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The Scopes Trial - Page 1

The Scopes Trial - Page 1 | john spargo and child labor | Scoop.it

The debates over fundamentalism and modernism and over who controls the content taught in public schools continued throughout the rest of the 20th century. The trial, along with other cultural clashes in the 1920s, was a keen indication that Americans had begun in a more intense manner than ever before--even during the Revolutionary War period--to debate the basic values of their civilization. In large measure because of the cultural issues involved and the fact that the trial did not resolve them, some of the historical facts have given way to legend.

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Office of the Historian - Milestones - 1899-1913 - Dollar Diplomacy

Office of the Historian - Milestones - 1899-1913 - Dollar Diplomacy | john spargo and child labor | Scoop.it

Taft shared the view held by Knox, a corporate lawyer who had founded the giant conglomerate U.S. Steel, that the goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests. Knox felt that not only was the goal of diplomacy to improve financial opportunities, but also to use private capital to further U.S. interests overseas. "Dollar diplomacy" was evident in extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region. In China, Knox secured the entry of an American banking conglomerate, headed by J.P. Morgan, into a European-financed consortium financing the construction of a railway from Huguang to Canton. In spite of successes, "dollar diplomacy" failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and China.

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The New Dollar Diplomacy: The Sanctioning of Iran and Syria | Globalization101

The New Dollar Diplomacy: The Sanctioning of Iran and Syria | Globalization101 | john spargo and child labor | Scoop.it

On March 30, 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama officially cleared planned sanctions against the country of Iran. This is just one example of many types of sanctions that have been enacted in recent years. Lately, economic sanctions have become a favored diplomacy tool for many countries, as a way to coerce other countries without direct engagement. According to scholars, sanctions are “defined as measures in which one country…publicly suspends a major portion of its trade with another country…to attain political objectives.”1

The major issues concerning sanctions today are both their effectiveness and their target audience. Two major sanctions in place today are the previously mentioned sanctions against Iran, and prevailing sanctions against Syria. This news analysis will take an in-depth look at both of these situations, and the effect of the embargoes on international diplomacy and coercion.

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Dollar Diplomacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dollar Diplomacy was not always peaceful. In Nicaragua, U.S. "intervention involved participating in the overthrow of one government and the military support" of another. When a revolt broke out in Nicaragua in 1912, the Taft administration quickly sided with the insurgents (who had been instigated by U.S. mining interests) and sent U.S. troops into the country to seize the customs houses. As soon as the U.S. consolidated control over the country, Secretary of State Philander C. Knox encouraged U.S. bankers to move into the country and offer substantial loans to the new regime, thus increasing U.S. financial leverage over the country. Within two years, however, the new pro-U.S. regime faced a revolt of its own; and, once again, the administration landed U.S. troops in Nicaragua, this time to protect the tottering, corrupt U.S. regime. U.S. troops remained there for over a decade.

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Dollar Diplomacy (United States government policy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Dollar Diplomacy (United States government policy) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia | john spargo and child labor | Scoop.it

Taft and Knox also attempted to promulgate Dollar Diplomacy in China, where it was even less successful, both in terms of U.S. ability to supply loans and in terms of world reaction. The dismal failure of Dollar Diplomacy—from its simplistic assessment of social unrest to its formulaic application—caused the Taft administration to finally abandon the policy in 1912. The following year President Woodrow Wilson publicly repudiated Dollar Diplomacy, though he acted as vigorously as had his predecessors to maintain U.S. supremacy in Central America and the Caribbean.
Dollar diplomacy has come to refer in a disparaging way to the heedless manipulation of foreign affairs for strictly monetary ends.

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Office of the Historian - Milestones - 1899-1913 - The Chinese Revolution of 1911 ...

Office of the Historian - Milestones - 1899-1913 - The Chinese Revolution of 1911 ... | john spargo and child labor | Scoop.it

In the Nineteenth Century, the Qing Empire faced a number of challenges to its rule, including a number of foreign incursions into Chinese territory. The two Opium Wars against Western powers led by Great Britain resulted in the loss of Hong Kong, forced opening of “treaty ports” for international trade, and large foreign “concessions” in major cities privileged with extraterritorial rule. After its loss in the Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), Imperial China was forced to relinquish control over still more of its territory, losing Taiwan and parts of Manchuria and ending its suzerainty over Korea. The Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) firmly established Japanese claims to the Northeast and further weakened Qing rule. The combination of increasing imperialist demands (from both Japan and the West), frustration with the foreign Manchu Government embodied by the Qing court, and the desire to see a unified China less parochial in outlook fed a growing nationalism that spurred on revolutionary ideas.

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Dollar Diplomacy

The foreign relations of the United States actually and potentially affect the state of the Union to a degree not widely realized and hardly surpassed by any other factor in the welfare of the whole nation. The position of the United States in the moral, intellectual, and material relations of the family of nations should be a matter of vital interest to every patriotic citizen. The national prosperity and power impose upon us duties which we cannot shirk if we are to be true to our ideals. The tremendous growth of the export trade of the United States has already made that trade a very real factor in the industrial and commercial prosperity of the country. With the development of our industries, the foreign commerce of the United States must rapidly become a still more essential factor in its economic welfare.

Whether we have a farseeing and wise diplomacy and are not recklessly plunged into unnecessary wars, and whether our foreign policies are based upon an intelligent grasp of present-day world conditions and a clear view of the potentialities of the future, or are governed by a temporary and timid expediency or by narrow views befitting an infant nation, are questions in the alternative consideration of which must convince any thoughtful citizen that no department of national polity offers greater opportunity for promoting the interests of the whole people on the one hand, or greater chance on the other of permanent national injury, than that which deals with the foreign relations of the United States.

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