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Network Administration and Installation I
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OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model | IT 115 | Scoop.it

The OSI Seven Layer Model

 

The OSI layers and their functions are:

 

1. Application -- Works directly with applications, such as email programs, photo applications and web browsers.

 

2. Presentation -- Works with the Application layer for functions such as encryption, compression and formatting.

 

3. Session -- This layer manages the connections between applications at each end, such as setting up telnet connections and ensuring communication is synchronized.

 

4. Transport -- Handles the actual transfer of data. This layer separates the application-related tasks from the network-related tasks, essentially acting as a buffer between the 2 sides of the model. Specifically, the Transport layer ensures the data is sent correctly and in its entirety.

 

5. Network -- Network, or logical, addressing (such as IP addressing) is handled at this layer, along with routing, congestion control, error control, and general network traffic management.

 

6. Data Link -- This layer is split into 2 sub-layers: Media Access Control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC). The MAC controls a computers access to the data itself, while the LLC handles the actual framing and transport control of that data.

 

7. Physical -- Often refers to the actual Physical equipment of the networked device, such as network ports, cables and power.

 

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Networking Group One's comment, July 18, 2012 5:56 AM
RE: (Sonny Norca)

In Addition to the definition of the Transport Layer :

The Transport layer regulates information flow to ensure
end to end connectivity between host applications
reliably and accurately.

The Transport Layer segments Data from the sending host
system and reassembles the data into a data stream on the
receiving host's system.
Networking Group One's comment, July 18, 2012 6:35 AM
RE :(Harry Brian Alabat)

The boundary between the Transport Layer and the Session Layer can bethought of as the boundary between application protocols and data flow protocols. Whereas the application, presentation and session layers are concerned with application issues the lower four layers are concerned with data transport issues
Networking Group One's comment, July 18, 2012 9:20 PM
Rey Lagura

The Role of Data Link Layer in the OSI Model:

Data Link Layer is much concerned with packaging data into data frames for transmission.

This layer's standard performs two important functions:
they ensure data's not to be mistaken for flags,

And checks for errors within the data frame.

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TCP/IP MODEL vs OSI MODEL

TCP/IP MODEL vs OSI MODEL | IT 115 | Scoop.it

TCP/IP MODEL (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol).

     These protocols are made up of layers and each of it has its own responsibility for network ralated tasks. These layers are:

 

     - Application Layer - responsible for th coding the packet data.

     - Transport Layer - monitors end-to-end path selections for the packet and also provide services to the application layer.

     - Internet Layer - is responsible for sending packets to different networks.

     - Link Layer - it provides services to the internet layer.

 

OSI MODEL

     Consist of seven layers which are Application Layer, Presentation Layer, Session Layer, Transport Layer, Network Layer, Datalink Layer, and Physical Layer. These seven layers has its own work.

 

     Application Layer - which is closet to the user.

     Presentation Layer - responsible for decoding the context of the higher level entities.

     Session Layer - responsible creating and terminationg connection.

     Transport Layer - the data is ensured by the transport layer. It also retransmits those data that fail to reach the destination.

     Network Layer- responsible for data transfer sequence from source to destination.

     Datalink Layer - it corrects the error that may occur in the physical layer and provides the way by which various entities can transfer the data to the network.

     Physical Layer - lower most layer of the OSI Model, responsible for direct interaction of the OSI model with hardware, and hardware provides service to the physical layer and it provides service to the datalink layer.

 

TCP/IP Model and OSI Model are the backbones of the communication industry. Learning the differences between the two is vital if one wants to be an expert in the field of communication.

 

 

[M.L.C -_-]

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Network

Network | IT 115 | Scoop.it

Internet nowadays plays important rule in our lives whether we accept it or deny it. How it quickly and incredibly become part of our daily routines no one can administer the answer. Internet define as a publicity accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using IP or Internet Protocol. See also: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html

 

A Network is composed of one or more computers which are connected to each other using a communication system and has the primary purpose for computers to communicate and share with each other by means of peripherals, videos, music or files.

 

How Network Impact our Daily Lives

1. The way we Live - Technology is perhaps the most significant change agent in the world today, as it helps to create a world in which national borders, geographic distances, and physical limitations become less relevant, and present ever-diminishing obstacles. The creation of online communities for the exchange of ideas and information has the potential to increase productivity opportunities across the globe.

2. The way we Learn - Education is our fundamental block of learning. Institutions are the one who gives learning to its students but with the presence of the internet new experiences can be be experience and learn inside or outside the institutions. The availability of e-learning as if all of the player are on the same room, no barriers and no time interceptions.(Electronic Learning) allows everyone to study how many times. Traditional Learning methods have limited sources and limited in forms of timing of presentation however with this new developments students can follow links to different references to enhance their learning in different field without geographical barriers and time interceptions
3. The way we Work - In our 21st Century the works that are available on a specific place can be known over in a long distant place just only drag, click and send the needed papers to the site for the transaction to be negotiated . Business nowadays complied with networking strategies for this is easier, faster and more reliable compare to the tradional employment system method which is only read and write.
4. The way we Play - Networks in the field of Play will not be possibly forgotten because of the new and hottest online games that are being develop and game by billions of people around the world.Different player around the world can play without any restriction what local are you connected. You play the same manner as if all of you player are in the same room, no barriers and no time interceptions.

For more info: http://www.cisco.com/web/PH/index.html

 

[ L. Cutin ]

http://www.cisco.com/web/PH/index.html
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IP subnetting made easy | TechRepublic

IP subnetting made easy | TechRepublic | IT 115 | Scoop.it
George Ou explains IP subnetting using his own graphical approach. It’s a great primer for students and a nice refresher for others.

 

[M.S.C]

 

 

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TCP and UDP

TCP and UDP | IT 115 | Scoop.it

Difference between UDP and TCP.

 

The difference between UDP and TCP is that UDP(User Datagram Protocol)
is a simple, connectionless protocol.And it has the advantage of providing low-overhead
data delivery.

 

And there are applications that use UDP,these are Domain Name System
(DNS) and Video Streaming.While the TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection oriented protocol and the application that use TCP are Web Browsers, Email and File Transfers.

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Networking Group One's comment, July 18, 2012 6:27 AM
Nice Representation, I like it '',)
keep it up! Jean D
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Data Link Layer

The data link layer is the second layer in the OSI (open systems interconnection) it is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment. Data link is the means of connecting one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information. It responds to service requests from the network layer above it and issues service requests to the physical layer below it.

 

The data link layer is responsible for encoding bits into packets prior to transmission and then decoding the packets back into bits at the destination. Bits are the most basic unit of information in computing and communications. Packets are the fundamental unit of information transport in all modern computer networks, and increasingly in other communications networks as well. The data link layer is also responsible for logical link control, media access control, hardware addressing, error detection and handling and defining physical layer standards. It provides reliable data transfer by transmitting packets with the necessary synchronization, error control and flow control.

 

The data link layer performs various functions depending upon the hardware protocol used, but has four primary functions:

1. COMMUNICATION with the Network layer above.

2. SEGMENTATION of upper layer datagrams (also called packets) into frames in sizes that can be handled by the communications hardware.

3. BIT ORDERING. The data link layer organizes the pattern of data bits into frames before transmission. The frame formatting issues such as stop and start bits, bit order, parity and other functions are handled here. Management of big-endian / little-endian issues are also managed at this layer.

4. COMMUNICATION with the Physical layer below

 

The data link layer is divided into two sublayers: the media access control (MAC) layer and the logical link control (LLC) layer. The former controls how computers on the network gain access to the data and obtain permission to transmit it; the latter controls packet synchronization, flow control and error checking.

 

There are at least three types of basic data-link configurations that can be conceived of and used:

 

1. Simplex communications, most commonly meaning all communications in one direction only.

2. Half-duplex communications, meaning communications in both directions, but not both ways simultaneously.

3. Duplex communications, communications in both directions simultaneously.

 

This layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link. The data link layer is concerned with physical addressing, network topology, physical link management, error notification, ordered delivery of frames, and flow control.

 

 

 

- Junaliza Epil

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Network

Network | IT 115 | Scoop.it

Internet nowadays plays important rule in our lives whether we accept it or deny it. How it quickly and incredibly become part of our daily routines no one can administer the answer. Internet define as a publicity accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using IP or Internet Protocol. See also: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html

 

A Network is composed of one or more computers which are connected to each other using a communication system and has the primary purpose for computers to communicate and share with each other by means of peripherals, videos, music or files.

 

How Network Impact our Daily Lives

1. The way we Live - Technology is perhaps the most significant change agent in the world today, as it helps to create a world in which national borders, geographic distances, and physical limitations become less relevant, and present ever-diminishing obstacles. The creation of online communities for the exchange of ideas and information has the potential to increase productivity opportunities across the globe.

2. The way we Learn - Education is our fundamental block of learning. Institutions are the one who gives learning to its students but with the presence of the internet new experiences can be be experience and learn inside or outside the institutions. The availability of e-learning as if all of the player are on the same room, no barriers and no time interceptions.(Electronic Learning) allows everyone to study how many times. Traditional Learning methods have limited sources and limited in forms of timing of presentation however with this new developments students can follow links to different references to enhance their learning in different field without geographical barriers and time interceptions
3. The way we Work - In our 21st Century the works that are available on a specific place can be known over in a long distant place just only drag, click and send the needed papers to the site for the transaction to be negotiated . Business nowadays complied with networking strategies for this is easier, faster and more reliable compare to the tradional employment system method which is only read and write.
4. The way we Play - Networks in the field of Play will not be possibly forgotten because of the new and hottest online games that are being develop and game by billions of people around the world.Different player around the world can play without any restriction what local are you connected. You play the same manner as if all of you player are in the same room, no barriers and no time interceptions.

For more info: http://www.cisco.com/web/PH/index.html

 

[ L. Cutin ]

 

 

 

IPV6
In our incoming generation ,we are prone to the highest level of technology. We have done our communication , advertising our products, online news and many others with through internet .
As what we have known internet is a collection of different types of computer networks that communication globally to the other. IP address is used to interconnect some devices that released to the market which is web connected. Nowadays ,we are still using the internet protocol version 4 (IPv4 ) for addressing networks and hosts.IPv4 is 32 bits long(4bytes) and it produces only 4.29 billions of addresses. Since ,more than billions of people subscribe internet ,and as the year continually moving,the devices that connect to the internet is rapidly increased,the IP address which provides by the IPv4 is not enough to fulfill the request of the subscribers

 

[L.QUITORIANO]


Via Networking Group One
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Network

Network | IT 115 | Scoop.it

Internet nowadays plays important rule in our lives whether we accept it or deny it. How it quickly and incredibly become part of our daily routines no one can administer the answer. Internet define as a publicity accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data using IP or Internet Protocol. See also: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html

 

A Network is composed of one or more computers which are connected to each other using a communication system and has the primary purpose for computers to communicate and share with each other by means of peripherals, videos, music or files.

 

How Network Impact our Daily Lives

1. The way we Live - Technology is perhaps the most significant change agent in the world today, as it helps to create a world in which national borders, geographic distances, and physical limitations become less relevant, and present ever-diminishing obstacles. The creation of online communities for the exchange of ideas and information has the potential to increase productivity opportunities across the globe.

2. The way we Learn - Education is our fundamental block of learning. Institutions are the one who gives learning to its students but with the presence of the internet new experiences can be be experience and learn inside or outside the institutions. The availability of e-learning as if all of the player are on the same room, no barriers and no time interceptions.(Electronic Learning) allows everyone to study how many times. Traditional Learning methods have limited sources and limited in forms of timing of presentation however with this new developments students can follow links to different references to enhance their learning in different field without geographical barriers and time interceptions

3. The way we Work - In our 21st Century the works that are available on a specific place can be known over in a long distant place just only drag, click and send the needed papers to the site for the transaction to be negotiated . Business nowadays complied with networking strategies for this is easier, faster and more reliable compare to the tradional employment system method which is only read and write.

4. The way we Play - Networks in the field of Play will not be possibly forgotten because of the new and hottest online games that are being develop and game by billions of people around the world.Different player around the world can play without any restriction what local are you connected. You play the same manner

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A network is composed of one or more computers which are connected together with each other using a communication system and has a primary purpose for computers to communicate and share its files.

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Firewalls

Firewalls | IT 115 | Scoop.it

Security has become one of the primary concerns when an organization connects its private network to the Internet. To provide the required level of protection, an organization needs a security policy to prevent unauthorized users from accessing resources on the private network and to protect against the unauthorized export of private information. Even if an organization is not connected to the Internet, it may still want to establish an internal security policy to manage user access to portions of the network and protect sensitive or secret information.

 

An Internet firewall is a system or group of systems that enforces a security policy between an organization's network and the Internet. To keep the network secure, the organization can use firewall. It can be a software or hardware device that filters the information coming through the internet. Only information that allowed by the firewall policy can go through. It also determine which inside services may be accessed from the outside, which outsiders are permitted access to the permitted inside services, and which outside services may be accessed by insiders.

 

It is important to note that an Internet firewall is not just a router, a bastion host, or a combination of devices that provides security for a network. The firewall is part of an overall security policy that creates a perimeter defense designed to protect the information resources of the organization. All potential points of network attack must be protected with the same level of network security. Setting up an Internet firewall without a comprehensive security policy is like placing a steel door on a tent.

 

[J. D. P.]

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