Neuroscience: Glial Cells
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Dopamine elevates and lowers astroglial Ca2+ through distinct pathways depending on local synaptic circuitry

Dopamine elevates and lowers astroglial Ca2+ through distinct pathways depending on local synaptic circuitry | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Whilst astrocytes in culture invariably respond to dopamine with cytosolic Ca2+ rises, the dopamine sensitivity of astroglia in situ and its physiological roles remain unknown. To minimize effects o
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G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Myelinating Glia

Due to an oversight in this Review, Ciana et al., 2006, Embo J. was incorrectly cited for the following points: ‘…loss of Gpr37 leads to precocious oligodendrocyte differentiation.’ and ‘…cAMP levels are accordingly elevated…when Gpr37 function is lost.’ The correct citation is Yang et al., 2016, Nat. Commun. The authors apologize for this error.
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Glia: Glial messenging

A new study provides evidence for a glia-mediated form of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat spinal cord. Activation of astrocytes and microglia induced LTP at spinal C-fibre synapses on lamina I neurons in vitro. Blocking glial metabolism or signalling induced by D-serine,
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New Players in the Obesity Puzzle: The Brain's Glial Cells

New Players in the Obesity Puzzle: The Brain's Glial Cells | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Discoveries about the roles they play in appetite and metabolism could unlock new strategies against obesity
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Astrocyte signaling and synaptic homeostasis: II: Astrocyte-neuron interactions and clinical correlations

The transport and secretory functions of astrocytes have a major role in regulation of the neuronal microenvironment, synaptic homeostasis, neural network activity, local blood flow, and metabolism in the CNS.
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Chemical transformation of human glial cells into neurons

Chemical transformation of human glial cells into neurons | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
For the first time, researchers have used a cocktail of small molecules to transform human brain cells, called astroglial cells, into functioning neurons for brain repair. The new technology opens th
Via Krishan Maggon
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Role of lactate in memory formation - Nature Middle East

Role of lactate in memory formation
Nature Middle East
Preventing the transport of l-lactate from astrocytes to neurons completely prevented the expression of the genes.
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Psychiatric disorders Disrupted transmission - Nature.com

Psychiatric disorders Disrupted transmission Nature.com Moreover, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurons cultured on astrocytes revealed that mutant neurons exhibited defects in synaptic transmission, including a reduction in the frequency of...
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Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory

Astrocytes contribute to gamma oscillations and recognition memory | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it

Abstract

Glial cells are an integral part of functional communication in the brain. Here we show that astrocytes contribute to the fast dynamics of neural circuits that underlie normal cognitive behaviors. In particular, we found that the selective expression of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) in astrocytes significantly reduced the duration of carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in hippocampal slices. These data prompted us to develop a novel transgenic mouse model, specifically with inducible tetanus toxin expression in astrocytes. In this in vivo model, we found evidence of a marked decrease in electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the gamma frequency range in awake-behaving mice, whereas neuronal synaptic activity remained intact. The reduction in cortical gamma oscillations was accompanied by impaired behavioral performance in the novel object recognition test, whereas other forms of memory, including working memory and fear conditioning, remained unchanged. These results support a key role for gamma oscillations in recognition memory. Both EEG alterations and behavioral deficits in novel object recognition were reversed by suppression of tetanus toxin expression. These data reveal an unexpected role for astrocytes as essential contributors to information processing and cognitive behavior.

 


Via Alessandro Cerboni
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The glia/neuron ratio: How it varies uniformly across brain structures and species and what that means for brain physiology and evolution

The glia/neuron ratio: How it varies uniformly across brain structures and species and what that means for brain physiology and evolution | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
It is a widespread notion that the proportion of glial to neuronal cells in the brain increases with brain size, to the point that glial cells represent “about 90% of all cells in the human brain.” This notion, however, is wrong on both counts:...
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The role of astrocytes in mediating exogenous cell-based restorative therapy for stroke

The role of astrocytes in mediating exogenous cell-based restorative therapy for stroke | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Astrocytes have not been a major therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke, with most research emphasis on the neuron.
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Physiology of Astrocytes

Glial cells used to be thought to be only the "glue" holding the brain together. Now we know they do a whole lot more. In this video I discuss some of the ne...
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Ammonia triggers neuronal disinhibition and seizures by impairing astrocyte potassium buffering : Nature Medicine

Excess ammonia in the blood can cause neurologic dysfunction and seizures.
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Neuron–astrocyte signaling is preserved in the aging brain

Neuron–astrocyte signaling is preserved in the aging brain | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Astrocytes play crucial roles in brain homeostasis and are emerging as regulatory elements of neuronal and synaptic physiology by responding to neurotransmitters with Ca2+ elevations and releasin
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Glia: An astrocytic influence

How astrocytic Ca2+ signalling interacts with neural activity in vivo and affects behaviour is not well understood. A new study in Drosophila melanogaster found that astrocytic knockdown of a transient receptor potential cation channel inhibited somatic astrocytic Ca2+ transients
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Astrocytic IP3Rs: Contribution to Ca2+ signalling and hippocampal LTP

Astrocytic IP3Rs: Contribution to Ca2+ signalling and hippocampal LTP | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Astrocytes regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity by the Ca2+ dependent release of the N‐methyl d‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co‐agonist d‐serine. Previous evidence indicated that d‐serine releas
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Astrocyte signaling and synaptic homeostasis

Astrocyte signaling and synaptic homeostasis | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Astrocytes are among the most numerous cells in the CNS and are crucial for development, homeostasis, synaptic and network function, and response to injury and repair.
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Seeking Cures for Terrible Brain Diseases

Seeking Cures for Terrible Brain Diseases | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
A researcher explains the promise of stem cells for treating neurodegenerative disease

Via Krishan Maggon
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Adenosine kinase, glutamine synthetase and EAAT2 as gene therapy targets for ... - Nature.com

Adenosine kinase, glutamine synthetase and EAAT2 as gene therapy targets for ...
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The epigenetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease - Nature.com

The epigenetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease Nature.com This is particularly problematic for Alzheimer's because a typical brain biopsy will contain multiple cell types, including neurons, astrocytes and other glia cells, all with different...
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Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that ... - Nature.com

Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that ... - Nature.com | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Highly efficient generation of induced neurons from human fibroblasts that ...
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How the brain stabilizes its connections in order to learn better - EurekAlert (press release)

How the brain stabilizes its connections in order to learn better - EurekAlert (press release) | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
How the brain stabilizes its connections in order to learn better EurekAlert (press release) A team at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) discovered a new cellular mechanism involved in the long-term stabilization of neuron connections, in which...
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Traumatic white matter injury and glial activation: From basic science to clinics

Traumatic white matter injury and glial activation: From basic science to clinics | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
An improved understanding and characterization of glial activation and its relationship with white matter injury will likely serve as a novel treatment target to curb post injury inflammation and promote axonal remyelination after brain trauma.
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EMBL Conference - Microglia: Guardians of the Brain - 26 - 29 March 2014

EMBL Conference - Microglia: Guardians of the Brain - 26 - 29 March 2014 | Neuroscience: Glial Cells | Scoop.it
Submit your abstract: EMBL Conference: Microglia: Guardians of the Brain on 26-29 March 2014. http://t.co/gtV7yMb2It #EMBLMicroglia
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Astrocytes and Aβ Conspire to Harm Synapses - AlzForum Alzheimer Research News

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