Human Geography
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Hutus & Tutsis? Racial? wasn't hussain obama the islamist warlord that murdered 1 Million Tutsis?

The origins of conflict between the Tutsi and Hutu peoples.

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Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

In the article is explains how the whole idea of conflict between the two groups started. It also tells the story of what began the war between them. The many events leading up to the fued between the two just put fuel into the fire. This lead to it becoming a long time conflict between the two.

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Where did Europe get its languages? Scientists uncover new evidence.

Where did Europe get its languages? Scientists uncover new evidence. | Human Geography | Scoop.it
aAn analysis of DNA from ancient Europeans points to a mass migration from the Eurasian steppe into Europe beginning some 4,500 years ago.
By Claire Felter, Staff Writer MARCH 3, 2015
Vincent Kessler/Reuters/View Caption
Beginning some 4,500 years ago, herders living in the temperate grasslands north of the Black and Caspian Seas began moving westward into Europe. The mass migration continued for about 15 centuries, and with it came horses, wheeled vehicles, and a new kind of language.

This, at least, is the hypothesis supported by an analysis of ancient DNA, published Monday in the journal Nature. By examining the entire genomes of 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000  and 3,000 years ago, a team of international researchers has pinpointed the effects of a large-scale movement of people with Near East ancestry into central Europe.Their language, say the researchers, might be the source of some of the Indo-European languages spoken throughout Europe today. 

With more than three billion speakers, the Indo-European family, which includes English, Latin and its descendants, Sanskrit and its descendants, the Slavic languages, the Celtic languages, Russian, Greek, Farsi, Kurdish, Pashto, and hundreds of others, is the world's largest family of languages. Almost all of the languages of contemporary Europe, with the notable exceptions of Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian, are part of this family.

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But where did Indo-European come from, and how did it wind up in Europe? Most historical linguists fall into one of two camps. Adherents to the Anatolian Hypothesis contend that the family of languages arrived in Europe from Anatolia – the peninsula that makes up what is today the Asian part of Turkey – about 8,500 years ago. Supporters of the Anatolian Hypothesis say that any major language replacements after that time would have likely required major migrations, but that migrations to Europe after the Early Neolithic period could not have made a major impact since the population was thought to already be quite large.


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Alternatively, those who support the Steppe Hypothesis believe that the early speakers of Indo-European languages were pastoralists residing in parts of the Eurasian steppe, a region stretching from Ukraine to Mongolia, and that their languages arrived in Europe less than 6,000 years ago, following the diffusion of innovations like the chariot. 

Material artifacts are of little help in settling the debate, because no examples of Indo-European languages appear in the historical record earlier than 4,000 years ago. And there are no known artifacts that unambiguously point to a large-scale migration into Europe during the late Neolithic period.

"One of the weaknesses of the steppe [hypothesis] was that people doubted that there were any migrations from the steppe into the rest of Europe," study co-author Iosif Lazaridis told the Monitor.

Dr. Lazaridis and his colleagues set out to better map out the movements of a number of ancient populations across Europe and parts of Asia. Scientists already had evidence indicating that, about 6,000 years ago, farmers who arrived in Europe mixed with hunter-gatherers who had already been living in the region for a few thousand years. And in Russia, a different group of hunter-gatherers is thought to have mixed with a population that was related to those in the Near East and had moved into the steppe. This mixture produced a pastoralist people known as the Yamnaya.

Lazaridis's team was able to determine that, about 4,500 years ago, these groups came into contact thanks to a large-scale migration of people with Yamnaya DNA from Russia into Central Europe. These migrants from the steppe, it turns out, provided nearly 75 percent of the ancestry of central Europeans.

"This is the kind of massive migration that, because of its great size, it's very plausible that it introduced some new languages into Europe," says Lazaridis.

The Steppe Hypothesis has found further support from a team of linguists at the University of California, Berkeley, whose work is set to appear later this month in the journal Language. Borrowing techniques from evolutionary biology, the linguists examined both modern languages and their ancient and medieval ancestors, analyzing the changes as well as the rates of change between the older languages and their descendants. The results showed a root age for these languages in line with the Steppe Hypothesis.

"We deduce how long ago their common ancestor existed, given how different the languages are from each other today," co-author and UC Berkeley graduate student Will Chang told the Monitor in an email.

But in the report co-authored by Lazaridis, the data doesn't provide evidence indicating migration from the steppe necessarily led to the formation of all European languages, or Asian languages spoken in places like present-day India and Iran. The study's authors cautioned in particular that their data is silent on the origins of the Indo-European languages of southeastern Europe.

"In order to solve the problem of the homeland of Proto-Indo-Europeans, we have to solve that there were migrations out of the steppe into Europe, which we did in this study," says Lazaridis. "But we also must show how it is tied to other places."

And the tools are getting better to show those ties: using a new DNA enrichment technique, the team was able to target the human DNA in ancient samples and avoid the unuseful DNA, like that of bacteria. So while genetics may not be considered the ideal branch of science for studying language origins, DNA analysis has its benefits, according to Lazaridis.

"Ancient DNA is a very powerful tool, but it can't really tell you whether a particular people spoke a particular language," says Lazaridis. "But we can advance the question by showing that some migrations did take place and to quantify when they took place."

Via Charles Tiayon
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

In the article it explains how scientists have been able to conduct an experiment to where they can take DNA and tell what Language you spoke and how fluently you did speak it. With scientists new discover, they can take dead bodies and collect DNA from their past lives and were they came from and what language or Languages they spoke. With this Discovery they have been able to create migration patterns and can learn from the past where certain languages originated and which ones were spoken more often.

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Daniel Lindahl's curator insight, March 21, 2015 11:26 PM

This article dives into the origin of language in Europe. Mass migration allowed for the spread and creation of language within Europe. This is what lead to the development of multiple languages within Europe, and later throughout the world. 

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Human landscapes in SW Florida

Human landscapes in SW Florida | Human Geography | Scoop.it

This is an excellent suite of images in a photo essay showing urban development in Florida.  These collectively can be used to accentuate the "human-environmental interactions" theme of geography.  The "unnatural coastlines" shows the economic logic behind this ecologically unwise development pattern.   


Via Seth Dixon
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

As you can see Florida has grown not only with its population but with its economical development. With the Urban patterns being so widely distributed it has made a major imapct with how Florida is catorgarized. With the spread of development being so highly rated it has not only moved farther up into the upper parts of Florida, but all over, this has caused Florida's ubanized patterns to look scrambled and not in an orderly fashion.

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Jacob Crowell's curator insight, October 15, 2014 12:26 PM

This image shows how increasing urbanization can impact geography. The "unnatural coastlines" were made to increase the property value of those houses that are built along the water. Everyone wants a view of the water but few are willing to admit the environmental cost to provide that. It is scary at how effective man has become at manipulating landscapes to suit their needs. In many ways, environment impacts human activity, but in this case it is the reverse. 

Jared Medeiros's curator insight, February 4, 2015 7:08 PM

Its funny how in Florida, these ares are all layed out in a nice and neat plan of development, with some kind of structure, while in the northeast it is a free for all, build it where you can kind of area.  It is funny though how close these houses are to each other when there is so much land around in all areas.

Rylee English's curator insight, February 5, 2016 10:09 AM

these images give examples of areas/ regions that used to be empty, open fields but were developed into suburban areas with many subdivisions and housing for citizens. RE 

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Technology and people power: 5 ways to shape the sustainable development goals

Technology and people power: 5 ways to shape the sustainable development goals | Human Geography | Scoop.it

fter 15 years of the millennium development goals (MDGs), a new era in global development is almost here. The sustainable development goals (SDGs) are set to take over and with them comes a call for a more inclusive approach to development design.


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Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

In the article it explains how technology has changed the world. The new technology that has been created has brought the LDCs high up in the world by the technology offering new opportunities. The article explains how technology can close the gaps between MDCs and LDCs by bringing them together. After so any years of suffering  technology has made life easier. The article also shows how technology has affected developed and developing countries. Soon technology will take over the world.

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Study: improved crop yields add to global warming

Study: improved crop yields add to global warming | Human Geography | Scoop.it
It seems counter-intuitive, but rising crop yields actually add more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Over the past few decades, food pro.

Via Haifa Group
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

In crop yields they actually add more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than we really realize. The amount of food production has increased at a dramaticly high rate over the past few years. The increase in crop yields has caused a lot of changes in our community and our societys  by discovering  that they are actually helping our atmoshere and not harming it.

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For Migrants, New Land of Opportunity Is Mexico

For Migrants, New Land of Opportunity Is Mexico | Human Geography | Scoop.it

"With Europe sputtering and China costly, the 'stMexico as broad changes in the global economy create new dynamics of migration."


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Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

This picture shows that the populations of foreigners in each country equal the amount of 301,795 working in 2011. The population seemed to have evened out with mexico during the times of 1995-2000.  The migration that occurred while people living in Mexico have had a major impact on the rest of the countries  population rates .

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Aleena Reyes's curator insight, April 8, 2015 9:21 PM

Even though this article is now three years old, it is refreshing to see that Mexico is really making their mark on the global market. The Global North seems to be coming to a stalemate while "up and coming countries" like Mexico are becoming the perfect place for people to begin their businesses and have a fresh start on life. I can understand though, how it was mentioned on the third page of the article, that some locals may feel that foreigners, European especially, may be receiving some type of special treatment due to past colonialism. However, these entrepreneurs are shaping the economy of Mexico. This is Mexico's chance to advance in the world and increase its GDP. Young, aspiring moguls all seems to feel the same way about their homelands, "Europe, dying; Mexico, coming to life. The United States, closed and materialistic; Mexico, open and creative" and Diego Quemada-Diez, a Spanish director, was quoted in the article, "Europe feels spiritually dead and so does the United States...[y]ou end up wanting something else".  And apparently, Mexico has that "something else".

 

Chris Costa's curator insight, September 21, 2015 10:25 AM

Again, I would be interested in seeing how these statistics would change if they were to factor in illegal immigration from Mexico into the United States, but the data remains promising. Mexico has the potential to be an economic powerhouse, and hopefully will utilize this potential sooner rather than later. Although rampant corruption remains in the nation's politics and reinforcement agencies, a strong Mexican economy will ultimately deescalate the violence by stripping the cartels of their strongest allure- well-paying employment for uneducated young men. A stronger Mexican economy will also undoubtedly help the US in terms of trade, as well as reducing the rate of cartel-related violence in the southern regions of the nation. With so many Americans today rallying around Trump's racially-charged rants on Mexican immigration, it brings a smile to my face that we are currently sending more Americans to take Mexican jobs than they are sending our way. The hypocrisy of these politicians and their policies are laughable. 

BrianCaldwell7's curator insight, April 5, 2016 8:20 AM

I’ve posted earlier about the end of cheap China; the rising cost of doing business in China coupled with the higher transportation costs to get goods to North American and European markets have made manufacturing in Mexican much more competitive on the global market.  Many investors are turning to Mexico as an emerging land of opportunity and Mexico is now a destination for migrants.  This is still a new pattern:  only 1 percent of the country is foreign-born compared to the 13 percent that you would see in the United States.  Mexican migration to the United States has stabilized; about as many Mexicans have moved to the U.S. (2005-2010) as those that have moved south of the border.


Tags: Mexico, industry, location, place, migration.

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7 Billion: How Did We Get So Big So Fast?

This is an excellent video for population and demographic units, but also for showing regional and spatial distinctions (since terms like 'overpopulation' and 'carrying capacity' inherently have different meanings at different scales). 


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Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

This video shows how the populations of each country  are  increasing and decreasing in a very unique way. It explains how the populations are increasing and decreasing as the years go on.  It also shows that the death rates and the birth rates are  being combined to make the true populations as accurate as possible.

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Aurora Rider's curator insight, October 7, 2014 9:13 PM

This video is good at helping people better visualize population because you can easily see the difference of each continent. It shows how the population started small and rapidly expanded because of the agricultural and industrial revolution and decrease in deaths making it and the births unstablized. It even goes on to talk about the future population and how it is believed that the population won't continue to grow rapidly but once again stabalize.

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The Essential Role of Race and Ethnicity Statistics in the Quest for Civil Rights

 

Check page 9 for how the census is used for Civil Rights. 

 


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Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

This shows the distribution of many different races throughout the US. This is what the census for 2020 to look like for our country. This picture shows how scientists conclude that over the next few years, many races will be spread throughout the the US. This will give us more of a variety of not only races but languages and even cultures. This will help by adding character to our country.

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Cassie Brannan's curator insight, April 6, 2015 10:15 AM

The 2020 Census wants to help capture a multi-ethnic America.The census has improved its responses and its maintains accuracy. 

During the 2010 census, the Census Bureau conducted the Race and Hispanic Origin Alternative Questionnaire Experiment (AQE), the largest and earliest effort it had ever undertaken to examine how people identify their race and ethnicity. -CB

 

Kobie Carroll's curator insight, April 20, 2017 11:23 AM
I believe censuses are an accurate way of capturing data and are extremely helpful in assisting researchers in studying the multiple ethnicities and races in America and making the studies more accurate. This relates to what we're learning because it adds to the information we already have about multi-ethnic areas. This tells us exactly how censuses are taken and used, which goes along with what we already know about ethnicities and races in America and other such countries.
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Genetics Study Reveals the Truth Behind How Languages Spread in Europe

Genetics Study Reveals the Truth Behind How Languages Spread in Europe | Human Geography | Scoop.it
There may be some new information about the spread of Indo-European languages. Scientists have examined a massive migration of Kurgan populations (Yamna culture) which may shed some light on how these languages spread.
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Migration processes allow scientists to determine whether or not to give support to linguistic and archaeological theories of language and cultural spread. In the case of Europe, one of the many unsolved mysteries is the origin and diversification of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language, considered the source of most of the languages spoken today in Europe, Asia and America.
The Anatolian hypothesis defends that the diversification of PIE occurred about 8,500 years ago, when the first farmers from the Near East brought it to Europe. However, there's also the Kurgan hypothesis, which proposes that the language was spread by nomadic herders on the steppes found to the north of the Black and Caspian Sea. This means that language spread after the invention of wheeled vehicles about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago.
Now, scientists have taken a closer look to find out the truth of the matter. They conducted a genetic study, which reveals that there was a massive migration of herders from the Yamna culture of the North Pontic steppe toward Europe. This would have favored the expansion of a few of these Indo-European languages throughout the continent. Not only that, but these findings favor the Kurgan hypothesis.
This isn't the only thing that the researchers discovered. They also found that in contrast to the dominant view, today's European populations do not descend only from the first hunters-gatherers and from people arriving during the Neolithic expansion of the Near East. Instead, Eastern and Western European populations followed different paths 8,000 to 5,000 years ago and didn't come in contact with each other until about 4,500 years ago.
"Although ancient DNA tests cannot inform about the language spoken by the prehistoric humans analyzed, the magnitude of the migratory movement would also have implied a language change," said Roberto Risch, one of the researchers, in a news release. "If what the genetic data states is true, and these populations live on, they must have contributed to the formation of the Indo-European languages spoken today in Europe."
The findings are published in the journal Nature.
For more great science stories and general news, please visit our sister site, Headlines and Global News (HNGN).

Via Charles Tiayon
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

In the article it explains how scientists conducted a study to trace the migration patterns of the Languages spread to and from England. The study showed how the migration patterns for the Languages spoken in England had come and gone yet still the effect never left. The effect they had created and left has now become some of their most spoken and widely known languages developed from their own understandings.

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Global Christianity – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population

Global Christianity – A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Christian Population | Human Geography | Scoop.it
A comprehensive demographic study finds that there are 2.18 billion Christians of all ages around the world, representing nearly a third of the estimated 2010 global population of 6.9 billion.

Via Paulo Gervasio, Bella The Non-Vampire, Aurora Rider
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

Over time Christianity has evolved more and more. Different cultures have taken their own beliefs and own thoughts on what they think the Bible stands for / represents. Over the decades more and more people have evolved or been born into becoming Christians whether it be from their cultural beliefs or just choosing to change their ways. Over time the total population of Christians all around the world has more than tripled. More than likely it is because many people who don't know what to believe in has probably learned from a missionary, which has shared Gods word and informed them of what they believe the Bible stands for.

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Bella The Non-Vampire's curator insight, March 10, 2015 10:20 AM

     Over the years, Christianity has become a dominant religion. From when Jesus and his twelve disciples until now, the universalizing religion has grown. Jesus was the main reason why Christianity has become a religion. It has spread through different people across the world because of the missionaries across the world. 

Aurora Rider's curator insight, March 10, 2015 4:50 PM

Christianity is such a wide spread religion and can be found in every region. Even though the number of Christians have grown since the world's population has grown as well Christians still comprise about a third of the population. The percentage however, of Christians in Europe and the Americas has dropped. My question is if the number has dropped due to other religions gaining more support or people not having a religion at all? Maybe it's a near equal mix of the two? In contrast, Christianity has grown in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. This is most likely because of missionaries there.

A.N.

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Third Industrial Revolution Animation - YouTube

This is an animation based on Jeremy Rifkin's book The Third Industrial Revolution. The full film, Open Source Energy, can be viewed on the link below:- http...

Via jean lievens
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

In the video ,it explains how the European  Union is committed to changing our world. They believe that if everyone were to change their living ways, we would have a better living environment. We have enough energy produced right now to last  a lifetime for us and our generations to come. The way we live is killing our earth and our environment around us.  If we joined the world in making it a better place we would have more opportunities  in our lives.

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Africa: Urban Farming Covers an Area the Size of Europe, More Growth Needed - Study

Africa: Urban Farming Covers an Area the Size of Europe, More Growth Needed - Study | Human Geography | Scoop.it
City dwellers are growing their own food on a much greater scale than previously thought, farming an area the size of the European Union, according to the first comprehensive study on the global scale of urban agriculture.

Via Don Brown Jr
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

The increase in Urban Farming around the globe has had a major impact on our Earth. The amount of people growing their own food has increased so much that it has grown to be as big or even bigger the the size of Europe. With everyone growing their own food  supply the amount of has caused a dramatic change in the food supply amount in the world and in a given area.

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Don Brown Jr's curator insight, November 20, 2014 1:16 PM

Urban farmers are also more likely to cultivate vegetables rather than wheat, or rice. What environmental factors contribute to this trend?

Bella The Non-Vampire's curator insight, December 1, 2014 5:25 AM

Today there is now is an increased amount of urban farmers. People are growing more food then they imagined. The amount of urban farmers is now as big or bigger than the European Union. Now with having so many urban farmers, it's causing things to drastically change. We never would expected such a large number.

I.C.

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DON’T PANIC — The Facts About Population

DON’T PANIC — The Facts About Population | Human Geography | Scoop.it

Don’t Panic – is a one-hour long documentary broadcasted on BBC on the 7th of November 2013.

The visualizations are based on original graphics and stories by Gapminder and the underlaying data-sources are listed here.
Hans’s — “All time favorite graph”, is an animating bubble chart linking health and wealth which you can interact with online here and download offline here.


Via Seth Dixon
Mackenzie Mcneal :)'s insight:

Maybe the world  being overpopulated is a good thing. In the video it explains how all of our resources wont run out they will just need to be increased. The way we live and what we live off of is much different than what other people have to live off of.  We have all of these resources to spare that as people bring more children into this world we will have plenty to share. The world is a place to  farm,  to be able to provide for your families,  to live your everyday life without having to worry about dying from diseases. So if the world becomes overpopulated it will force people to move to a better inhabitant.

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Katelyn Sesny's curator insight, October 31, 2014 12:24 PM

Although this is a very long video, it provides extremely important facts about the explosion of population growth, the history and background behind it all, countries and states at risk, already occurring issues and possible solutions to these rising problems. - UNIT 2

MissPatel's curator insight, December 16, 2014 3:21 AM

Most of you have watched this - have a quick recap. Can you use this in any of your answers to exam questions? 

AHS Model UN's curator insight, November 19, 2015 2:13 PM

Population growth in an important topic that is connected to economic development.  If you've seen Hans Roslings TED talks, this is an hour-long version of many of the same concepts and data visualizations.  His Gapminder data visualization tool, it is a must see for geography teachers to show the connections between population statistics and developmental patterns--let students see the data.  This is an article that looks at a different factor, arguing that overpopulation isn't the real issue.  
 

Tags: gapminder, population, demographic transition model, development.