geography
6 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Jim Barry from Social Foraging
Scoop.it!

Adaptive long-range migration promotes cooperation under tempting conditions

Migration is a fundamental trait in humans and animals. Recent studies investigated the effect of migration on the evolution of cooperation, showing that contingent migration favors cooperation in spatial structures. In those studies, only local migration to immediate neighbor sites was considered, while long-range migration has not been considered yet, partly because the long-range migration has been generally regarded as harmful for cooperation as it would bring the population to a well-mixed state that favors defection. In this paper, we studied the effects of adaptive long-range migration on the evolution of cooperation through agent-based simulations of a spatial Prisoner's Dilemma game in which individuals can jump to a farther site if they are surrounded by more defectors. Our results show that adaptive long-range migration strongly promotes cooperation, especially under conditions where the temptation to defect is considerably high. Moreover, we found that cooperation emerges and remains robustly through mutation and migration even from a condition in which only defectors exist. These findings demonstrate the significance of adaptive long-range migration, a naturally observed migration style in human and animal behaviors, for the evolution of cooperation.


Via Ashish Umre
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jim Barry from Metaglossia: The Translation World
Scoop.it!

The English Tongue: the evolution of language

The English Tongue: the evolution of language | geography | Scoop.it

In today’s world, many of us simply accept modern language as a given. English is so widely spoken that it seems almost impossible to consider that it is actually a relatively new tongue. All languages have been on an incredible journey, shaped by human migration, politics, colonialism, and war, and English is no exception. With its roots in Germany and the Netherlands, English has evolved over many years, and still it continues to grow.
Originating from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic invaders and various settler groups, English has been developed out of the West-Germanic language groups. With the kingdom of Britain being built from such a diversity of roots, Old English was initially a conglomeration of a number of dialects, until eventually Late West Saxon became the dominant voice.
During the Middle Ages the language was shaped into more of what we see today in modern English. In 1000 AD, the vocabulary and grammar of Old English was more akin to that of old Germanic languages like Old High German and Old Norse, but by 1400 AD, the language was largely recognisable to what we see today. This alteration in the language came as result of two further waves of invasion, bringing Scandinavian and Norman dialects into the language; the Scandinavian influence simplifying the language grammatically and the Normans developing Anglo-Norman where a large quantity of modern English vocabulary has its origins.


Via Charles Tiayon
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jim Barry
Scoop.it!

Immigration is a messy, human story - The Guardian

Immigration is a messy, human story - The Guardian | geography | Scoop.it
Immigration is a messy, human story
The Guardian
YouTube footage of an immigration enforcement team conducting spot checks of people's immigration status at North Greenwich station only depicts the team questioning black or Asian men.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jim Barry
Scoop.it!

Letter: Human population growth, not immigration, promotes global warming - The Coloradoan

Letter: Human population growth, not immigration, promotes global warming - The Coloradoan | geography | Scoop.it
Letter: Human population growth, not immigration, promotes global warming The Coloradoan It is urgent that we promote policies to reduce per capita greenhouse gas emissions, as well as humane policies to reduce the human population gradually in...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jim Barry
Scoop.it!

Find helps scientists map waves of migration across the continents - Phys.Org

Find helps scientists map waves of migration across the continents - Phys.Org | geography | Scoop.it
Find helps scientists map waves of migration across the continents Phys.Org The discovery of an "early modern human" dating from 40,000 years ago in a cave outside Beijing, and a comparison of the individual's DNA with that of populations around...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jim Barry from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Most of the harmful mutations in humans arose in the past 5,000 to 10,000 years

Most of the harmful mutations in humans arose in the past 5,000 to 10,000 years | geography | Scoop.it

European Americans have a larger proportion of potentially harmful variants than African Americans --- probably an artefact of their original migration out of Africa.

 

The human genome has been busy over the past 5,000 years. Human populations have grown exponentially, and new genetic mutations arise with each generation. Humans now have a vast abundance of rare genetic variants in the protein-encoding sections of the genome.

 

A study published in Nature now helps to clarify when many of those rare variants arose. Researchers used deep sequencing to locate and date more than one million single-nucleotide variants — locations where a single letter of the DNA sequence is different from other individuals — in the genomes of 6,500 African and European Americans.

 

The findings confirm their earlier work suggesting that the majority of variants, including potentially harmful ones, were picked up during the past 5,000–-10,000 years.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
Whitney Souery's curator insight, August 29, 2013 12:49 PM

Genetic mutations (both negative and positive included) arose during migration. This article descirbes how European Americans have a greater amount of mutations than African Americans- meaning that after the migration from Africa, mutations began to arise. 

Rescooped by Jim Barry from Papers
Scoop.it!

The Biological Origin of Linguistic Diversity

The Biological Origin of Linguistic Diversity | geography | Scoop.it

In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categories (e.g., Tzeltal); and some languages do without morphology (e.g., Mandarin), while others pack a whole sentence into a single word (e.g., Cayuga). A challenge for evolutionary biology is to reconcile the diversity of languages with the high degree of biological uniformity of their speakers. Here, we model processes of language change and geographical dispersion and find a consistent pressure for flexible learning, irrespective of the language being spoken. This pressure arises because flexible learners can best cope with the observed high rates of linguistic change associated with divergent cultural evolution following human migration. Thus, rather than genetic adaptations for specific aspects of language, such as recursion, the coevolution of genes and fast-changing linguistic structure provides the biological basis for linguistic diversity. Only biological adaptations for flexible learning combined with cultural evolution can explain how each child has the potential to learn any human language.

 

Baronchelli A, Chater N, Pastor-Satorras R, Christiansen MH (2012) The Biological Origin of Linguistic Diversity. PLoS ONE 7(10): e48029. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0048029


Via Complexity Digest
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jim Barry
Scoop.it!

Mexico Voices: Mexico: Driven by Poverty, Internal Migration of Agricultural Workers Leads to Violations of Labor, Human Rights

Mexico: Driven by Poverty, Internal Migration of Agricultural Workers Leads to Violations of Labor, Human Rights http://t.co/RcDZh3idFh
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jim Barry
Scoop.it!

Scientists have found new evidence to show how early humans migrated into ... - EurekAlert (press release)

Scientists have found new evidence to show how early humans migrated into ... - EurekAlert (press release) | geography | Scoop.it
Scientists have found new evidence to show how early humans migrated into ...
EurekAlert (press release)
Humans originated in Africa. But what route did they take as they began to disperse around the world 60,000 years ago?
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jim Barry
Scoop.it!

New genetic clues from China's ancient man - Aljazeera.com

New genetic clues from China's ancient man - Aljazeera.com | geography | Scoop.it
Aljazeera.com
New genetic clues from China's ancient man
Aljazeera.com
Chris Stringer, research leader in human origins at the Natural History Museum in London, told Al Jazeera that early modern humans displayed a strong urge to explore.
more...
No comment yet.