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Toussaint Louverture (Haitian leader) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

Toussaint Louverture (Haitian leader) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia | GPHaitiRevolution | Scoop.it

Toussaint Louverture (Haitian leader), c.

- Toussaint was the son of an educated slave

- Legally freed in 1777

- He dressed simply and was abstemious and a vegetarian

- A sudden slave revolt in the northern province (August 1791) found him uncommitted

- After hesitating a few weeks, he helped his former master escape and then joined the black forces who were burning plantations and killing many Europeans and mulattoes (people of mixed African and European ancestry)

- Toussaint trained his followers in the tactics of guerrilla warfare. In 1793 he added to his original name the name of Louverture.

- When France and Spain went to war in 1793, the black commanders joined the Spaniards of Santo Domingo

- Toussaint demonstrated extraordinary military ability and attracted such renowned warriors as his nephew Moïse and two future monarchs of Hait

- Toussaint went over to the French, giving as his reasons that the French National Convention had recently freed all slaves, while Spain and Britain refused, and that he had become a republican

- made Toussaint lieutenant governor, the British suffered severe reverses, and the Spaniards were expelled.

- he used military discipline to force the former slaves to work

- Racial tensions were eased because Toussaint preached reconciliation and believed that blacks

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BBC News - Timeline: Haiti

BBC News - Timeline: Haiti | GPHaitiRevolution | Scoop.it
1496 - Spanish establish first European settlement in western hemisphere at Santo Domingo, now capital of Dominican Republic.

1697 - Spain cedes western part of Hispaniola to France, and this becomes Haiti, or Land of Mountains.

1801 - A former black slave who became a guerrilla leader, Toussaint Louverture, conquers Haiti, abolishing slavery and proclaiming himself governor-general of an autonomous government over all Hispaniola.

1802 - French force led by Napoleon's brother-in-law, Charles Leclerc, fails to conquer Haitian interior.

Independence

1804 - Haiti becomes independent; former slave Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares himself emperor.

More than 90% of Haitians are said to practice voodoo

2003: Voodoo's spell over Haiti

1806 - Dessalines assassinated and Haiti divided into a black-controlled north and a mulatto-ruled south

1818-43 - Pierre Boyer unifies Haiti, but excludes blacks from power.
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World History in Context - political

-political crisis in France --> conflicts in all levels of society, undermined French government, sovereignity on St. Domingue

-poor whites backed those who attacked wealthy elites and overturned monarchial authorities

-1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man  - free coloreds drawn into politics with encouragement of Société des Amis des Noirs (Society of Friends of Blacks), which campaigned for the abolition of the slave trade and for equal rights for free coloreds

-Vincent Ogé led revolts for civil equality of free coloreds in 1790

- Ogé's execution triggered a scandal in France and persuaded the National Assembly to legislate legal equality for free coloreds born of free parents

-created backlash of whites, who still wanted to maintain slavery --> to preserve plantation society and racial hierarchy

 

 


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World History: The Modern Era - Haitian Revolution

Abolished slavery
Liberated from French rule
Inspired revolts in Caribbean & North America
Spain and Britain vs France - Spanish offered help to ex-slave armies
1794 - leadership passed on to Toussaint L'Ouverture
1804 - Dessalines claimed independence of Haiti


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CIA World Factbook

factual information

 

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Haitian Revolution

FEEDBACK ABOUT DOCUMENT: http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/309727?terms=Haiti
This document was pretty short as oppose to other documents. It was easy to follow and had very good information on the revolution in Haiti.

 

NOTES: 

-events that changed Saint-Domingue into an independent nation of Haiti: 1791-1804
-ridded of slavery and freed from French rule
-inspiration to other revolts
-1791, French National Assembly passed the law that said all men who were born from free parents would be full citizens in the colonies. The whites in St-Domingue refused and a fight broke out between them and the Blacks at Port-au-Prince
-slaves revolt against their landowners
-White government needed more militia --> citizenship extended to all free men, any color in 1792
-while the gvmt was working on abolishing slavery, white planters pleaded assistance from Britain
-Leader of revolution: Toussaint L'Ouverture in 1794; skilled at manipulating French gvmt and "managing the tensions between Haiti's different social groups"
-He was betrayed during an invasion and the French were forced to leave (Haiti) alone
-in 1804, Dessalines approved the independence of Haiti

 


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World History in Context - trade

-During the previous decade, St. Domingue had become the most prosperous colony in the Caribbean. In the 1780s, it produced nearly half of all the sugar and coffee consumed in Europe and the Americas, and, as the source of two-fifths of France's colonial trade, two-thirds of its ocean-going shipping tonnage, and a third of its seamen, had become the most valuable of French colonial possessions. This growth had been very rapid and had been achieved through a massive annual importation of African slaves, mostly young males, that averaged about 40,000 per year in the 1780s

 


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