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How The Activity Learning Theory Works

How The Activity Learning Theory Works | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
How The Activity Learning Theory Works

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EDTECH@UTRGV's curator insight, January 4, 2016 5:38 PM

Thank you Tommy for sharing this article.

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Excavan en Jerusalén una antigua mansión en el monte Sión de los tiempos de Jesús

Excavan en Jerusalén una antigua mansión en el monte Sión de los tiempos de Jesús | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Sión es un monte que se encuentra a las afueras de la que se conoce como la ciudad vieja de Jerusalén. El término de Sión, desde tiempos remotos, cogió tanta relevancia que pasó a ser una sinécdoque que aludía tanto a la ciudad de Jerusalén entera como, por extensión, a toda la Tierra de Israel.


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Los antiguos irlandeses fueron los primeros en registrar un eclipse (ocurrido en el año 3340 a.C)

Los antiguos irlandeses fueron los primeros en registrar un eclipse (ocurrido en el año 3340 a.C) | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Los ancestros de los irlandeses tallaron imágenes de un antiguo eclipse en piedras gigantes hace más de 5.000 años, el 30 de noviembre del año 3340 a.C., para ser exactos. Este es el eclipse solar registrado más antiguo de la historia.


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Así surgió el rostro humano

Así surgió el rostro humano | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

No hace falta ser Scarlett Johansson o Brad Pitt para mirarse al espejo y contemplar algo único cada mañana. Cualquier rostro humano, de cualquier persona, en cualquier época, es inigualable dentro del gran universo mamífero o el más reducido club de los homínidos ¿Por qué? Una extensa revisión de cientos de cráneos de primates, humanos actuales y homínidos extintos ha intentado responder a esa pregunta. Sus resultados se leen como un apasionante relato de cómo y cuándo surgió esa rareza evolutiva que llamamos cara.


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Tu abuela tenía razón: 7 extraños remedios caseros que (según los científicos) realmente funcionan

Tu abuela tenía razón: 7 extraños remedios caseros que (según los científicos) realmente funcionan | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Dolor de cabeza, tos, resfrío, heridas, etc. Nuestras abuelas tenían una cura para todo, por más raras que nos parezcan ahora. Lo cierto es que tu abuela tenía razón, eso si te recomendaba estos 7 extraños remedios caseros que si funcionan, según los científicos.


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‘It Is Climate Change': India’s Heat Wave Now The 5th Deadliest In World History

‘It Is Climate Change': India’s Heat Wave Now The 5th Deadliest In World History | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
An Indian man pours water on his face during a hot summer day in Hyderabad, India, Sunday, May 24, 2015.
CREDIT: AP Photo/Mahesh Kumar A.

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Climate change or natural variation? Understanding this ocean phenomenon will help us figure it out. | Brian Palmer | onEarth.org

Climate change or natural variation? Understanding this ocean phenomenon will help us figure it out. | Brian Palmer | onEarth.org | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Some of the most important research on climate change right now isn’t on climate change at all. Here’s what I mean: Every time an extreme weather event strikes, a debate ensues about whether manmade climate change caused the incident or if it was the result of “natural variability.”

There’s a big problem with this argument. We know a lot about climate change but very little about natural variability—the complex system that dictated all weather before humans intervened with our carbon emissions. As a result, the burden of proof falls on those arguing that climate change caused a storm or drought. If they can’t prove that human activity directly caused the event, it falls into the big black box labeled “natural variability.” No one asks for proof that natural variability caused an extreme event, and only in rare cases, such as the California drought, does such evidence exist.

If we better understood the natural forces that drove changes in the earth’s climate for the last 4.5 billion years, we could have a more informed discussion about how to attribute extreme weather events to either natural variability or anthropogenic climate change. To that end, we need more research on ocean currents, variations in solar intensity, volcanic eruptions, and other natural phenomena. That research is only starting to dribble out. Today, researchers at the U.K.’s National Oceanography Centre published a study explaining the forces that drive the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

 

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Uncovering hidden worlds of ocean biodiversity

Uncovering hidden worlds of ocean biodiversity | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
A bewildering swirl of tiny creatures dominates life in the oceans. More numerous than the stars in the universe, these organisms serve as the foundation of all marine food webs, recycling major elements and producing and consuming about half the organic matter generated on Earth each year (1). In this issue, five research articles from the Tara Oceans expedition (2–6) provide a vivid, potentially transformative view of the genetic diversity and interconnectivity of these unseen marine communities of viruses, bacteria, archaea, single-celled eukaryotes, and small planktonic animals (see the figure). Together, these studies deliver compelling evidence for extensive networks of previously hidden biological interactions in the sea.

The Tara Oceans expedition harkens back to 18th-century sailing voyages that explored uncharted worlds, including Darwin's voyage aboard the HMS Beagle and the Challenger expedition that heralded the beginning of modern oceanography. The 36-m schooner Tara departed Lorient, France, in 2008 and sailed through the Mediterranean Sea and into the Indian, South Atlantic, and Southern oceans (see the map). Tara visited coral reefs in the South Pacific Ocean and then sailed through the Panama Canal and back across the North Atlantic Ocean, arriving at her homeport nearly 3 years later. At hundreds of locations along the way, scientists and crew collected thousands of samples from surface waters, from the deep chlorophyll maximum layers where microscopic photosynthetic organisms accumulate, and from deeper waters.

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Marine Life Can Take Millennia to Recover from Climate Change

Marine Life Can Take Millennia to Recover from Climate Change | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
It's no secret that climate change is wreaking havoc on our world's oceans, and now new research has shown that it can take marine life millennia to recover from climate change-related upheavals.

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Oxygen-depleted toxic oceans had key role in mass extinction over 200 million years ago

Oxygen-depleted toxic oceans had key role in mass extinction over 200 million years ago | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Life of the Triassic met a choking end in a runaway greenhouse climate 200 million years ago, heating the seas into warm stagnation. The greenhouse was caused by CO2 released by massive outpourings of basalt from fissure eruptions associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The resulting boom in marine microbes consumed oxygen and released poisonous hydrogen sulfide into water and air, creating "dead zones" above and below, worldwide. Hydrogen sulfide posioning is detected by molecular fossils used as biomarkers.

 

The study, published in the upcoming edition of Geology, reveals that a condition called 'marine photic zone euxinia' took place in the Panathalassic Ocean- the larger of the two oceans surrounding the supercontinent of Pangaea.


Photic zone euxinia occurs when the sun-lit surface waters of the ocean become devoid of oxygen and are poisoned by hydrogen sulphide - a by-product of microorganisms that live without oxygen that is extremely toxic to most other lifeforms.


The international team of researchers studied fossilised organic molecules extracted from sedimentary rocks that originally accumulated on the bottom of the north-eastern Panthalassic Ocean, but are now exposed on the Queen Charlotte Islands, off the coast of British Columbia, Canada.


The team found molecules derived from photosynthesising brown-pigmented green sulphur bacteria - microorganisms that only exist under severely anoxic conditions - proving severe oxygen depletion and hydrogen sulphide poisoning of the upper ocean at the end of Triassic, 201 million years ago.


The researchers also documented marked changes in the nitrogen composition of organic matter, indicating that disruptions in marine nutrient cycles coincided with the development of low oxygen conditions.


Previous studies have reported evidence of photic zone euxinia from terrestrial and shallow, near-shore environments during the latest Triassic, but the new research is the first to provide such evidence from an open ocean setting, indicating these changes may have occurred on a global scale.


The University of Southampton's Professor Jessica Whiteside, who co-authored the study, explains: "As tectonic plates shifted to break up Pangaea, huge volcanic rifts would have spewed carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, leading to rising temperatures from the greenhouse effect. The rapid rises in CO2 would have triggered changes in ocean circulation, acidification and deoxygenation."


"These changes have the potential to disrupt nutrient cycles and alter food chains essential for the survival of marine ecosystems. Our data now provides direct evidence that anoxic, and ultimately euxinic, conditions severely affected food chains."


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Lauri's curator insight, April 2, 2015 9:17 PM

Fueled by massive releases of CO2.

Preston McSwain's curator insight, May 4, 2015 9:22 AM

Don't let this happen again.  Clean Up Oceans

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Acidic oceans triggered mass extinction over 250 million years ago | Antonio Pasolini | GizMag.com

Acidic oceans triggered mass extinction over 250 million years ago | Antonio Pasolini | GizMag.com | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

In order to better understand how climate change will unfold over the coming decades, some scientists are looking to the remote past and specific climatic catastrophes to help shed light the so-called Anthropocene and its consequences for life on Earth. Recently, researchers at the University of Utah looked into the so-called Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum for clues. Now, a study by the University of Edinburgh highlights evidence that the rapid acidification of oceans 252 million years ago caused the greatest extinction of all time.

Known as the Permian-Triassic Boundary extinction, more than 90 percent of marine life and two thirds of land animals were wiped out as the Earth’s oceans absorbed huge amounts of carbon dioxide from volcanic eruptions known as Siberian Traps.

The Edinburgh study provides some evidence of the missing connection between acidification and mass extinction through analysis of high-resolution seawater pH records across the period when massive amounts of carbon were being pumped into the atmosphere. The researchers used boron isotope data combined with a quantitative modeling approach.

 

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Fresh evidence for how water reached Earth found in asteroid debris

Fresh evidence for how water reached Earth found in asteroid debris | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Water delivery via asteroids or comets is likely taking place in many other planetary systems, just as it happened on Earth, new research strongly suggests. Published by the Royal Astronomical Society and led by the University of Warwick, the research finds evidence for numerous planetary bodies, including asteroids and comets, containing large amounts of water.


The research findings add further support to the possibility water can be delivered to Earth-like planets via such bodies to create a suitable environment for the formation of life. Commenting on the findings lead researcher Dr Roberto Raddi, of the University of Warwick's Astronomy and Astrophysics Group, said: "Our research has found that, rather than being unique, water-rich asteroids similar to those found in our Solar System appear to be frequent. Accordingly, many planets may have contained a volume of water, comparable to that contained in the Earth.


"It is believed that the Earth was initially dry, but our research strongly supports the view that the oceans we have today were created as a result of impacts by water-rich comets or asteroids."


In observations obtained at the William Herschel Telescope in the Canary Islands, the University of Warwick astronomers detected a large quantity of hydrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere of a white dwarf (known as SDSS J1242+5226). The quantities found provide the evidence that a water-rich exo-asteroid was disrupted and eventually delivered the water it contained onto the star.


The asteroid, the researchers discovered, was comparable in size to Ceres -- at 900km across, the largest asteroid in the Solar System. "The amount of water found SDSS J1242+5226 is equivalent to 30-35% of the oceans on Earth," explained Dr Raddi.


The impact of water-rich asteroids or comets onto a planet or white dwarf results in the mixing of hydrogen and oxygen into the atmosphere. Both elements were detected in large amounts in SDSS J1242+5226.


Research co-author Professor Boris Gänsicke, also of University of Warwick, explained: "Oxygen, which is a relatively heavy element, will sink deep down over time, and hence a while after the disruption event is over, it will no longer be visible. "In contrast, hydrogen is the lightest element; it will always remain floating near the surface of the white dwarf where it can easily be detected. There are many white dwarfs that hold large amounts of hydrogen in their atmospheres, and this new study suggests that this is evidence that water-rich asteroids or comets are common around other stars than the Sun."


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5 components necessary for a successful school environment

5 components necessary for a successful school environment | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
The Managing Complex Change model puts language to that which makes some schools successful while others struggle. The model looks at five components necessary to create a desired environment. These include vision, skills, incentives, resources, action plan. If any one piece is missing the model indicates results schools will experience including change, confusion, anxiety, gradual change, frustration, and a false start.

When thinking of successful schools such as Science Leadership Academy, The MET, The Island School, The iSchool, you will find they have all those components in place. On the other hand, when I hear teachers lamenting about their school failures, the model brings clarity to the fact that one or more of these components are missing.


Below is the chart that lays this out. Following the chart, I'll take a look at what each missing component might look like in a school environment. As you read, consider which, if any are components, are missing at your school.

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Comment Twitter est devenu la boule de cristal des marchés financiers

Comment Twitter est devenu la boule de cristal des marchés financiers | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
Twitter a beau avoir reconnu, mardi, un ralentissement du nombre de ses nouveaux utilisateurs , en matière financière, il est devenu la miss...
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Los dos hombres del Mesolítico hallados en la cueva de Arintero (León) en 2006 eran hermanos

Los dos hombres del Mesolítico hallados en la cueva de Arintero (León) en 2006 eran hermanos | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Si no fuera porque Wenceslao y Ataúlfo, o Braña 1 y Braña 2, los dos hombres del Mesolítico encontrados en una cueva de Arintero en el otoño de 2006, ya han sido bautizados dos veces, ahora se les podría llamar Abel y Caín.


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The best strategy for managing disruptive innovation in higher ed

The best strategy for managing disruptive innovation in higher ed | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
A tale of two disruptive innovation implementation case studies provides best practices for interested institutions.

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Hallan un fragmento de lino que cita al padre de Cleopatra

Hallan un fragmento de lino que cita al padre de Cleopatra | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

En 2003 a 2014, una misión arqueológica polaca excavó e investigó una ermita copta de los siglos VI-VIII d.C., emplazada en unas antiguas tumbas egipcias que habían sido reutilizadas en varias ocasiones, en Sheij Abd el-Qurna, en el Valle de los Nobles, al oeste de Luxor. Los arqueólogos hallaron numerosas ánforas y otros objetos creados por los monjes, además de papiros con textos cristianos antiguos.


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Top 10 Techniques to Quiet a Noisy Class

Particularly toward the end of term, there comes a time when every teacher eventually has to deal with a noisy and unruly classroom. Noise impacts a student’s ability to learn and damages motivation, and how teachers react to their students being noisy often sets the tone for the relationship between students and teachers inside the classroom. Before trying to figure out ways of asserting authority or reward/punishment solutions, consider first why students are being loud and how you can address the impulses behind this activity.

 

Here are the top ten techniques that other teachers use to manage a noisy class, applicable from pre-schoolers to high-schoolers.

 

1.     Get Your Students Involved

 

Trying to take control of a class without procuring the cooperation of students is prone to failure. By soliciting their opinions and suggestions about how to manage noise in the classroom, they may better recognise when their volume levels are reaching unacceptable levels and what is expected from them.

 

2.     Teach Students to Handle their Noise Levels

 

When planning group activities, make sure you also teach students how to control noise levels within their groups. Have them figure out how loud their combined voices carry over distances, in meters or arm-lengths. A voice suitable for one arm (or foot) is good for working in pairs, while a speaking level suitable for working in groups shouldn’t disturb others past two arms or three feet. Now, when you give directions for their group activity, you can instruct students about the appropriate noise level.

 

 3.     Be a Role Model

 

Students will look to you as an example of what is acceptable behaviour. If you shout in response to noise, students see this as tacit permission to be loud. This training them that being noisy is the only way to be heard over the noise of others, rather than regulate their own noise levels. If you only speak loud enough to be heard by those who are paying attention, students will often follow along rather than miss out on the information they need. Remember that children are hypersensitive towards hypocrisy.

 

4.     Decide Early How Much Noise is Acceptable

 

While noise levels by necessity must be arbitrary and depends upon the number of students, classroom environment, types of activity - it’s important to set for yourself the amount of noise that is acceptable. Your students should come to appreciate that you’re not shutting down their right to express themselves, but only when it is disruptive.

 

5.     Be Consistent

 

It’s important to consistently enforce acceptable noise levels in the classroom. Even if students are getting too enthusiastic about the lesson, remind them about undesirable volume limits. Stick to the boundaries you have set to help students remember when it’s appropriate to manage their own noise level.

 

6.     To Be Mindful of Others

 

Remind students that noise causes discomfort to other people. There are others working around them and that you need to hear from students that are paying attention. Remind them that good students are those who are mindful of others. The golden rule is important for getting anywhere in life.

 

7.     Be Confident in Your Own Authority

 

Remember that if you do not feel you deserve the respect of your students, you may not really expect to find as much compliance as you would want. You’re the Boss of the class, and your instructions are always given with a goof reason. A teacher must first be a leader, and how your present yourself determines the level of positive response you receive.

 

8.     You Set the Atmosphere

 

Remember that if you’re not showing any energy towards the lesson, students are also less likely to focus on what you’re saying. When you’re lively and excited about what you’re saying, your enthusiasm will spread through the room.

 

9.  Examine Underlying Factors

 

At the end of it, it is the teacher’s responsibility to manage the classroom. Monitor yourself if you’re making excuses for mismanaging a misbehaving classroom. If things aren’t going well in the lessons, it may be because of your policies on misbehaviour. Being noisy may be a symptom of a deeper learning problem, at school or perhaps at home. A teacher can only do so much by creating a warm and inclusive environment for learning, but sometimes things need a more personal approach.

 

10. Reward Students Who Show Good Behaviour

 

Praise and give incentives to students who are quiet and attentive though the lesson. Allow them to leave earlier, or in the case of younger students allow them more time with  books and toys. Those who are talking too loud may be told to stay back for a couple of minutes after the class end. There is no need to call attention to it, soon enough the message that good behaviour earns rewards will sink in.

 

Good luck with the rest of term! 


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Priscilla Maldonado's curator insight, February 16, 2016 6:42 PM

Their is ten techniques you can follow to have a well class.

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Power Surge, Climate Change. | Full Documentary HD - YouTube

Can emerging technology defeat global warming? The United States has invested tens of billions of dollars in clean energy projects as our leaders try to save our crumbling economy and our poisoned planet in one bold, green stroke. Are we finally on the brink of a green-energy "power surge," or is it all a case of too little, too late?


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Aparece un nuevo pedestal en Los Bañales (Zaragoza) dedicado, esta vez, a Lucio César, nieto del emperador Augusto

Aparece un nuevo pedestal en Los Bañales (Zaragoza) dedicado, esta vez, a Lucio César, nieto del emperador Augusto | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

Los trabajos de excavación de Los Bañales, en Uncastillo (Zaragoza), que dirige el profesor de Arqueología de la Universidad de Navarra Javier Andreu, han descubierto un segundo pedestal dedicado, esta vez, a Lucio César, nieto del emperador Augusto.


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Ocean Acidification--Carbon Dioxide Is Putting Shelled Animals at Risk | National Geographic

Ocean Acidification--Carbon Dioxide Is Putting Shelled Animals at Risk | National Geographic | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

For tens of millions of years, Earth's oceans have maintained a relatively stable acidity level. It's within this steady environment that the rich and varied web of life in today's seas has arisen and flourished. But research shows that this ancient balance is being undone by a recent and rapid drop in surface pH that could have devastating global consequences.

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the early 1800s, fossil fuel-powered machines have driven an unprecedented burst of human industry and advancement. The unfortunate consequence, however, has been the emission of billions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into Earth's atmosphere.

Scientists now know that about half of this anthropogenic, or man-made, CO2 has been absorbed over time by the oceans. This has benefited us by slowing the climate change these emissions would have instigated if they had remained in the air. But relatively new research is finding that the introduction of massive amounts of CO2 into the seas is altering water chemistry and affecting the life cycles of many marine organisms, particularly those at the lower end of the food chain.

When carbon dioxide dissolves in this ocean, carbonic acid is formed. This leads to higher acidity, mainly near the surface, which has been proven to inhibit shell growth in marine animals and is suspected as a cause of reproductive disorders in some fish.

On the pH scale, which runs from 0 to 14, solutions with low numbers are considered acidic and those with higher numbers are basic. Seven is neutral. Over the past 300 million years, ocean pH has been slightly basic, averaging about 8.2. Today, it is around 8.1, a drop of 0.1 pH units, representing a 25-percent increase in acidity over the past two centuries.

 

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Huge ocean confirmed underneath solar system’s largest moon, containing more water than Earth's oceans combined

Huge ocean confirmed underneath solar system’s largest moon, containing more water than Earth's oceans combined | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

The solar system’s largest moon, Ganymede, in orbit around Jupiter, harbors an underground ocean containing more water than all the oceans on Earth. Scientists were already fairly confident in the ocean’s existence, based on the moon’s smooth icy surface—evidence of past resurfacing by the ocean—and other observations by the Galileo spacecraft, which made a handful of flybys in the 1990s. But new observations by the Hubble Space Telescope, published online today in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, remove any remaining doubt. Ganymede now joins Jupiter’s Europa and two moons of Saturn, Titan and Enceladus, as moons with subsurface oceans—and good places to look for life.

 

Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt, may also have a subsurface ocean. The new results come from Hubble’s observations of Ganymede’s magnetic field, which produces two auroral belts (pictured) that can be detected in the ultraviolet. Because of interactions with Jupiter’s own magnetic field, these belts rock back and forth. However, there is a third magnetic field in the mix—one emanating from the electrically conductive, saltwater ocean and induced by Jupiter’s field—that counterbalances Jupiter’s field and reduces the rocking of the auroral belts. The Hubble study suggests that the ocean can be no deeper than 330 kilometers below the surface.


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LEONARDO WILD's curator insight, March 14, 2015 9:55 AM

No life without water ...

Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, March 14, 2015 6:59 PM

Ganymede, a Jupiter moon, with lots of water - it looks like water is very common on planets and moons, more so than we thought previously. 


And in consequence, life forms as we know them might also turn out very abundant...

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Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea : Nature

Microbiology: Exclusive networks in the sea : Nature | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
The identification of an exchange of nutrients and signalling molecules between a planktonic alga and a bacterium demonstrates that targeted mutualistic interactions occur across domains of life in the oceans.

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Unchecked global warming could cause the greatest ocean shake-up in 3 million years

Unchecked global warming could cause the greatest ocean shake-up in 3 million years | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it
Who’s ready for a “massive reorganization of marine biodiversity on a planet-wide scale”?

Without drastic and immediate action to curb global warming, a team of international scientists warns, we could be headed for an ocean shake-up of the type we haven’t seen in 3 million years.

The study, published Monday in the journal Nature Climate Change, is not easy to brush off. In the increasingly unlikely looking scenario that the world manages to limit warming to the internationally agreed upon cap of 2 degrees Celsius, it predicts the oceans would lose something in the range of 10 to 12 percent of its species. (The model it used can’t tell us which species, specifically we need to be worried about). But if we keep on emitting greenhouse gases at our current rate, it found, the situation quickly escalates into a catastrophe: by the end of this century, the tropics would lose much of the marine life for which they’re currently known and, as species beeline to cooler waters, the poles could see net increases in biodiversity of up to 300 percent, their native species pushed aside by the new invaders.

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Global warming could change the oceans more in 85 years than nature did in 3 million | Brian Palmer | onEarth.org

Global warming could change the oceans more in 85 years than nature did in 3 million | Brian Palmer | onEarth.org | Intergenerational attitudes | Scoop.it

One of the challenges in communicating the urgency of climate change is that our yardsticks aren’t grabby enough. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations higher than 500 parts per million are impalpable to even humans with super-sensitive respiratory systems. Conceptualizing a two-degree increase in global average mean temperature is only slightly less challenging.

This is not one of those yardsticks: If we continue on the current emissions path, the oceans will experience greater changes in biodiversity in the next 85 years than in the previous 3 million years. According to a study released today in the journal Nature Climate Change, we are changing the state of life in our oceans—not just extinctions but also species invasions and relocations—at a rate unknown to science.

The authors of the study, an international team of geoscientists and oceanographers based in France, the United Kingdom, and Monaco, built a computer model of the ocean and populated it with pseudo species that created their own pseudo communities. It sounds eggheaded and theoretical, but the technique was designed to avoid a major obstacle to this kind of research—most of the oceans in the real world remain mysterious to scientists. We have a very poor understanding of what species occupy which ocean zones and at what levels of abundance. A model allowed the scientists to observe the effects of temperature changes without being thwarted by the limitations of existing data.

 

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Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
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