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Graphene-based armor could stop bullets by becoming harder than diamonds

Graphene-based armor could stop bullets by becoming harder than diamonds | Graphene | Scoop.it
​While bullet-proof body armor does tend to be thick and heavy, that may no longer be the case if research being conducted at The City University of New York bears fruit. Scientists there have determined that two layers of stacked graphene can harden to a diamond-like consistency upon impact.

 

 

Known as diamene, the new material is made up of just two sheets of graphene, upon a silicon carbide substrate. It is described as being as light and flexible as foil – in its regular state, that is. When sudden mechanical pressure is applied at room temperature, though, it temporarily becomes harder than bulk diamond.

 

The material was conceived of by associate professor Angelo Bongiorno, who developed computer models which indicated that it should work, as long as the two sheets were aligned correctly. Riedo and colleagues then conducted tests on samples of actual diamene, which backed up Bongiorno's findings.

 

Interestingly, the hardening effect only happens when two sheets of graphene are used – no more or no less. That said, scientists at Rice University have had success in absorbing the impact of "microbullets" using graphene that's stacked 300 layers thick.

 

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Diamene made of just two sheets of #graphene can be the new bullet proof

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Biomimetic graphene aerogel could lead to flexible electronics

Scientists report that mimicking the structure of the 'powdery alligator-flag' plant has enabled them to make a graphene-based aerogel that meets these needs.
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Biomimetic graphene aerogel could lead to flexible electronics

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Observing electrons surfing waves of light on graphene

Observing electrons surfing waves of light on graphene | Graphene | Scoop.it
Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. They captured light in graphene and slowed it down to the speed of the material's electrons. Then electrons and ligh
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Observing electrons surfing waves of light on graphene

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Graphene encapsulation provides unprecedented view 

Scientists demonstrate a hybrid carbon system, termed buckyball sandwich, in which a single layer of fullerenes is encapsulated between two graphene sheets.
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Graphene encapsulation provides unprecedented view 

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New form of carbon that's hard as a rock, yet elastic, like rubber

New form of carbon that's hard as a rock, yet elastic, like rubber | Graphene | Scoop.it
A team including several Carnegie scientists has developed a form of ultrastrong, lightweight carbon that is also elastic and electrically conductive. A material with such a unique combination of properties could serve
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The New Standard for Resistance Standards?

The New Standard for Resistance Standards? | Graphene | Scoop.it
Contrary to the popular maxim, resistance is not futile. But it is quantized: The ratings of the heat-making resistors in your hair dryer or toaster ultimately trace back to quantum mechanics. That’s because the universal practical standard for electrical resistance is based on a phenomenon called the quantum Hall effect (QHE), in which resistance takes on perfectly exact, discrete (quantized) values under certain conditions. Those values can be measured to an accuracy of about 1 part per billion. Any metrology institute or standards lab that performs authoritative resistance measurements needs a QHE device or instruments that have been calibrated with measurements traceable to one. QHE devices have conventionally been constructed from adjacent layers of two different, but closely related, semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) and aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs). These are, however, difficult and expensive to make. In recent years, many experiments have indicated that graphene – a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal, chicken-wire lattice – could be used with equivalent accuracy and far fewer operational difficulties. Now NIST researchers have devised and tested a method to produce large, homogenous graphene sheets with uniform strain optimized for QHE measurements. NIST has a long history of leadership in the field. “It’s one of the few places in the world that has successfully made standards-quality graphene, developed the technologies to make and test the devices, and done it all in-house – from raw materials to final product,” says project scientist Rand Elmquist of NIST’s Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML). The newly reported NIST graphene is produced by placing a wafer of insulating silicon carbide (SiC, best known in abrasives and ceramics) about 2 micrometers above a bed of graphite – a form of carbon (best known as the “lead” in pencils) that is extremely heat-resistant. As the SiC is heated through several stages up to 1900 ˚C, the silicon sublimates, leaving the pure carbon behind to crystallize into graphene. “With graphene produced by the new technique, we’re getting results that are equivalent to the current national standard, in gallium arsenide,” Elmquist says. “Recently we made a direct comparison, and got the same values to within 1 part in 109. We plan to offer a graphene QHE standard as a Standard Reference Material within a year or two. That would be the first commercial source of quantum Hall devices by themselves, and we’re also working with the private sector* to make these devices available as a complete instrument package.” In QHE measurements, electrical current flows in a two-dimensional (2D), low-temperature conductor that has negligible thickness. Ordinarily, the current travels in a straight path and the carriers have a range of energies. But when a strong magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the plane where current flows, the field bends the electrons’ paths, forcing the positive and negative charges to detour toward opposite edges of the device. That is, there is a voltage between one edge of the sheet and the other, and the resistance between them is exactly quantized depending on the magnetic field strength due to the quantization of magnetic flux. In conventional devices, the electrons flow in the ultra-narrow space between a GaAs layer and a ALGaAs layer, and full quantization is achieved only at high magnetic field strength and very low temperature. GaAs-type devices must be kept very cold -- 1.2 K or below, because heat can broaden and mix the energy levels –  and thus the instrument requires costly, complicated cooling systems that use liquid helium. In addition, GaAs has a comparatively small spacing between the quantized magnetic levels, and requires magnetic fields above 5 tesla (T), roughly twice the strength used in the most powerful MRI scanners. Under these conditions, the device measurements are limited to voltage levels of 1 V or below, and to small currents in the range of 20 to 80 microamperes. “But with graphene, which is an exceptionally good conductor for a 2D material, we’ve seen full quantization as low as 2 T,” Elmquist says, “which allows us to use a much smaller magnetic apparatus that can be placed on a tabletop. Some devices are still perfectly quantized at temperatures as high as 5 K, and we have observed critical currents as high as 720 microamps, which is the highest ever observed for a QHE standard. “If you can measure using that sort of device with its higher currents, you can accurately calibrate a room-temperature resistor of similar value, like a 1 kΩ or 10 kΩ resistor. With lower field, higher temperatures and higher current you can have a much simpler system: a closed-cycle refrigerator where you won’t need liquid helium,” he says. “By contrast, we run the NIST gallium arsenide system only twice a year because of the expense and difficulty of running the liquid helium system.” The NIST graphene has several other advantages. Its lattice is uniform and generally lacks topological defects across areas as large as 5.6 mm by 5.6 mm – about the size of the raised electrode tip on a AA battery, and very extensive by ordinary graphene production standards. In addition, it has uniform strain on the lattice, which reduces the likelihood of moving electrons to scatter, increasing their mobility. “It’s an exciting time for the graphene research team, and we are intensely proud of their work,” says John Pratt, Chief of PML’s Quantum Measurement Division. “They are creating a very practical standard here, one that will drive the cost of ownership and complexity of operation for quantum electrical standards down significantly. “And this is just the tip of an iceberg for them. They have basic research results with their partners across NIST and around the country that point the way towards networks of these resistors for easy quantum-based scaling of resistance, and they have created novel diode-like junctions with applications in computing and quantum information processing, to say nothing of the optoelectronic aspects they have been considering within the general context of 2D material behaviors. Heady stuff that all spins off from the quest for a better ohm!”   * NIST’s success in device fabrication has enabled collaboration, through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, with Measurements International Ltd. (MIL) to commercialize a graphene-based quantum Hall resistance (QHR) standard based on graphene devices produced by PML. MIL brings expertise and experience in commercialized GaAs-based QHR standards, while PML’s quantum conductance project has expertise in fabricating and characterizing graphene quantum Hall devices to be used successfully in the QHR standards. This collaboration furthers PML’s ongoing quantum Hall device research and is aligned with PML’s mission to make primary realizations of units available to the marketplace.
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Seeing the invisible with a #graphene-CMOS integrated device 

Seeing the invisible with a #graphene-CMOS integrated device  | Graphene | Scoop.it
Credit: Fabien Vialla Silicon based CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) technology has truly shaped our world. It enables most of the electronics that we rely on today including computers, smartphones and digital cameras. However, to continue the path of progress in the electronics industry new technology must be developed and a key feature of this is the ability to integrate CMOS with other semiconductors. Now, Graphene Flagship researchers from ICFO (The Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona) have shown that it is possible to integrate graphene into a CMOS integrated circuit. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics they combine this graphene-CMOS device with quantum dots to create an array of photodetectors, producing a high resolution image sensor. When used as a digital camera this device is able to sense UV, visible and infrared light at the same time. This is just one example of how this device might be used, others include in microelectronics, sensor arrays and low-power photonics. "The development of this monolithic CMOS-based image sensor represents a milestone for low-cost, high-resolution broadband and hyperspectral imaging systems" ICREA Professor at ICFO, Frank Koppens, highlights. He assures that "in general, graphene-CMOS technology will enable a vast amount of applications, that range from safety, security, low cost pocket and smartphone cameras, fire control systems, passive night vision and night surveillance cameras, automotive sensor systems, medical imaging applications, food and pharmaceutical inspection to environmental monitoring, to name a few". These results were enabled by the collaboration between Graphene Flagship Partner Graphenea (a Spanish graphene supplier) and ICFO, within the optoelectronics workpackage of the Graphene Flagship. By creating a hybrid graphene and quantum dot system on a CMOS wafer using a layering and patterning approach, the Flagship team solved a complex problem with a simple solution. First the graphene is deposited, then patterned to define the pixel shape and finally a layer of PbS colloidal quantum dots is added. The photoresponse of this system is based on a photogating effect, which starts as the quantum dot layer absorbs light and transfers it as photo-generated holes or electrons to the graphene, where they circulate due to a bias voltage applied between two pixel contacts. The photo signal is then sensed by the change in conductivity of the graphene, with graphene's high charge mobility allowing for the high sensitivity of the device. As Stijn Goossens comments, "No complex material processing or growth processes were required to achieve this graphene-quantum dot CMOS image sensor. It proved easy and cheap to fabricate at room temperature and under ambient conditions, which signifies a considerable decrease in production costs. Even more, because of its properties, it can be easily integrated on flexible substrates as well as CMOS-type integrated circuits." The commercial applications of this research and the potential for imaging and sensing technology are now being explored in ICFO's Launchpad incubator. Professor Andrea Ferrari, Science and Technology Officer and Chair of the Management Panel of the Graphene Flagship added: "The integration of graphene with CMOS technology is a cornerstone for the future implementation of graphene in consumer electronics. This work is a key first step, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. The Flagship has put a significant investment in the system level integration of graphene, and this will increase as we move along the technology and innovation roadmap". ### Media Contact Sian Fogdencomms@graphene.cam.ac.uk44-122-376-2418 @GrapheneCA http://graphene-flagship.eu Original Sourcehttp://graphene-flagship.eu/graphene-cmos-integrated-devices http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2017.75 | Science news and articles on health, environment, global warming, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate & bioengineering, computers, engineering ; medicine, math, physics, psychology, technology, and more from the world's leading research centers universities.
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Seeing the invisible with a #graphene-CMOS integrated device 

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Conductive Thermoplastics for 3D Printing - Advanced Manufacturing

Conductive Thermoplastics for 3D Printing
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$GGG.V coverage Conductive Thermoplastics for #3DPrinting - Advanced Manufacturing #Graphene

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Graphene enables ultrahigh sensitivity infrared detectors | Graphene-Info

Graphene enables ultrahigh sensitivity infrared detectors | Graphene-Info | Graphene | Scoop.it
Researchers from the Graphene Flagship, working at the University of Cambridge (UK), Emberion (UK), the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO; Spain), Nokia UK, and the University of Ioannina (Greece) have developed a novel graphene-based pyroelectric bolometer - an infrared (IR) detector with record high sensitivity for thermal detection, capable of resolving temperature changes down to a few tens of µK. This work may open the door to high-performance IR imaging and spectroscopy.[img_assist|nid=4054|title=|desc=|link=none|align=center|width=400|height=195]The technology is focused on the detection of the radiation generated by the human body and its conversion into a measurable signal. The key point is that using graphene, the conversion reaches performance more than 250 times better than the best sensor already available. But the high sensitivity of the detector could be of use for spectroscopic applications beyond thermal imaging. With a high-performance graphene-based IR detector that gives a strong signal with less incident radiation, it is possible to isolate different parts of the IR spectrum. This is of key importance in security applications, where different materials – explosives, for instance – can be distinguished by their characteristic IR absorption or transmission spectra.
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#Graphene enables ultrahigh sensitivity infrared detectors |  http://sco.lt/...

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Graphene Becomes a Game-Changer for Automakers Looking to Replace Silicone - Graphene Tracker

Graphene Becomes a Game-Changer for Automakers Looking to Replace Silicone - Graphene Tracker | Graphene | Scoop.it
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Graphene Shaped by Etching 

Graphene Shaped by Etching  | Graphene | Scoop.it

Chemical vapor deposition can be used to tune graphene morphologies .

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#Graphene Shaped by Etching 

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Symposium Spotlight:

Symposium Spotlight: "Graphene & 2D-Materials"
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Symposium Spotlight: "Graphene & 2D-Materials"
http://techconnect.org/news/entry.html?id=552

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Simulations show how to turn graphene's defects into assets

Simulations show how to turn graphene's defects into assets | Graphene | Scoop.it
Researchers at Penn State, the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company have developed methods to control defects in two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, that may lead to improved membranes for water desalination, energy storage, sensing or advanced protective coatings.
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How to turn graphene's defects into assets

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Chemists create 3-D printed graphene foam

Chemists create 3-D printed graphene foam | Graphene | Scoop.it
Nanotechnologists from Rice University and China's Tianjin University have used 3-D laser printing to fabricate centimeter-sized objects of atomically thin graphene.
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Chemists create 3-D printed graphene foam

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New chemical method could revolutionize graphene | Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

New chemical method could revolutionize graphene | Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News | Graphene | Scoop.it
New chemical method could revolutionize graphene
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New chemical method could revolutionize graphene
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Planes will be made from wonder material graphene 'in 10 years'

Planes will be made from wonder material graphene 'in 10 years' | Graphene | Scoop.it
Sir Richard Branson has raised the prospect of planes being made entirely from the so-called wonder material graphene within 10 years, as the airline industry battles a 50pc increase in fuel in the last 12 months, sparking a desperate need for ever lighter fleets.
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Planes will be made from wonder material graphene 'in 10 years'

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Graphene-Based Transistor To Potentially Make Ultra-Fast Computers

Graphene-Based Transistor To Potentially Make Ultra-Fast Computers | Graphene | Scoop.it
The team found that by applying a magnetic field to a graphene ribbon, it is possible to change the resistance of current flowing through it. For this device, the magnetic field is controlled by increasing or decreasing the current through adjacent carbon nanotubes. Increasing or decreasing the strength of the magnetic field would also increase …
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Graphene-Based Transistor To Potentially Make Ultra-Fast Computers

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Observing Electrons Surfing Waves Of Light On Graphene - GrapheneEntrepreneur.com - Graphene News & Latest Graphene Uses

Observing Electrons Surfing Waves Of Light On Graphene - GrapheneEntrepreneur.com - Graphene News & Latest Graphene Uses | Graphene | Scoop.it
Electrons and light are moving in concert along the graphene sheet. Credit: ICFO/ F. Vialla Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. They captured light in graphene and slowed it down to the speed of the material’s electrons. Then electrons and light started to move …
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Graphene 3D Lab Partners With AzTrong - GrapheneEntrepreneur.com - Graphene News & Latest Graphene Uses

Graphene 3D Lab Partners With AzTrong - GrapheneEntrepreneur.com - Graphene News & Latest Graphene Uses | Graphene | Scoop.it
  North American materials company Graphene 3D Lab has signed a memorandum of understanding with fellow graphene material producers AzTrong. AzTrong has significant capabilities with its 100-ton production facility in Taiwan and the strategic partnership will see the two companies collaborate on graphene production. As Graphene 3D Labs co-CEO, Dr. Daniel Stolyarov, explains, “We believe that this …
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3D printing materials company Graphene 3D targets US & Taiwan markets with AzTrong partnership

3D printing materials company Graphene 3D targets US & Taiwan markets with AzTrong partnership | Graphene | Scoop.it
Graphene composites specialist and 3D printing materials provider Graphene 3D Lab has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with graphene technology company AzTrong. A forthcoming strategic alliance will leverage the two companies respective strengths.
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3D printing materials company #Graphene 3D targets US & Taiwan markets with AzTrong partnership

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This graphene dress lights up when you breathe

This graphene dress lights up when you breathe | Graphene | Scoop.it
Designers have used graphene -- a Nobel-Prize winning material that's tougher than diamonds -- to give their little black dress a high-tech cut.
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This #graphene dress lights up when you breathe

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Coolingzone.com - Rice scientists calculate graphene nano-chimneys to cool circuits

Coolingzone.com - Rice scientists calculate graphene nano-chimneys to cool circuits | Graphene | Scoop.it
Rice University scientists have calculated that placing a con-like nanoscale chimney structure between graphene and carbon nanotubes will eliminate the barrier of heat escaping and will in turn create a path for using these structures to dissipate heat from electronic components.
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Rice scientists calculate graphene nano-chimneys to cool circuits

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Stanford demonstrates a graphene-based thermal-to-electricity conversion technology 

Stanford demonstrates a graphene-based thermal-to-electricity conversion technology  | Graphene | Scoop.it
Researchers at Stanford University have recently demonstrated a graphene-based high efficiency thermal-to-electricity conversion technology, called thermionic energy convertor. By using graphene as the anode, the efficiency of the device is increased by a factor of 6.7 compared with a traditional tungsten anode. This technology can work in a tandem cycle with existing thermal-based power plants and significantly improve their overall efficiencies.[img_assist|nid=4034|title=|desc=|link=none|align=center|width=400|height=188]Hongyuan Yuan and Roger T. Howe, among the leading researchers in the Stanford team, explain that one of the major challenges for wide adoption of TECs is high anode work function, which directly reduces the output voltage as well as the net efficiency. The theoretical maximum efficiency for a TEC with a 2 eV work function anode is 3% at a cathode temperature of 1500 K, compared to an astonishing 10-fold increment to 32% with a 1 eV work function anode.
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Stanford demonstrates a graphene-based thermal-to-electricity conversion technology 

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Investing In Graphene's Emerging Science

Investing In Graphene's Emerging Science | Graphene | Scoop.it
Graphene is a wonder material with tremendous opportunities for commercial products development and healthcare products that will transform the world. The scien
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Investing In Graphene's Emerging Science

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Graphene 3D Lab Develops and Patents State-of-the-Art G6-ImpactTM Graphene Composite

Graphene 3D Lab Develops and Patents State-of-the-Art G6-ImpactTM  Graphene Composite | Graphene | Scoop.it
One of the most important factors to expanding the capabilities of 3D printing technology is the advancement of materials, the development of more functional and higher-quality filaments.
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