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Projet de recherche P4GES : Ankeniheny-Zahamena comme site-pilote

Projet de recherche P4GES : Ankeniheny-Zahamena comme site-pilote | General interest | Scoop.it
Le projet de recherche appliquée intitulé « Les Paiements pour les services environnementaux peuvent-ils réduire la pauvreté ? » (P4GES),
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Vanilla prices soar as fungal attack hits global output

The global tag on processed beans is $80-120 a kg, up from $30 last season
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Réflexion & Analyse : Madagascar, entité non gouvernable?

Réflexion & Analyse : Madagascar, entité non gouvernable? | General interest | Scoop.it

ENNV ou ÉCONOMIES NATIONALES NON VIABLES, est une expression lancée début des années 2000 par Osavaldo De Rivero, diplomate péruvien, expert en matière de développement, pour catégoriser les pays en développement qui se sont visiblement effondrés en “entités non gouvernables”. En règle générale, les ENNV se caractérisent par une large majorité de peuples plongée dans une extrême pauvreté avec des taux de chômage très élevés ; une misère technologique et scientifique ; rajouté à cela le retard considérable en matière d’infrastructures ; et surtout, ce sont des pseudo-États contrôlés par des seigneurs de la guerre ou mafias, une élite et une classe politique hautement impliquées dans les grosses corruptions…et la liste est bien trop longue.

Les points communs à ces ENNV en plus de leurs populations extrêmement pauvres et ces fameux pseudo-États gouvernés par des mafias, ce sont les matières premières, les ressources naturelles – minières et pétrolières, ainsi que les mains d’œuvre, abondantes et longtemps convoitées de toute part, et en bonus, elles ne sont généralement pas chères…On peut dire de toute façon que ce sont les seuls avantages comparatifs de ces pays, et malheureusement pour certains d’entre eux, ces mains d’œuvre et matières premières sont de moins en moins prisées dans l’économie mondiale. C’est le cas de beaucoup de pays d’Afrique qui n’ont même pas connu des phases de “sous-développement” ou de “booms économiques non durables” comme en Amérique latine, et qui d’emblée se retrouvent sans aucune option de développement, selon les termes de De Rivero. Sans parler de la ruine scientifique et technologique dans laquelle ils sont plongés, empêchant toute possibilité d’exportation de produits et services à contenu technologique élevé, garantissant finalement une exclusion directe de l’économie mondiale.

Et pourtant, les ENNV sont pour la plupart, des pays à la quête du modèle occidental de développement et se sont volontairement soumises, ou ont été contraintes aux conditionnalités drastiques des grandes institutions financières internationales, afin de se soustraire de leur état de sous-développement, et espérer enfin être acteurs dans l’économie mondiale. On trouve d’ailleurs dans ces ENNV, à quelques exceptions près, toutes sortes de projets de développement et de mécanismes censés les sortir de leurs états de sous-développement, mais qui au final s’avèrent totalement inefficaces et ne profitent aucunement aux populations les plus vulnérables, bien majoritaires. Bref, on y constate plutôt une non-viabilité économique croissante.


Quand De Rivero avait suggéré qu’on déclasse certains, sinon beaucoup des Pays d’Afrique et d’Amérique latine, de la catégorie “pays en développement” pour les classer plutôt en ENNV, tout le monde s’est un peu moqué de lui, surtout dans les rangs des experts en développement des grandes Institutions défenseurs du libre-marché (que nous connaissons tous)! Et moi aussi à l’époque, j’avoue que je me suis un peu moquée de son concept d’ENNV….Et puis voilà que plus de 10 ans après, l’idée d’ENNV semble être à nouveau, ou plus que jamais, à l’ordre du jour.

En observant un peu ce qui se passe autour de nous, notamment sur le Continent noir, on se rend compte que ces pays sont bel et bien des “entités non gouvernables”, et Madagascar ne fait pas exception (*). Le pays, vous me l’accorderez j’en suis certaine, présente toutes les caractéristiques d’une ENNV.


Mais alors que peut-on faire d’une “entité non gouvernable”? Peut-on espérer un jour sortir de cet état de “sous-développement” quand on est une ENNV? Quel avenir pour les millions de populations qui y sont?


Pour De Rivero, il n’y a qu’une solution : ces ENNV doivent abandonner leur rêve de développement et adopter des politiques de stabilisation de leur démographie et de survie nationale. En gros, remplacer l’ordre du jour de “la richesse des nations” par la “survie des nations”. Et cette notion de survie nationale signifie pour lui : approvisionnement en eau, nourriture et énergie de base.


La thèse de De Rivero sur la stabilisation démographique, une approche néo-malthusienne, est discutable. Son affirmation selon laquelle le modèle occidental est le modèle de référence des pays en développement est aussi à actualiser car désormais, il y a des modèles qui nous viennent de l’Est et qui séduisent davantage les pays d’Afrique et d’Amérique latine (même si beaucoup s’accordent à dire que le Succès à l’Est a aussi été inspiré du modèle occidental. Mais bon, c’est un autre débat!).

Je reviens donc à l’autre idée de base de De Rivero qui me semble intéressant à creuser : celle de la survie des nations. J’avoue que je n’aime pas vraiment ce terme “survie”, même si l’idée d’alternative que De Rivero véhicule me semble tout à fait pertinente. Je trouve inapproprié ou plutôt négatif ce mot “survie”, peut-être parce que justement il décrit une réalité que connaissent déjà des centaines de millions d’individus dans ces ENNV : Ils ne vivent pas, ils survivent!


L’idée n’est peut-être pas d’assurer la “survie de nos peuples”, comme le suggère De Rivero, mais plutôt de SÉCURISER NOS PEUPLES. J’aime beaucoup ce terme de sécurisation (sécurisation alimentaire, sécurisation énergétique, sécurisation foncière, sécurité nationale,…) car derrière elle, se cache un autre concept qui a un sens très fort et fondamental pour la refondation de ces pays : défendre.
L’idée de la sécurisation n’est pas artificielle, ni parachutée. Bien au contraire, elle est palpable, compréhensible à tous, et est un enjeu majeur dans le contexte mondial actuel. Il suffit d’analyser un peu tous les grands conflits environnementaux actuels, y compris sur ce qui se passe actuellement à Madagascar et dans beaucoup de pays du Sud. L’enjeu de sécurisation est au cœur du problème. En allant explorer et contrôler les ressources minières et pétrolières dans des territoires lointains, en allant louer ou acheter des terres ailleurs, les “grandes puissances”  veulent avant tout sécuriser leurs populations et leur mode de vie, et pour que demain, leurs exigences de consommation soient encore et toujours assurées. En d’autres termes, ces pays dits développés veulent avant tout défendre les intérêts et le confort de leurs populations.


Alors, même si l’idée de De Rivero d’abandonner le “rêve de développement” nous semble inimaginable et totalement irrationnel, il me semble qu’il soit impératif que nous nous penchions sur cette question de la sécurisation de notre Nation. S’il y a une chose que nous devons apprendre des pays dits développés, c’est avant tout cet acharnement qu’ils ont à vouloir “sécuriser leurs populations”. Il est temps pour nous malgaches, de sécuriser nos ressources en eau, nos ressources halieutiques, notre biodiversité, nos terres, nos forêts, nos ressources minière; c’est seulement ainsi que nous pourrions sécuriser nos populations.


Via Erika Cologon Hajaji
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Kanvee Adams Ministry Attracts U.S.$40 Million Investment for Liberia

Kanvee Adams Ministry Attracts U.S.$40 Million Investment for Liberia | General interest | Scoop.it
The Kanvee Gaines-Adams Ministry is moving beyond administering the Gospel through its award-winning songs to attracting investment in post-war Liberia. The successful Gospel star and her Ministry have also stretched ...
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DR Congo hails UN sanctions on M23, FDLR rebels - Press TV

DR Congo hails UN sanctions on M23, FDLR rebels - Press TV | General interest | Scoop.it
Press TV
DR Congo hails UN sanctions on M23, FDLR rebels
Press TV
Kinshasa has hailed the UN Security Council sanctions imposed on two rebel groups fighting in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
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IMF approves $78.9 Million loan for Liberia - Africa Review

IMF approves $78.9 Million loan for Liberia
Africa Review
According to Min Zhu, the Deputy Managing Director and acting Chair of the IMF, Liberia's strong economic gains in recent years are encouraging.
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Cell Phone Stove Invented - AllAfrica.com

Cell Phone Stove Invented - AllAfrica.com | General interest | Scoop.it
Cell Phone Stove Invented
AllAfrica.com
A Liberian Business man, Mr. Louis K.
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Ghana Business News » WWF develops legal guide for timber traders in Ghana, Liberia

Ghana Business News » WWF develops legal guide for timber traders in Ghana, Liberia | General interest | Scoop.it
#WWF develops legal guide for #timber traders in #Ghana, #Liberia http://t.co/NA5V9vmt via @sharethis #woodsourcing #wood #lumber
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allAfrica.com: Liberia: Looting At UL Forest

allAfrica.com: Liberia: Looting At UL Forest | General interest | Scoop.it
allAfrica: African news and information for a global audience (Looting At UL Forest http://t.co/HTxapuuW #liberia via @allafrica)
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Congo's M23 Conflict: Rebellion or Resource War? | Global Research

Congo's M23 Conflict: Rebellion or Resource War? | Global Research | General interest | Scoop.it
M23 rebels in DR Congo have threatened to march to the capital and depose the government. UN reports confirm that rebels receive support from key US allies in the region, and Washington's role in the conflict has become ...
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UK aid is slowly nursing Liberia back to health - Top stories - Scotsman.com

UK aid is slowly nursing Liberia back to health - Top stories - Scotsman.com | General interest | Scoop.it

SICK and exhausted, a pregnant woman arrived at an overburdened Liberian health clinic clinging to the motorcyclist who had taken her there. With no ambulance available, it was a stark contrast to the health care Beth Rowlands was used to seeing working as a nurse in the UK.

Beth, 34, from Stockbridge, was among a group of doctors and nurses sent to the West African country by Save the Children as part of its campaign to stand up for health workers.

Beth, who lives with husband Mark Swinhoe, 35, a computer programmer, said: “The experience was humbling – comparing what the health staff deal with, using the resources they have, with our country.

“I saw firsthand the extreme poverty and hardship that most Liberians live with and the challenges that health professionals face delivering care in a country which is still recovering from a devastating civil war.”

Liberia’s second civil war broke out in 1999 and left infrastructure such as schools and hospitals destroyed. The country now faces a huge shortage of health care workers.

Beth, who is originally from Sheffield, said: “People in Liberia are dying of preventable conditions, such as malaria, because they can’t get access to health care workers. Maternal mortality rates are very high.

“While I was there, a woman arrived sandwiched between two friends on a motorbike, she was having problems with her pregnancy.

“There is no ambulance service in Liberia and many people who are very sick have to walk for a day to access health care.”

But Beth added: “It was clear the difference that aid from the UK is making. I felt so encouraged by what I saw but at the same time it all felt so fragile.”

During their visit, the group met the Liberian Assistant Health Minister and the Liberian Midwifery Association, as well as nurses, midwives and doctors in facilities around the country.

In a few weeks David Cameron will visit Liberia to have discussions on poverty reduction with a UN High Level Panel.

Trip organiser Simon Wright, of Save the Children, said: “Liberia has a population of 4.1 million people yet there are less than 100 doctors and less than 1500 nurses in the country.

“Save the Children is calling for more health workers who are better resourced in free, publicly-funded health services. Health workers play such a vital role in reducing maternal and child mortality.”

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UK aid is slowly nursing Liberia back to health

UK aid is slowly nursing Liberia back to health | General interest | Scoop.it
Beth, who is originally from Sheffield, said: “People in Liberia are dying of preventable conditions, such as malaria, because they can't get access to health care workers. Maternal mortality rates are very high.
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Identifying Carbon Change Hotspots in East Africa | marionpfeifer

Identifying Carbon Change Hotspots in East Africa | marionpfeifer | General interest | Scoop.it
Coherent methods to accurately estimate land use change at national and continental scale are difficult to implement. Remotely sensed data can provide a globally consistent method for assessing land cover and cover trends ...
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Farming Sea Cucumbers in Madagascar…for Economic Hope and Conservation

Farming Sea Cucumbers in Madagascar…for Economic Hope and Conservation | General interest | Scoop.it
By  Taylor Mayol, Blue Ventures Look at a map and find Madagascar, the fourth biggest island on Earth, just off the coast of east Africa. Focus on the dry southwest and find the town of Toliara, capital of this impoverished region.
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UK authorizes guns for Madagascar despite threat of lemur extinctions

UK authorizes guns for Madagascar despite threat of lemur extinctions | General interest | Scoop.it
Britain has authorized the export of thousands of guns to Madagascar, according to TanaNews.com, sparking concerns that the firearms could be used for hunting endangered lemurs..
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UN Security Council imposes arms embargo on Congo rebels - Los Angeles Times

UN Security Council imposes arms embargo on Congo rebels - Los Angeles Times | General interest | Scoop.it
BBC News UN Security Council imposes arms embargo on Congo rebels Los Angeles Times In a bid to quell violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the United Nations Security Council imposed an arms embargo late Monday on two armed groups...
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Two Congo rebel groups blacklisted by UN committee

Two Congo rebel groups blacklisted by UN committee | General interest | Scoop.it
January 2, 2013 By Rwema IT Webmaster Leave a Comment. A United Nations Security Council sanctions committee has blacklisted two rebel groups responsible for war crimes in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
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DR Congo M23 rebels placed under UN sanctions | Daily Guide ...

DR Congo M23 rebels placed under UN sanctions. Published on January 2, 2013. M23 rebels mutinied from the Congolese army in April in eastern DRC. The UN Security Council has imposed sanctions on leaders of the M23 rebel movement ...
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Liberia: Resolution Liberia 2013 – Economic, Social, Political ...

Liberia: Resolution Liberia 2013 – Economic, Social, Political ... | General interest | Scoop.it
Liberia is a nation fighting tooth and nail to lift itself, by its own fusty bootstraps, from the depths of poverty and degradation it had sunk due to more than a century of mismanagement compounded by 14 years of senseless civil ...
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Illicit Sand Mining At Night - AllAfrica.com

Illicit Sand Mining At Night - AllAfrica.com | General interest | Scoop.it
Illicit Sand Mining At Night
AllAfrica.com
Several complaints have reached this paper concerning sand mining by some unscrupulous individuals at night following a nationwide ban by the Government of Liberia.
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allAfrica.com: Liberia: Ellen Bans Exportation of Logs

allAfrica.com: Liberia: Ellen Bans Exportation of Logs | General interest | Scoop.it
allAfrica: African news and information for a global audience (Ellen Bans Exportation of Logs: [NEWS]A day following the release of a damaging report on the L...
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Liberia Takes Action on Cross-Border Attacks into Côte d’Ivoire | Human Rights Watch

Liberia Takes Action on Cross-Border Attacks into Côte d’Ivoire | Human Rights Watch | General interest | Scoop.it
  (Liberia Takes Action on Cross-Border Attacks into Côte d’Ivoire http://t.co/KO507GuM)
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M23 Rebels Making Millions through Gold Smuggling from Eastern Congo | ReliefWeb

M23 Rebels Making Millions through Gold Smuggling from Eastern Congo | ReliefWeb | General interest | Scoop.it

Posted by Laura Heaton on Jan 17, 2013

Weeks after delegates first arrived in the Ugandan capital of Kampala for talks aimed at ending the M23 rebellion in eastern Congo, preconditions for the negotiations are just being finalized. But as details about M23-linked gold smuggling from the conflict area underscores, the group maintains an extensive and lucrative network throughout the region, which undermines any hopes that the Kampala process alone will bring about lasting stability.

Most recently, Congo’s neighbor, Burundi, has become a transit point for smuggling gold from Congo, according to Enough Project sources. The U.N. Group of Experts also documented in their November 2012 report the links between M23 rebels and gold transported out of the region through Uganda via the border town of Bunagana, which has been under M23 control since July 2012:

M23 has sought financing for its movement through the sale in Kampala of gold which have transited through border posts it controls with Uganda. Former UPDF officer, two Kampala-based businessmen, and M23 cadres reported that M23 attempted to sell gold originating from mines controlled by M23 allies in Walikale and Ituri. These sources reported that M23 first brought to Kampala a shipment of 200 kilograms of gold, and subsequently another lot of 125 kilograms, both transiting through Bunagana.

At current rates, the value of those shipments equates to about $10.8 million and $8.1 million respectively.

The Group of Experts found that the 200-kilogram shipment was eventually sent on to Nairobi, Kenya, and as of September 2012 M23 members were still looking for a buyer for the 125-kilogram stock. With regards to the source of the shipment and ties to M23 leaders, the group noted:

M23 members, as well as Kampala-based smugglers informed the Group that [Bosco] Ntaganda oversaw these deals, and that the gold had been obtained through his longstanding collaboration with other armed groups. The same sources stated that the revenues of these sales would be allocated to the functioning of M23. The Group notes that Ntaganda previously collaborated with a network of scam artists in Kampala and Nairobi, and assumes that the gold could be at least partly false.

As the Enough Project wrote in a report published in October 2012, little progress has been made to regulate the trade of conflict gold from eastern Congo, in contrast to efforts to bring transparency to the market for tin, tantalum, and tungsten. In fact, Enough researchers found, “As U.S. legislation and supply-chain pressure from tech companies have made it more difficult for them to sell the more cumbersome so-called 3-T minerals—tin, tantalum, and tungsten—rebels and army commanders have increasingly turned to gold.”

One group aligned with the M23 rebels that has been particularly active of late is the Raia Mutomboki. Originally focused on hunting down FDLR fighters in Shabunda/South Kivu, factions of the group now allied with the M23 have been responsible for "incomprehensibly vicious” killings against Rwandophone community the M23 claims it fights for. The killings have been committed in operations led by M23 officers Lt. Col. Eric Badege and Makoma Semivumbi in July and August 2012 in the minerals-rich territories of Masisi and Walikale in North Kivu province and has now expanded to a mining area of Maniema province called Kasese.

Raia Mutomboki clashed with the Congolese army last week in Kasese in what civil society sources told Enough was an apparent bid to take over tin and tantalum mines. Mine operators and miners were forced to flee along with much of the local population, a source said, adding that the insecurity was therefore “likely to jeopardize the minerals bag and tagging system that has just been inaugurated for Maniema province.”

In what was presented by M23 members in Kampala as a sign of goodwill, the group announced last week that it would abide by a ceasefire, even if the Congolese government would not do the same. But civil society groups in eastern Congo were dismissive of the gesture. "The M23 has announced a cease-fire but that doesn't mean anything if its allies such as Mai-Mai Morgan in Mambasa/Ituri, Raia Mutomboki, etc. throughout the Kivus are wrecking peace efforts," SOS Africa activists said in a statement on local radio stations in Goma

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US-LIBERIA SIGN FFI AGREEMENT | Independent Eye News

US-LIBERIA SIGN FFI AGREEMENT | Independent Eye News | General interest | Scoop.it
An agreement, known as Feed the Future Initiative (FFI), intended to help Liberians in the agriculture sector and food security, has been signed between the Governments of the Federal Republic of the United States and the ...
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Forest, mines, farmland: Liberia is for sale - The West Australian

Forest, mines, farmland: Liberia is for sale - The West Australian | General interest | Scoop.it
The West Australian Forest, mines, farmland: Liberia is for sale The West Australian MONROVIA (AFP) - Liberia is selling itself slice by slice nine years after a terrible civil conflict finally came to an end, offering valuable resources to the...
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