) --> overthrow of Spanish authority in Paraguay on May 14 and 15, 1811.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

World History: The Modern Era - ABC-CLIO Paraguay Revolution

-May 14, 1811: Paraguay broke out of Spanish viceroyalty of La Plata

-led by José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia (idolized French Revolution)

-Francia emerged as nation's main leader w/ control over army


"A Time of Revolutions, 1776-1825." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2011. Web. 29 Nov. 2011.

No comment yet.
Scooped by Kate Dalia

World History: The Modern Era - ABC-CLIO Paraguay

Brief Overview:

-achieved independence in 1811, dominated by military regimes and autocratic rule

-before European conquest, Paraguay was home to a collection of tribes known as Guarani

-nation declared itself a republic, but dictators ruled for the first 60 years of independence

-War of the Triple Alliance - against alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay (Lopez led the nation)

No comment yet.