interaction between plant and microbe
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Rescooped by Jane Ho from Plant pathogens and pests
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Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: An Evaluation of Virulence Theories | Annual Review of Phytopathology

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: An Evaluation of Virulence Theories | Annual Review of Phytopathology | interaction between plant and microbe | Scoop.it
“ Oxalic acid production in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has long been associated with virulence. Research involving UV-induced, genetically undefined mutants that concomitantly lost oxalate accumulation, sclerotial formation, and pathogenicity supported the conclusion that oxalate is an essential pathogenicity determinant of S. sclerotiorum. However, recent investigations showed that genetically defined mutants that lost oxalic acid production but accumulated fumaric acid could cause disease on many plants and substantiated the conclusion that acidic pH, not oxalic acid per se, is the necessary condition for disease development. Critical evaluation of available evidence showed that the UV-induced mutants harbored previously unrecognized confounding genetic defects in saprophytic growth and pH responsiveness, warranting reevaluation of the conclusions about virulence based on the UV-induced mutants. Furthermore, analyses of the evidence suggested a hypothesis for the existence of an unrecognized regulator responsive to acidic pH. Identifying the unknown pH regulator would offer a new avenue for investigating pH sensing/regulation in S. sclerotiorum”
Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jane Ho from Plants and Microbes
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Sci Reports: CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein-mediated co-editing and counterselection in the rice blast fungus (2018)

Sci Reports: CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein-mediated co-editing and counterselection in the rice blast fungus (2018) | interaction between plant and microbe | Scoop.it

The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most serious pathogen of cultivated rice and a significant threat to global food security. To accelerate targeted mutation and specific genome editing in this species, we have developed a rapid plasmid-free CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing method. We show that stable expression of Cas9 is highly toxic to Moryzae. However efficient gene editing can be achieved by transient introduction of purified Cas9 pre-complexed to RNA guides to form ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). When used in combination with oligonucleotide or PCR-generated donor DNAs, generation of strains with specific base pair edits, in-locus gene replacements, or multiple gene edits, is very rapid and straightforward. We demonstrate a co-editing strategy for the creation of single nucleotide changes at specific loci. Additionally, we report a novel counterselection strategy which allows creation of precisely edited fungal strains that contain no foreign DNA and are completely isogenic to the wild type. Together, these developments represent a scalable improvement in the precision and speed of genetic manipulation in Moryzae and are likely to be broadly applicable to other fungal species.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jane Ho from Plant-Microbe Interactions: Pathogenesis & Symbiosis
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The Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase BIK1 Localizes to the Nucleus and Regulates Defense Hormone Expression during Plant Innate Immunity

The Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase BIK1 Localizes to the Nucleus and Regulates Defense Hormone Expression during Plant Innate Immunity | interaction between plant and microbe | Scoop.it
“Plants employ cell-surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogens. Although phytohormones produced during PRR signaling play an essential role in innate immunity, a direct link between PRR activation and hormone regulation is unknown. EFR is a PRR that recognizes bacterial EF-Tu and activates immune signaling. Here we report that EFR regulates the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through direct phosphorylation of a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, BIK1. The BIK1 structure revealed that the EFR-phosphorylated sites reside on a uniquely extended loop away from the BIK1 kinase core domain. Phosphomimetic mutations of these sites resulted in increased phytohormones and enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In addition to its documented plasma membrane localization, BIK1 also localizes to the nucleus and interacts directly with WRKY transcription factors involved in the JA and salicylic acid (SA) regulation. These findings demonstrate the mechanistic basis of signal transduction from PRR to phytohormones, mediated through a PRR-BIK1-WRKY axis.”
Via Philip Carella
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Rescooped by Jane Ho from Plant pathogens and pests
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The MAPK kinase BcMkk1 suppresses oxalic acid biosynthesis via impeding phosphorylation of BcRim15 by BcSch9 in Botrytis cinerea

The MAPK kinase BcMkk1 suppresses oxalic acid biosynthesis via impeding phosphorylation of BcRim15 by BcSch9 in Botrytis cinerea | interaction between plant and microbe | Scoop.it
“ The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cassette of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is primarily responsible for orchestrating changes of cell wall. However, functions of this cassette in other cellular processes are not well understood. Here, we found that the Botrytis cinerea mutant of MAPK kinase (BcMkk1) displays more serious defects in mycelial growth, conidiation, responses to cell wall and oxidative stresses, but possesses less reduced virulence than the mutants of its upstream (BcBck1) and downstream (BcBmp3) kinases. Interestingly, BcMkk1, but not BcBck1 and BcBmp3, negatively regulates production of oxalic acid (OA) and activity of extracellular hydrolases (EHs) that are proposed to be virulence factors of B. cinerea. Moreover, we obtained evidence that BcMkk1 negatively controls OA production via impeding phosphorylation of the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase BcRim15 by the Ser/Thr kinase BcSch9. In addition, the fungal Pro40 homolog BcPro40 was found to interact simultaneously with three MAPKs, implying that BcPro40 is a scaffold protein of the CWI pathway in B. cinerea. Taken together, results of this study reveal that BcMkk1 negatively modulates virulence via suppressing OA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, which provides novel insight into conserved and species-specific functions of the MAPK kinase in fungi.”
Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jane Ho from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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Extracellular Vesicle RNA: A Universal Mediator of Microbial Communication?

Extracellular Vesicle RNA: A Universal Mediator of Microbial Communication? | interaction between plant and microbe | Scoop.it
Both extracellular RNAs and extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently garnered attention as novel mediators of intercellular communication in eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike. EVs not only permit export of RNA, but also facilitate delivery and trans-kingdom exchange of these and other biomolecules, for instance between microbes and their hosts. In this Opinion article, we propose that EV-mediated export of RNA represents a universal mechanism for interkingdom and intrakingdom communication that is conserved among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbes. We speculate how microbes might use EV RNA to influence target cell gene expression or manipulate host immune responses.

Via Jonathan Plett, Francis Martin, IPM Lab
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Rescooped by Jane Ho from Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science
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Nature (2012): Plant science - The chestnut resurrection

Nature (2012): Plant science - The chestnut resurrection | interaction between plant and microbe | Scoop.it

Once king of eastern forests, the American chestnut was wiped out by blight. Now it is poised to rise again. “They're hard to breed and easy to kill,” says plant pathologist Fred Hebard as he attacks a 2-metre-tall chestnut tree in southwest Virginia. Hebard bores a hole in the bark and squeezes a mash of orange fungus into the wood. The tree is a hybrid of the Chinese and American chestnut species, and Hebard hopes that it has enough resistance genes to keep the fungus — called chestnut blight — at bay. If so, the hybrid could help to resurrect a long-gone icon.

 

Helen Thompson


Via Nicolas Denancé
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