Kakuma IFSAP Value Chain
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Kakuma IFSAP Value Chain
Background (How NALEP II initiated this project)NALEP-IFSAP started in April 2012 as a response to prolonged drought that affected food security situation in Turkana in 2010. The project had the objectives to improve food security and increase household incomes implemented the Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock Development. The project was initially planned to take one year, but was later extended by a further six months to June 2013. The total budget for the project was 35 million Kenya shillings allocated for the following value chains: High value horticultural crops; goats; poultry; sorghum and pastures. High Value Horticultural Crops (HVC) This was identified given that currently fresh produce consumed or supplied to Kakuma originates from Kitale which is 400km away. By the time these produce arrive, they are have a shortened shelf life. The targeted crops for the site in Kakuma covering an area of 10 ha includes tomatoes, kales, mangoes, okra and water melons. The project Manager engaged a hydro-geologists to identify suitable sites for drilling a borehole. Two sites were identified and one of them fully developed to supply 6.5m3 of water per hour with a support tank of 10m3 hoisted 7m from the ground this has a potential head to irrigate 5 ha under drip irrigation. Other facilities in place include knap-sack sprayers and assorted agro-chemicals. The project is yet to acquire drip lines and laterals in order to commence irrigation. One thousand grafted mango seedlings are ready in the nurseries. However, they cannot be transplanted in the field because the irrigation systems are not ready. In a focused group discussion by consultants, representative of the project coordinating unit (PCU), project implementing officers and farmers, high value horticultural crops was ranked number one following a pair wise ranking exercise. The reason for this is that with HVC, every member would benefit individually as food security will be improved as the surplus are sold to provide an extra source of money for the family.The monitoring team recommended the following mitigation measures to improve the production of high value crops; Infrastructural and engineering design: Drip irrigation system must be installed for at least two acres; Conduct hydrological and hydro-geological assessment to investigate the possibilities of runoff water conveyance by both gravity as well as addition ground water abstraction.There is need for fencing either using local material e.g. Prosopis or barbed wires.Establishment of HVCs: The current seedlings in the nursery should be transplanted in the main field as soon as the irrigation works is completed within one month.Tomatoes, okra and kales should also be established in the nurseries. The fields for planting water melons should be prepared and the crops planted once the irrigation is ready within a month. Shoat fattening. Traditionally, the Turkana people are headers, but the culture of selling their livestock to reap maximum benefit is not with them. This value chain was identified in order to bring the concept of farming as a business. In addition, this will boost food security and family income. Four hundred shoats were purchased in November 2012. These were composed of 360 goats and 40 sheep. Of the goats, the majority were male. These shoats stock were meant to be reared in a centralized place and be fattened on sorghum stover and pasture that would have been planted under the pasture value chain. Immediately the shoats arrived, the community rejected the idea a centralized group rearing. The project would provide anti-biotics and de-wormers for control of diseases. In the first year, fattening of shoats succeeded because there was plenty of stover. The project concept was hence modified where each family was given 10 shoats to rear as individuals. Initially the farmers were in the vicinity of Kakuma, therefore it was easier for the project staff to follow up and carry out procedures like de-worming and general treatment. At the onset of the normal dry spell and due to scarcity of pasture, the farmers moved their stock to the far off graving fields. This made access to veterinary services limited, leading to a loss of 10 shoats. In a focused group discussion, shoats were ranked second. Again, there was the element of individual ownership as well as guaranteed immediate benefits. Making a decision at a family level became easier. This was confirmed by farmers reiteration that they sold goats to provide school uniform, pay school fees settle medical bills. Two of the farmers started small businesses for retailing grains and vegetables in the market. The project constructed a 15,000m3 water pan to provide water for domestic use and livestock rearing. Before the construction of this pan, famers would walk 15 to 20km to river Tarach to water their livestock.
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