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Bad Breath (Porphyromonas gingivalis)

Bad Breath (Porphyromonas gingivalis) | im Tuba | Scoop.it
Oral malodor is no laughing matter. But don't give spicy foods all the credit. Microbes deserve their share of the glory, too. Make someone smile (as long as they've brushed first.)
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Orchid mycorrhizas

Orchid mycorrhizas | im Tuba | Scoop.it
The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom, with more than 20,000 species identified, most distributed in the tropics and subtropics (Figs 1 & 2). Of the European species, of which there are around 90, the genera's Orchis, Ophrys, Epipactis and Dactylorhizas are particularly well represented.
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Rare parasitic fungi could have anti-flammatory benefits

Rare parasitic fungi could have anti-flammatory benefits | im Tuba | Scoop.it
Caterpillar fungi are rare parasites found on hibernating caterpillars in the mountains of Tibet. For centuries they have been highly prized as a traditional Chinese medicine - just a small amount can fetch hundreds of dollars.

Via Maria Nunzia @Varvera
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Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae)

Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae) | im Tuba | Scoop.it

Species of Pyricularia (magnaporthe-like sexual morphs) are responsible for major diseases on grasses.Pyricularia oryzae (sexual morph Magnaporthe oryzae) is responsible for the major disease of rice called rice blast disease, and foliar diseases of wheat and millet, while Pyricularia grisea (sexual morphMagnaporthe grisea) is responsible for foliar diseases of Digitaria. Magnaporthe salvinii, M. poae andM. rhizophila produce asexual spores that differ from those of Pyricularia sensu stricto that has pyriform, 2-septate conidia produced on conidiophores with sympodial proliferation. Magnaporthe salvinii was recently allocated to Nakataea, while M. poae and M. rhizophila were placed in Magnaporthiopsis. To clarify the taxonomic relationships among species that are magnaporthe- or pyricularia-like in morphology, we analysed phylogenetic relationships among isolates representing a wide range of host plants by using partial DNA sequences of multiple genes such as LSU, ITS, RPB1, actin and calmodulin. Species ofPyricularia s. str. belong to a monophyletic clade that includes all P. oryzae/P. grisea isolates tested, defining the Pyriculariaceae, which is sister to the Ophioceraceae, representing two novel families. These clades are clearly distinct from species belonging to the Gaeumannomyces pro parte/Magnaporthiopsis/Nakataea generic complex that are monophyletic and define theMagnaporthaceae. A few magnaporthe- and pyricularia-like species are unrelated to Magnaporthaceaeand Pyriculariaceae. Pyricularia oryzae/P. grisea isolates cluster into two related clades. Host plants such as Eleusine, Oryza, Setaria or Triticum were exclusively infected by isolates from P. oryzae, while some host plant such as Cenchrus, Echinochloa, Lolium, Pennisetum or Zingiber were infected by differentPyricularia species. This demonstrates that host range cannot be used as taxonomic criterion without extensive pathotyping. Our results also show that the typical pyriform, 2-septate conidium morphology ofP. grisea/P. oryzae is restricted to Pyricularia and Neopyricularia, while most other genera have obclavate to more ellipsoid 2-septate conidia. Some related genera (Deightoniella, Macgarvieomyces) have evolved 1-septate conidia. Therefore, conidium morphology cannot be used as taxonomic criterion at generic level without phylogenetic data. We also identified 10 novel genera, and seven novel species. A re-evaluation of generic and species concepts within Pyriculariaceae is presented, and novelties are proposed based on morphological and phylogenetic data.


Via Steve Marek
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Mycology - Mycorrhizas - Orchid Function

Mycology - Mycorrhizas - Orchid Function | im Tuba | Scoop.it
Introduction to Fungal Biology for university students studying biological science.
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Ectendomycorrhizas

Ectendomycorrhizas show many of the same characteristics of endomycorrhizas (EM), but also show extensive intracellular penetration. The EM association sometimes has hyphae entering a few dead cells, but in ectendomycorrhizas infection can occur in living plant cells. Ectendomycorrhizas are restricted mostly to the plant families Pinus (pine), Picea (spruce) and to a lesser extent Larix (larch). Identification of the fungi involved in ectendomycorrhizal symbioses was initially prevented as no fruiting structures were seen. However, fungi isolated from Pinus seedlings in nurseries produce fruiting bodies in culture which are suitable for identification and place the fungi within the phylum Ascomycota, Order Pezizales. Analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of the fungi confirmed that most belong to the Wilcoxina genus and the majority of strains can be assigned to two taxa - Wilcoxina mikaloe and W. rehmii.
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Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota)

Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota) | im Tuba | Scoop.it

Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are all necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila, and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus.


Via Elsa Ballini
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Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita | im Tuba | Scoop.it

The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, including decomposition and carbon storage. CE1 genes of the ectomycorrhizal A. muscaria appear diverged from all other fungal homologues, and more similar to CE1s of bacteria, suggesting a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event.In order to test whether AmanitaCE1s were acquired horizontally, we built a phylogeny of CE1s collected from across the tree of life, and describe the evolution of CE1 genes among Amanita and relevant lineages of bacteria.CE1s of symbiotic Amanita were very different from CE1s of asymbiotic Amanita, and are more similar to bacterial CE1s. The protein structure of one CE1 gene of A. muscaria matched a depolymerase that degrades the carbon storage molecule poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Asymbiotic Amanita do not carry sequence or structural homologues of these genes.The CE1s acquired through HGT may enable novel metabolisms, or play roles in signaling or defense. This is the first evidence for the horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal fungi.


Via Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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