Geography Education
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Geography Education
Supporting geography educators everywhere with current digital resources.
Curated by Seth Dixon
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USGS's Streamer Tool

USGS's Streamer Tool | Geography Education | Scoop.it

Streamer is a new way to visualize and understand water flow across America. With Streamer you can explore our Nation's major streams by tracing upstream to their source or downstream to where they empty.

Seth Dixon's insight:

Streamer is the online mapping application that lets anyone explore downstream and upstream along America’s rivers and streams (here is a YouTube tutorial). Streamer can be used to follow the paths of rivers up to their headwaters and down to the sea, to view location-related information such as weather radar and near real-time streamflow data, and to discover hydrologic connections between distant places.

 

Scoop.it Tags: water, mapping, physical, fluvial, regions.

WordPress TAGS: water, mapping, physical, fluvial, regions.

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Damaged and defiant: Hurricane Harvey

Damaged and defiant: Hurricane Harvey | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Houston holds strong in the wake of devastation left by Hurricane Harvey.
Seth Dixon's insight:

I am sharing these three interactive webmaps of Houston with my mapping courses to demonstrate what is technologically possible.  Texts, charts, pictures, videos, and maps can be seamlessly integrated to present spatial information in an incredibly engaging and accessible manner.  

Houston's Hurricane Harvey was incredibly impactful but the factors leading to this were also very complex.  These three Story maps lay out:

  1. Houston's urban ecological context
  2. The geographic origins of Hurricane Harvey
  3. The human stories from Hurricane Harvey

 

Scoop.it Tagsphysical, watercoastal, urbanurban ecology, disasters, mappingESRIStoryMap.

WordPress TAGS: physical, water, coastal, urban, urban ecology, disasters, mapping, esri, storymap.

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See the Strange, Beautiful Landscapes Revealed by Lasers

See the Strange, Beautiful Landscapes Revealed by Lasers | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Geospatial technologies unearth a world hidden beneath the lush forests of the Pacific Northwest."

 

If you were to strip a forest of all its vegetation, what would you see? To find out, Washington state’s government is using airplanes equipped with LIDAR technology to scan the state’s heavily-forested ground. What’s being revealed beneath the trees is a spectacular and strange landscape of hidden geology. Old landslides, abandoned river channels, ancient lava flows, and the tracks of glaciers are suddenly visible in stark relief. Tracking the altitude and location of a plane with GPS while it scans the ground with LIDAR yields a highly precise digital elevation map of the Earth’s surface created out of the billions of laser pulses. By uncovering the debris from old landslides, LIDAR can show where future slides may occur.

 

Tags: geomorphologyremote sensing, geology, physical.

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Alluvial Fans

Alluvial Fans | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"When a mountain stream carries a lot of sediment (clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders) and leaves the confines of the canyon, the sediment is deposited. Over time, this process creates a fan-shaped deposit. The sediment is deposited not because the gradient of the stream decreased, but because the power of the stream dissipates beyond the canyon mouth as the water is spread thin and infiitrates. Many cities are built on alluvium fans, often leading to hazards from flash floods and mudflows."

Seth Dixon's insight:

In mountainous, interior deserts, the largest settlements are usually not deep in the deserts or on top of the mountains but in that in between space.  Many settlements in Central Asia are built on these alluvial fans

 

Tags: environment, physical, geomorphology, erosiongeology, California, landforms.

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othni lindor's curator insight, October 20, 2018 8:41 AM
This post explains when a mountain stream carries a lot of sediment and leaves a canyon, the sediment is deposited. "The sediment is deposited not because the gradient of the stream decreased, but because the power of the stream dissipates." Over time, it creates a fan-shaped deposit. This called an alluvial fan. Many cities are built on alluvium fans, which can cause flash floods and mud flows. Alluvial fans are found in deserts and humid regions.

Olivia Campanella's curator insight, October 29, 2018 3:29 PM
What is an Alluvial Fan? 

An Alluvial fan is a fan or cone shaped deposit of sediments ( clay silt, sand, gravel, cobbles or boulders) that cross and build up in streams and over time creates this fan shaped deposit. The sediment is not deposited because the slope of the stream decreased, but because the power and velocity of the stream became too thin. Many villages and towns build around Alluvial fans but there is always often floods and mudflows.
Corey Rogers's curator insight, December 15, 2018 4:09 PM
The Alluvial Fans have a unique layout and supports the cities that have formed around it. Yes, there can be flash floods and mud-flows but the resources there keep the agriculture flourishing. 
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The Edge of the Plates

The Edge of the Plates | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Tomales Bay lies about 50 kilometers (30 miles) northwest of San Francisco, along the edges of two tectonic plates that are grinding past each other. The boundary between them is the San Andreas Fault, the famous rift that partitions California for hundreds of miles. To the west of the Bay is the Pacific plate; to the east is the North American plate. The rock on the western shore of the Bay is granite, an igneous rock that formed underground when molten material slowly cooled over time. On the opposite shore, the land is a mix of several types of marine sedimentary rocks. In Assembling California, John McPhee calls that side “a boneyard of exotica,” a mixture of rock of 'such widespread provenance that it is quite literally a collection from the entire Pacific basin, or even half of the surface of the planet.'"

 

Tags: geomorphologyremote sensing, tectonics, geology, Californiacoastal, physical.

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The American West, 150 Years Ago

The American West, 150 Years Ago | Geography Education | Scoop.it
In the 1860s and 70s, photographer Timothy O'Sullivan created some of the best-known images in American History. After covering the U.S. Civil War, (many of his photos appear in this earlier series), O'Sullivan joined a number of expeditions organized by the federal government to help document the new frontiers in the American West. The teams were composed of soldiers, scientists, artists, and photographers, and tasked with discovering the best ways to take advantage of the region's untapped natural resources. O'Sullivan brought an amazing eye and work ethic, composing photographs that evoked the vastness of the West. He also documented the Native American population as well as the pioneers who were already altering the landscape. Above all, O'Sullivan captured -- for the first time on film -- the natural beauty of the American West in a way that would later influence Ansel Adams and thousands more photographers to come.

 

Tags: images, artlandscape, tourism, historicalUSA.

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America's Best Long Trails

America's Best Long Trails | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Plan your next big hike with this map of America's most-loved long trails.
Seth Dixon's insight:

My uncle hiked the entire Pacific Crest Trail and as a kid the enormity of that feat was both inspirational and mind-boggling.  Recently I watched an incredible documentary about an ultra-marathoner's quest on Vermont's Long Trail (Finding Traction: free on Amazon Prime--trailer here).  While I doubt most of us could go the full length of these trails given our jobs, fitness levels, etc., I do think that getting outside to explore some of the physical environments in our local areas this summer sounds like a fantastic idea (high-res map here).  

 

Tags: transportation, landscape, place, sportphysical, environment, mappingmap.

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How Cookiecutter Sharks Eat Is Terrifying

Do not be fooled by its adorable name—the cookiecutter shark attacks by suctioning its lips to the flesh of its victims, spins, and ejects a cylindrical plug of flesh from its prey!
Seth Dixon's insight:

This is the most delightfully fun video about one of the creepiest critters of the deep. 

 

Tags: water, biogeography, environment, physical, National Geographic.

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Senegal's Great Green Wall combats desertification

"A 7,000 km barrier is being built along the footsteps of the Sahara to stop the desert expanding. The Great Green Wall project started in 2007 in Senegal, along with 10 countries in Africa to combat the effects of climate change. Al Jazeera’s Nicolas Haque reports from Widou, deep in the Sahel."

Seth Dixon's insight:

The Great Green Wall initiative is composed of 11 countries that are cooperating together to combat the physical and human geographic characteristics that make the Sahel one of the more vulnerable ecosystems in the world.  This swath running through Africa is the transition zone where tropical Africa meets the Sahara.  The Sahel is susceptible to drought, overgrazing, land degradation and desertification.  These issues of resource management and land use transcend international borders so this "Green Wall" was created with the intent to protect the environment, landscapes and people of the Sahel from desert encroachment (the shorter, social media friendly version of this video is available here).

 

Tags: Africa, Senegal, development, environment, waterbiogeography, ecology, environment depend, physical, weather and climate, supranationalism, political ecology.

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Katie Kershaw's curator insight, April 1, 2018 2:34 AM
This “Green Wall” was originally supposed to span the southern border of the Sahara from the east to west coast of Africa. It was made up of trees and elements of forests in order to prevent the desert from expanding and reducing the amount of land available for food production. This seems like it would be a great idea that would work well, but the plan has some flaws. In the early stages of building up the barrier, nomadic herders are supposed to be prohibited from using the land, as their cattle would destroy it. However, the system in place in Somolia sees only one soldier guarding hundreds of kilometers by himself. The nomadic people are often desperate for food, so they often try to break in and sometimes resort to violence. This is problematic because it defeats the purpose of the barrier in increasing the farm land. Many of the countries in along the “Green Wall” do not maintain it as well as they should and Nigeria actually abandoned the project all together. For this reason many ecologists believe the effort is a waste and the climate change can not be stopped. But the efforts of the Somalians has paid off. Crops such as grapefruit and watermelon have been grown in areas that would have been unsuitable for such crops a few years ago. Migratory European birds also settle in the area during the winter. Another benefit that comes from the Wall is that nomads are not forced to join terrorist organizations as their only sources for food, because farming is made easier in the Sahel. 
tyrone perry's curator insight, April 5, 2018 8:12 PM
The great green wall is a man made ecological wall from the Atlantic ocean thru 10 countries to the red sea.  This is to prevent the desert from expanding, but also it is protected from nomadic herders, and loss of food.  This project still has a long way to go but ha not been completely abandoned yet. 
Douglas Vance's curator insight, April 21, 2018 3:12 PM
Although Senegal is one of the few countries in the Sahel to actually follow through on its promise of building its green wall, it may be fruitless in the long run. The expansion of desert regions seems relentless. However, what is most surprising is how rapidly the ecosystems have changed and the crops that can be grown there. Watermelon, grapefruit, and European migratory songbirds have all taken hold, drastically altering the agriculture and environment of the region. 
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As Climate Change Accelerates, Floating Cities Look Like Less of a Pipe Dream

As Climate Change Accelerates, Floating Cities Look Like Less of a Pipe Dream | Geography Education | Scoop.it
A costly plan to build floating islands shows how climate change is pushing the search for innovative solutions, but some critics ask who will ultimately benefit.
Seth Dixon's insight:

As coastal communities are considering what the tangible impacts of climate change might be, things that were once considered science fiction could be a part of how people adapt to the modifications we've collectively made to our global environment that we depend on to sustain life.  

 

Tags: physicaltechnologysustainability, climate change, environment, resources, watercoastal, environment dependenvironment adapt, environment modify.

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Ivan Ius's curator insight, February 15, 2017 12:49 AM
Geographic Thinking Concepts: Patterns and Trends, Interrelationships, Geographic Perspective.
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Climate Migrants

Climate Migrants | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Climate change has already displaced tens of thousands of people. If it continues unabated, it could lead to one of the largest mass human migrations in history.
Seth Dixon's insight:

This StoryMap shows some key regions where migrants are fleeing some of the negative impacts of climate change, a trend that appears very likely to increase in the future.  It is also an excellent example of the ESRI's new Cascade template for creating a web app. 

 

Tags: physical, weather and climate, climate change, environment, resources, watercoastalmappingESRIStoryMap, visualization, environment depend, political ecology.

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Tsunami Stones: Ancient Japanese Markers Warn Builders of High Water

Tsunami Stones: Ancient Japanese Markers Warn Builders of High Water | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Residents of Aneyoshi, Japan, heeded the warnings of their ancestors. They obeyed directions and wisdom found on a local stone monument: 'Do not build any homes below this point,' it reads. 'High dwellings are the peace and harmony of our descendants. Remember the calamity of the great tsunamis.' When the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami devastated Japan, this village."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Beachfront property is beautiful real estate with enormous economic potential, but when it is in an area with a history of tsunamis, the impending threat of an earthquake looms over the coastal lowlands and limits the land use plans for the region. 

 

Tags: physical, tsunami, water, tectonics, disasters.

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Ivan Ius's curator insight, December 31, 2016 6:19 AM
Geographical Concepts: Spatial Significance, Patterns and Trends, 
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New Zealand quake lifted seabed by 2m

New Zealand quake lifted seabed by 2m | Geography Education | Scoop.it
The 7.8 magnitude earthquake that hit New Zealand’s South Island lifted up the seabed by two metres, pushing it above the ocean’s surface.
Seth Dixon's insight:

Plates on the Earth's crust typically move forward at very slowly (about the same speed as the fingernail growth).  While that is the usual, plates snag along the edges and pressure can build over the years, only to lead to explosive, quick changes like happened recently in New Zealand.  This complex series of tremors has people disconnected as much of the physical infrastructure has be damaged

 

Tags: New Zealandphysical, tectonicstransportation, geology, geomorphology.

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Ventusky - Wind, Rain and Temperature Maps

Ventusky - Wind, Rain and Temperature Maps | Geography Education | Scoop.it
Animated wind, rain and temperature maps, detailed forecast for your place, data from the best weather forecast models such as GFS, ICON, GEM
Seth Dixon's insight:

With people on the East Coast concerned about the possible trajectories for Hurricane Florence, I think it is the right time to share these two interactive maps: Ventusky and Windy.  In the past, I also shared NullSchool's  mesmerizing digital globe with wind data and many other options.  Collectively, these my three favorite online visualization of meteorological data.  Any other favorites?  To friends and family in the Carolinas, stay safe.   

  

Scoop.it Tagsphysical, weather and climate, mapping, visualization.

WordPress TAGS: physical,  weather and climate, mapping, visualization.

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K Rome's curator insight, October 7, 2018 12:37 AM

With people on the East Coast concerned about the possible trajectories for Hurricane Florence, I think it is the right time to share these two interactive maps: Ventusky and Windy.  In the past, I also shared NullSchool's  mesmerizing digital globe with wind data and many other options.  Collectively, these my three favorite online visualization of meteorological data.  Any other favorites?  To friends and family in the Carolinas, stay safe.   

  

Scoop.it Tagsphysical, weather and climate, mapping, visualization.

WordPress TAGS: physical,  weather and climate, mapping, visualization.

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Pacific nation Tuvalu has grown by 73 hectares over 40 years

Pacific nation Tuvalu has grown by 73 hectares over 40 years | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"The tiny Pacific nation of Tuvalu – once thought to be under threat from rising sea levels – has grown the size of California's Disneyland over the past 40 years. It's mostly thanks to waves dumping extra sediment, sand and gravel on shore lines, according to research by Auckland University scientists. The study, published in the Nature Communications journal on Friday, was the first in-depth look at how much each of Tuvalu's 101 islands have changed over the decades."

 

Tags: Oceaniawatercoastal, environment, physical, geomorphology, erosiongeology, landforms.

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Houston’s stories of Hurricane Harvey

Houston’s stories of Hurricane Harvey | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Blue and her team selected 45 stories, each plotted with ESRI’s ArcGIS software on a map of Greater Houston and tied to the exact location where it was first told. The resulting story map of Hurricane Harvey, ‘Damaged and Defiant: Houston Stories,’ was published in the Houston Chronicle in December. The map shows short narratives gathered by Chronicle staffers from people across the area — from Crosby to Kingwood to Katy — each a unique perspective on the storm; told together, they’re the collective account of a city that experienced one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history."

Seth Dixon's insight:

These interlinked Houston story maps show some of the key elements of a good story map: 1) strong spatial analytical components, 2) a powerful narrative, 3) rich visuals, 4) solid cartography, and 5) well-sourced information.

 

Tags: fluvialwatercoastal, urban, disasters, physical, mappingESRIStoryMap.

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Burn Scars on California’s Wine Country

Burn Scars on California’s Wine Country | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Devastating wildfires burned through California’s wine country in October 2017, taking several lives and leaving thousands of people homeless. On October 21, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra satellite acquired this false-color image of the burn scars left by the Tubbs (upper left), Nuns (center), and Atlas (lower right) fires. Unburned vegetation appears red; burned vegetation appears brown. Buildings, roads, and other developed areas appear light gray and white."

 

Tags: remote sensingdisasters, California, physical.

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When Climate Change Meets Sprawl: Why Houston's ‘Once-In-A-Lifetime' Floods Keep Happening

When Climate Change Meets Sprawl: Why Houston's ‘Once-In-A-Lifetime' Floods Keep Happening | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"Unchecked development remains a priority in the famously un-zoned city, creating short-term economic gains for some, but long term flood risk for everyone."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Houston's development boom and reduction of wetlands leave region prone to more severe flooding.  Here is a great map of the change in impervious surfaces in the region from 1940 to 2017--when you combine that with record-breaking rainfall the results are catastrophic.  But a local understanding of place is critical and this viral post--Things non-Houstonians Need to Understand--is pretty good.     

 

Tagsphysical, fluvialwatercoastal, urban, planningtransportation, architecture.

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Deanna Wiist's curator insight, September 13, 2017 1:56 AM

Houston's development boom and reduction of wetlands leave region prone to more severe flooding.  Here is a great map of the change in impervious surfaces in the region from 1940 to 2017--when you combine that with record-breaking rainfall the results are catastrophic.  But a local understanding of place is critical and this viral post--Things non-Houstonians Need to Understand--is pretty good.     

 

Tagsphysical, fluvialwatercoastal, urban, planningtransportation, architecture.

Tiffany Cooper's curator insight, September 26, 2017 4:11 PM
#geo130
Vincent Lahondère's curator insight, October 31, 2017 5:27 PM

Un dossier sur les inondations à Houston (en anglais). La présentation est très originale.

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25 Photos That Will Make You Fall in Love With Norway

25 Photos That Will Make You Fall in Love With Norway | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"So how gorgeous is Norway? From its majestic wildlife, captivating Northern Lights shows, and snowy mountains, to its vivid landscapes, and mystifying fjords, Norway is a must-visit destination for anyone who loves the outdoors. Plus, opportunities for hiking, kayaking, glacier climbing, fishing, and skiing are endless! If Noway wasn’t already on your travel bucket list, I bet it is now!"

Seth Dixon's insight:

My wife lived in Norway for 18 months, and her love for this country is infectious.  The stunning physical geography leads to some equally magnificent cultural landscapes that were forged in a very rugged, inhospitable environment for early human settlers.   

 

Tags: Norway, place, tourismphysical, Arctic, geo-inspiration, images, artlandscape.

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Deanna Wiist's curator insight, September 13, 2017 1:59 AM

My wife lived in Norway for 18 months, and her love for this country is infectious.  The stunning physical geography leads to some equally magnificent cultural landscapes that were forged in a very rugged, inhospitable environment for early human settlers.   

 

Tags: Norway, place, tourismphysical, Arctic, geo-inspiration, images, artlandscape.

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Massive landslide adds to ‘unprecedented’ damage along scenic Highway 1 in Big Sur area

Massive landslide adds to ‘unprecedented’ damage along scenic Highway 1 in Big Sur area | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"A massive mudslide along the California coast.  Millions tons of rock/dirt, about 1/3 mile of roadway covered 35-40 feet deep.”

Seth Dixon's insight:

A steep slope, unstable ground, and changing moisture content result is this spectacular (and horrifying) example of how the Earth beneath our feet might not be as permanent as we expect it to be.

 

Questions to Ponder: Which type of mass wasting is seen in this particular example?  What conditions would lead to other types of mass wasting?  

 

Tags: physicalCalifornia, geomorphology, erosion, landforms.

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Is Zealandia the eighth continent?

"A group of geologists say they've enough evidence to confirm the existence of a new continent. Writing in the journal of the Geological Society of America, the group named the eighth continent 'Zealandia.' Scientists argue for an 8th continent, Zealandia, in the Geological Society of America."

Seth Dixon's insight:

What makes a continent a continent? There is no set definition of a continent. Some consider cultural groupings and would consider Europe as a separate continent from Asia as a consequence. Geologists consider continental shelves as the defining characteristics of a continent and thus consider Eurasia to be just one continent. We are so accustomed to seeing the coastlines, but if the ocean were drained, we'd see Zealandia and it's ancient confidential shelf--but don't expect all the continental maps in elementary schools to change anytime soon.

 

Questions to Ponder: Does human geography or physical geography determine what you consider a continent?  How come?       

 

Tags: physical, tectonics, geologyregions, Oceania.

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Courtney Barrowman's curator insight, April 13, 2017 3:59 PM
unit 1
David Stiger's curator insight, December 7, 2018 2:16 PM
With 94% of Zealandia lying under water, most average people around the world will not care if National Geographic prints maps with an eighth continent. As cynical as that may be, geography should not be settled by human emotions and cultural expectations. Geography is a discipline that aims for understanding and precision. If continents are to be decided by continental shelves, rather than human cultural and ethnic patterns, then Eurasia is a continent and so is Zealandia. This latter outlook of focusing on physical geography is far more neutral and scientific. I would argue that is also more 'progressive'. Humans originate from one place (Africa) and are all one species. We have far more similarities than differences. Orienting our worldview to see that cultural geography is not the final arbiter of truth would ultimately bring people together. The logic follows that by acknowledging Zealandia, there is precedent for greater accuracy based on science, allowing geographers to teach about Eurasia. This is significant because it would alter the perception that Asians and Europeans are extremely distinct and separate groups due to a distorted notion that they lived on separate continents. The truth is that both groups existed on the same continent and were often brought into contact with each other throughout history. This idea, however, would further shatter the notion of a "pure, homogeneous Europe." Europe is only a "continent" because white Europeans were the first to possess the right combination of "guns, germs, and steel" to conquer other societies and elevate their own group's cultural status. Despite nature's evidence, Europeans awarded themselves an entire continent. In reality, Europe is a large peninsula of Asia. Just as Zealandia is an eighth continent sleeping underneath the waves. 
Matt Danielson's curator insight, December 12, 2018 9:45 PM
This is interesting to think about. What decides what separates continents, is it geological barriers, is it culture, is it ethnic origin, or maybe even plate tectonics? Either way you look at it New Zealand makes a great case for why they could become to be considered the eighth continent. I could argue either way, to keep it simple and go by culture and geological commonalities (Oceania Islands) I would prefer it does not form its own continent. These geologist would argue otherwise.
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What are El Niño and La Niña?

What are El Niño and La Niña? | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"El Niño and La Niña are complex weather patterns resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific--officially known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. These deviations from normal surface temperatures can have large-scale impacts not only on ocean processes, but also on global weather and climate."

Seth Dixon's insight:

This short video from NOAA is an excellent summary that explains the ENSO cycle.  The video has a particular emphasis on how changing patterns in the Pacific Ocean currents can impact weather patterns in various regions of the United States.  

 

Tagsphysical, weather and climateregions, USA.

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ROCAFORT's curator insight, February 24, 2017 7:31 AM
What are El Niño and La Niña?
Loreto Vargas's curator insight, February 24, 2017 5:45 PM
It’s a complicated phenomenon but El Niño is not the same as La Niña... Read the article.
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The Sargasso Sea

"The Sargasso Sea occupies almost two thirds of the North Atlantic Ocean. Within this sea, circling ocean currents accumulate mats of Sargassum seaweed that shelter a surprising variety of fishes, snails, crabs, and other small animals. The animal community today is much less diverse than it was in the early 1970s, when the last detailed studies were completed in this region. This study shows that animal communities in the Sargasso Sea are definitely changing. The next step is to find out why."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Often, we define oceans and seas based on their borders with land as their defining characteristics (this is one reason why many don't know about the Southern Ocean as a distinct body of water or consider it an ocean). The Sargasso Sea is defined by ocean currents; it is surrounded by great currents but is itself without a strong current, making it perilous for early seafarers.  These oceanic doldrums became shrouded in superstition as stories of the fabled Bermuda Triangle spread, but the truth is all in the ocean currents.   

 

Tags: water, biogeography, environment, physical.

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Ivan Ius's curator insight, January 23, 2017 12:38 AM
Geography Concepts: Spatial Significance, Patterns and Trends, Interrelationships
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The World's Newest (Official) Ocean

The World's Newest (Official) Ocean | Geography Education | Scoop.it

"The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude. The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean). The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has  declared, named, and demarcated the Southern Ocean as a fifth, separate ocean."

Seth Dixon's insight:

Typically we define oceans and seas based on their borders with land as their most important characteristics.  Also, we rarely look at the bottom of the globe as the center of our global perspective.  Those are a few of the reasons why American students usually have never heard of the Southern Ocean, but Australian students see it as one of the world's main oceans.  

 

TagsOceaniaAntarctica, water, environment, physical.

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Katie Kershaw's curator insight, April 24, 2018 5:22 PM
This is slightly embarrassing to admit, but I have never heard of the Southern Ocean.  I think it is because, as mentioned in class the other day, we do not talk about the Southern Hemisphere very often.  When looking a globe this entire ocean is on the bottom and pretty much out of sight.  I thought that it was interesting that the creation of this ocean was created within my lifetime because all of the rest of the world’s oceans are well documented throughout history.  Even though the water in the Southern Ocean has been there just as long as the other oceans, it hadn’t been designated as an ocean.  I think another reason that I haven’t heard much about the Southern Ocean is because it doesn’t really have any direct impacts on Americans.  All of our trade routes avoid this area of the world, we don’t have any landclaims within the ocean, and very few Americans have actually gone to Anarctica.  This article also talks about the boundaries and the conflict regarding how far north the boundaries of the ocean would be.  Most members of the IHO supported the boundary being at 60 degrees.  However, 7 countries pushed to have the boundary set at 50 degrees.  The reason most countries supported the 60 degree boundary is because it doesn’t add any land outside of Anarctica to the ocean.  Although this article doesn’t state which countries wanted the boundary at 50 degrees, I am guessing its countries with land very far south, like Argentina, Chile, Australia, and maybe South Africa.  This would allow them control over the Southern Ocean that they can’t get with the current boundaries.  It is interesting that it took until 2002 for the point to be raised that the Southern Ocean is district enough from the other oceans, that it should be considered a separate ocean.
Zavier Lineberger's curator insight, May 3, 2018 4:25 PM
(Oceania) Geography experts now claim the waters around Antarctica will join the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic as the fifth ocean. Almost every member of the International Hydrographic Organization declared the existence of the South Ocean, which extends to 60° S latitude and is double the size of the United States. While it might seem trivial, the Southern Ocean has the most powerful water current, a different circulation, and a unique ecosystem, marking it separate from other bodies of water.
K Rome's curator insight, October 7, 2018 12:30 AM
The Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Artic as an American student growing up those were the Oceans that I grew up learning about. So to see an article talking about the Southern Ocean comes as kind of a surprise. We learn as young American students about "Atlantic trade" or our West Coast with "Pacific Trade" we as young students learn about the mysterious Indian Ocean and the unattainable Artic Ocean,  but for some reason the Southern Ocean has been left out. The Southern Ocean as the article explains is the 5th and newest Ocean. Ocean scientist thought it was necessary to name the the body of water south of the Pacific but north of the Artic. While it might not seem that important to some it is key to identify with areas. When we discuss Atlantic trade for the most part in the United States we know we are discussing trade with the Europeans or on our East Coast. When discussing Pacific trade we understand that to be West Coast and probably dealing with China or other Asian countries. As an Australian resident or student they grow up learning about this key body of water to them. They can use it to identity where they are and where they are going. We can also use the body of water to discuss different weather pattern and effects on the countries in Oceania region of the world. An interesting read if  you want to learn more about our forgotten 5th Ocean. 
Scooped by Seth Dixon
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Skokomish River salmon cross the road

"Watch salmon race across the road on their way to spawn; for more footage, watch this extended version."

Seth Dixon's insight:

We often see examples of how human modifications to ecosystems or watersheds have devastatingly negative impacts.  This is a remarkable example from Washington's Olympic Peninsula that shows the resiliency of natural systems to overcome human modifications to the physical landscape.  If you study the world, you will always have something to both amaze and surprise you.   

 

Tagsfluvial, biogeography, environment, geomorphology, physicalwater, environment adapt, environment modify.

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Lorraine Chaffer's curator insight, December 18, 2016 4:45 AM

Sometimes the natural world finds ways to adapt to human environmental changes. 

Useful when studying inland water / rivers for the option study.