Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
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The TIM and TAM Families of Phosphatidylserine Receptors Mediate Dengue Virus Entry

Dengue viruses (DVs) are responsible for the most medically relevant arboviral diseases. However, the molecular interactions mediating DV entry are poorly understood. We determined that TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families that mediate the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, serve as DV entry factors. Cells poorly susceptible to DV are robustly infected after ectopic expression of TIM or TAM receptors. Conversely, DV infection of susceptible cells is inhibited by anti-TIM or anti-TAM antibodies or knockdown of TIM and TAM expression. TIM receptors facilitate DV entry by directly interacting with virion-associated PtdSer.

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Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Strategies of Microbial Virulence and Host Defense
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Structures of C1-IgG1 provide insights into how danger pattern recognition activates complement

Structures of C1-IgG1 provide insights into how danger pattern recognition activates complement | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
In the classical complement pathway, the C1 initiation complex binds to danger patterns on the surface of microbes or damaged host cells and triggers an immune response. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies form hexamers on cell surfaces that have high avidity for the C1 complex. Ugurlar et al. used cryo–electron microscopy to show how a hexamer of C1 complexes interacts with the IgG hexamer. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed how C1 is activated to trigger an immune response.

Science , this issue p. [794][1]

[1]: /lookup/volpage/359/794?iss=6377

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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The T cell antigen receptor: the Swiss army knife of the immune system

The T cell antigen receptor: the Swiss army knife of the immune system | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The mammalian T cell receptor (TCR) orchestrates immunity by responding to many billions of different ligands that it has never encountered before and cannot adapt to at the protein sequence level

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exploits a Molecular Off Switch of the Immune System for Intracellular Survival

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exploits a Molecular Off Switch of the Immune System for Intracellular Survival | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
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Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Interactions between Enteric Bacteria and Eukaryotic Viruses Impact the Outcome of Infection

Interactions between Enteric Bacteria and Eukaryotic Viruses Impact the Outcome of Infection | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Enteric viruses encounter a multitude of environments as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction of enteric eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota impacts the outcome of infection. Infection with several enteric viruses is impaired in the absence of the gut microbiota, specifically bacteria. The effects of bacteria on virus biology are diverse. Poliovirus capsid stability and receptor engagement are positively impacted by bacteria and bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Norovirus utilizes histo-blood group antigens produced by enteric bacteria to attach and productively infect B cells. Lipopolysaccharides on the envelope of mouse mammary tumor virus promote a tolerogenic environment that allows for the establishment of viral persistence. Reovirus binds Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria through bacterial envelope components to enhance virion thermostability. Through the direct engagement of bacteria and bacterial components, viruses evolved diverse ways to impact the outcome of infection.
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Why the government is creating lethal viruses

Why the government is creating lethal viruses | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
The National Institutes of Health lifted a US government ban on making lethal viruses, saying the research is necessary to "develop strategies" against public health threats.
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First-Ever Gene Therapy for Babies with "Bubble Boy" Disease

First-Ever Gene Therapy for Babies with "Bubble Boy" Disease | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
There is a genetic disorder affecting the immune system so severely that its patients often require protective isolation, hence the disease’s nicknam

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Gene Therapy Hits a Peculiar Roadblock: A Virus Shortage

Gene Therapy Hits a Peculiar Roadblock: A Virus Shortage | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Revolutionary new treatments depend on tailor-made viruses, but laboratories cannot make them fast enough.
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Rescooped by Kenzibit from Viruses, Immunology & Bioinformatics from Virology.uvic.ca
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Zika virus kills brain cancer stem cells - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

Zika virus kills brain cancer stem cells - Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
While Zika virus causes devastating damage to the brains of developing fetuses, it one day may be an effective treatment for glioblastoma, a deadly form of brain cancer. New research from Washington University School of Medicine in..

Via Denis Hudrisier
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Poxviruses: Slipping and sliding through transcription and translation

Poxviruses: Slipping and sliding through transcription and translation | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Quantitative microbiome profiling links gut community variation to microbial load

Quantitative microbiome profiling links gut community variation to microbial load | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Letter

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Poxvirus Host Range Genes and Virus–Host Spectrum: A Critical Review

Poxvirus Host Range Genes and Virus–Host Spectrum: A Critical Review | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

The Poxviridae family is comprised of double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Among the NCLDV, poxviruses exhibit the widest known host range, which is likely observed because this viral family has been more heavily investigated. However, relative to each member of the Poxviridae family, the spectrum of the host is variable, where certain viruses can infect a large range of hosts, while others are restricted to only one host species. It has been suggested that the variability in host spectrum among poxviruses is linked with the presence or absence of some host range genes. Would it be possible to extrapolate the restriction of viral replication in a specific cell lineage to an animal, a far more complex organism? In this study, we compare and discuss the relationship between the host range of poxvirus species and the abundance/diversity of host range genes. We analyzed the sequences of 38 previously identified and putative homologs of poxvirus host range genes, and updated these data with deposited sequences of new poxvirus genomes. Overall, the term host range genes might not be the most appropriate for these genes, since no correlation between them and the viruses’ host spectrum was observed, and a change in nomenclature should be considered. Finally, we analyzed the evolutionary history of these genes, and reaffirmed the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for certain elements, as previously suggested. Considering the data presented in this study, it is not possible to associate the diversity of host range factors with the amount of hosts of known poxviruses, and this traditional nomenclature creates misunderstandings.

 

Via Cindy
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Migrating into the Tumor: a Roadmap for T Cells

Migrating into the Tumor: a Roadmap for T Cells | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Tumors can be divided into ‘hot’ (T cell inflamed) or ‘cold’ (T cell noninflamed)
according to the presence of immune cells. In this review, we discuss variables that
influence T cell migration into the tumor microenvironment. Chemokines can attract
T cells to the tumor site and tumor intrinsic pathways can influence the composition
of local chemokines. Tumor-induced vasculature can hamper T cell migration. Other
immune cells and tumor-derived molecules can block T cell proliferation and survival.

Via Krishan Maggon , Chris Upton + helpers
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Life’s First Molecule Was Protein, Not RNA, New Model Suggests 

Life’s First Molecule Was Protein, Not RNA, New Model Suggests  | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Which mattered first at the dawn of life: proteins or nucleic acids? Proteins may have had the edge if a theorized process let them grow long enough to become self-replicating catalysts. 


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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The Transcription Factor STAT6 Mediates Direct Repression of Inflammatory Enhancers and Limits Activation of Alternatively Polarized Macrophages

The molecular bases of repressive transcriptional mechanisms contributing to macrophage
polarization are not well understood. Czimmerer et al. show that in alternatively
polarized macrophages, IL-4-activated STAT6 represses a large set of enhancers modulating
the transcriptional program. STAT6-repressed enhancers are characterized by reduced
chromatin accessibility, eRNA expression, LDTF, and p300 binding. IL-4-STAT6-mediated
repression limits the inflammatory responsiveness including inflammasome activation,
IL-1β production, and pyroptosis. Thus, the IL4-STAT6 pathway establishes an epigenomic
signature to selectively repress the macrophage inflammation program.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments

Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Edward Jenner and his contemporaries believed that his variolae vaccinae originated in horses and molecular analyses show that modern vaccinia virus (VACV) strains share common ancestry with horsepox virus (HPXV). Given concerns relating to the toxicity of modern VACV vaccines, we asked whether an HPXV-based vaccine might provide a superior alternative. Since HPXV may be extinct and the only specimen of HPXV that has been identified is unavailable for investigation, a group of scientists now explored whether HPXV could be obtained by large-scale gene synthesis.

 

Ten large (10–30 kb) fragments of DNA were synthesized based on the HPXV sequence along with two 157 nt VACV terminal sequences, and were recombined into a live synthetic chimeric HPXV (scHPXV) in cells infected with Shope fibroma virus (SFV). Sequencing of the 212 kbp scHPXV confirmed it encoded a faithful copy of the input DNA.

 

This is the first complete synthesis of a poxvirus using synthetic biology approaches. This scHPXV produced smaller plaques, produced less extracellular virus and exhibited less virulence in mice than VACV, but still provided vaccine protection against a lethal VACV challenge. Collectively, these findings support further development of scHPXV as a novel replication-proficient smallpox vaccine.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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How good bacteria control your genes

How good bacteria control your genes | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it

Signals produced by bacteria in the gut could help prevent infections and bowel cancer


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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Frontiers | Type I Interferons in the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: Molecular Drivers and Immunological Consequences | Immunology

Frontiers | Type I Interferons in the Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis: Molecular Drivers and Immunological Consequences | Immunology | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health threat. Urgent needs in the fight against TB include improved and innovative treatment options for drug-sensitive and -resistant TB as well as reliable biological indicators that discriminate active from latent disease and enable monitoring of treatment success or failure. Prominent interferon (IFN) inducible gene signatures in TB patients and animal models of M. tuberculosis infection have drawn significant attention to the roles of type I IFNs in the host response to mycobacterial infections. Here we review recent developments in the understanding of the innate immune pathways that drive type I IFN responses in mycobacteria-infected host cells and the functional consequences for the host defense against M. tuberculosis, with a view that such insights might be exploited for the development of targeted host-directed immunotherapies and development of reliable biomarkers.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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The twilight of immunity: emerging concepts in aging of the immune system

The twilight of immunity: emerging concepts in aging of the immune system | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Review Article

Via Gilbert C FAURE, Kenzibit
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Vaginal lactic acid elicits an anti-inflammatory response from human cervicovaginal epithelial cells and inhibits production of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with HIV acquisition

Vaginal lactic acid elicits an anti-inflammatory response from human cervicovaginal epithelial cells and inhibits production of pro-inflammatory mediators associated with HIV acquisition | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Article Report

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Viral unmasking of cellular 5S rRNA pseudogene transcripts induces RIG-I-mediated immunity

Article

Via Denis Hudrisier
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Microbiota: A high-pressure situation for bacteria

Microbiota: A high-pressure situation for bacteria | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
News and Views

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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Antigen Processing and Presentation | British Society for Immunology

Antigen Processing and Presentation | British Society for Immunology | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
In order to be capable of engaging the key elements of adaptive immunity (specificity, memory, diversity, self/nonself discrimination), antigens have to be processed and presented to immune cells. Antigen presentation is mediated by MHC class I molecules, and the class II molecules found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and certain other cells.

Via Gilbert C FAURE
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The vaccinia virus DNA polymerase structure provides insights into the mode of processivity factor binding. - PubMed - NCBI

The vaccinia virus DNA polymerase structure provides insights into the mode of processivity factor binding. - PubMed - NCBI | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Nat Commun. 2017 Nov 13;8(1):1455. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01542-z.

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions

A Next-Generation Sequencing Approach Uncovers Viral Transcripts Incorporated in Poxvirus Virions | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the Poxviridae family, namely Cowpox virus. Our results revealed the incorporation of 19 viral transcripts, while host identifications were restricted to ribosomal and mitochondrial RNA. Most viral transcripts had an unknown and immunomodulatory function, suggesting that transcript incorporation may be beneficial for poxvirus immune evasion. Notably, the most abundant transcript originated from the D5L/I1R gene that encodes a viral inhibitor of the host cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery.

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CAR-T Cell Therapy for Cancer Treatment – An Insight into Side Effects

CAR-T Cell Therapy for Cancer Treatment – An Insight into Side Effects | Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions | Scoop.it
T-Cells are a part of our immune system. Made in the thymus gland of our bodies, they are white blood cells which constantly clean our system by hunting and attacking any abnormal cells or substances. Recently, in August 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a genetically engineered T cell therapy called – [...]

Via Krishan Maggon , Gilbert C FAURE
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Gilbert C FAURE's curator insight, November 2, 2017 3:52 AM
efficiency always has side effects