Science, Technology, and Current Futurism
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A Case of Aneurism of the Carotid Artery

A Case of Aneurism of the Carotid Artery | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Neuroskeptic ‏@Neuro_Skeptic 
A paper from 1809, indexed on PubMed today. Fascinating to see how medical writing conventions have changed! https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2128800/
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Researchers engineer bacterium to hunt down and kill pathogens

Researchers engineer bacterium to hunt down and kill pathogens | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

Recent examples of new genetic circuits that enable cells to acquire biosynthetic capabilities, such as specific pathogen killing, present an attractive therapeutic application of synthetic biology. A team of researchers in Singapore has developed a technique for bioengineering a bacterium to seek out and kill targeted pathogens.

 

They demonstrate a novel genetic circuit that reprograms Escherichia coli to specifically recognize, migrate toward, and eradicate both dispersed and biofilm-encased pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells. The reprogrammed E. coli degraded the mature biofilm matrix and killed the latent cells encapsulated within by expressing and secreting the antimicrobial peptide microcin S and the nuclease DNaseI upon the detection of quorum sensing molecules naturally secreted by P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the reprogrammed E. coli exhibited directed motility toward the pathogen through regulated expression of CheZ in response to the quorum sensing molecules.

 

By integrating the pathogen-directed motility with the dual antimicrobial activity in E. coli, we achieved signifincantly improved killing activity against planktonic and mature biofilm cells due to target localization, thus creating an active pathogen seeking killer E. coli.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, NCPbiology
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NCPbiology's curator insight, June 27, 2014 6:26 AM

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A 3D Printed Cast That Can Heal Your Bones 40-80% Faster | TechCrunch

A 3D Printed Cast That Can Heal Your Bones 40-80% Faster | TechCrunch | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
It looks like something from the Borg (read, cool), but it's actually a cast for healing bones. The Osteoid, created by Turkish student Deniz Karasahin,..
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OUCH! Computer system spots fake expressions of pain better than people - News Center

OUCH! Computer system spots fake expressions of pain better than people - News Center | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

This ability has obvious uses for uncovering pain malingering — fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of pain for a variety of motives — but the system also could be used to detect deceptive actions in the realms of security, psychopathology, job screening, medicine and law. 

 

- See more at: http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/04/008.html#sthash.QI4luUTH.dpuf

Sharrock's insight:

Imaging how 85% might get supported with questioning--in the courtroom, at the job interview, in other situations. Or, imagine how the accuracy might get improved with personal data we willingly submit on social networks. Can an algorithm and other data become an expert witness? 

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Medical First: 3-D Printed Skull Successfully Implanted in Woman - NBC News

Medical First: 3-D Printed Skull Successfully Implanted in Woman - NBC News | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Another day, another advance in 3-D printing technology.Doctors in the Netherlands report that they have for the first time successfully replaced most of a h...
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Second baby possibly 'cured' of HIV

Second baby possibly 'cured' of HIV | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Doctors in Boston say a child infected with the dangerous virus appears to be free of HIV nine months after birth.
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Machine-learning algorithms could make chemical reactions intelligent leading to "smart drugs"

Machine-learning algorithms could make chemical reactions intelligent leading to "smart drugs" | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

Computer scientists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University have joined forces to put powerful probabilistic reasoning algorithms in the hands of bioengineers.

 

In a new paper presented at the Neural Information Processing Systems conference on December 7, Ryan P. Adams and Nils Napp have shown that an important class of artificial intelligence algorithms could be implemented using chemical reactions.

 

These algorithms, which use a technique called “message passing inference on factor graphs,” are a mathematical coupling of ideas from graph theory and probability. They represent the state of the art in machine learning and are already critical components of everyday tools ranging from search engines and fraud detection to error correction in mobile phones.

 

Adams’ and Napp’s work demonstrates that some aspects of artificial intelligence (AI) could be implemented at microscopic scales using molecules. In the long term, the researchers say, such theoretical developments could open the door for “smart drugs” that can automatically detect, diagnose, and treat a variety of diseases using a cocktail of chemicals that can perform AI-type reasoning.

 

“We understand a lot about building AI systems that can learn and adapt at macroscopic scales; these algorithms live behind the scenes in many of the devices we interact with every day,” says Adams, an assistant professor of computer science at SEAS whose Intelligent Probabilistic Systems group focuses on machine learning and computational statistics. “This work shows that it is possible to also build intelligent machines at tiny scales, without needing anything that looks like a regular computer. This kind of chemical-based AI will be necessary for constructing therapies that sense and adapt to their environment. The hope is to eventually have drugs that can specialize themselves to your personal chemistry and can diagnose or treat a range of pathologies.”

 

Adams and Napp designed a tool that can take probabilistic representations of unknowns in the world (probabilistic graphical models, in the language of machine learning) and compile them into a set of chemical reactions that estimate quantities that cannot be observed directly. The key insight is that the dynamics of chemical reactions map directly onto the two types of computational steps that computer scientists would normally perform in silico to achieve the same end.

 

This insight opens up interesting new questions for computer scientists working on statistical machine learning, such as how to develop novel algorithms and models that are specifically tailored to tackling the uncertainty molecular engineers typically face. In addition to the long-term possibilities for smart therapeutics, it could also open the door for analyzing natural biological reaction pathways and regulatory networks as mechanisms that are performing statistical inference. Just like robots, biological cells must estimate external environmental states and act on them; designing artificial systems that perform these tasks could give scientists a better understanding of how such problems might be solved on a molecular level inside living systems.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Liangfang Zhang | Innovators Under 35 | MIT Technology Review

Liangfang Zhang | Innovators Under 35 | MIT Technology Review | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
A nanoengineering scheme to make drugs more effective by fooling the immune system.
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from the article: "Zhang derives red-blood-cell membranes from blood samples and uses them to coat polymer nanoparticles. Because these particles look like red blood cells on the surface, they can fool the immune system; loaded with drugs, they serve as robust and long-lived drug carriers. An unexpected bonus: they can also act like nanoscale sponges to suck up toxic proteins produced by infectious bacteria or introduced by snake or insect venom. If the particles flood the bloodstream, they will divert most of the toxin away from actual cells."

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Study offers new clue into how anesthesia works

Study offers new clue into how anesthesia works | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it
Anesthesia, long considered a blessing to patients and surgeons, has been a mystery for much of its 160-plus-year history in the operating room.
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Neurological Trauma - BrainFacts.org

Neurological Trauma - BrainFacts.org | Science, Technology, and Current Futurism | Scoop.it

 

Brain injury is all too common, but treatments are being improved constantly. Traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries can lead to significant disabilities and death. In the United States, an estimated 1.7 million people suffer traumatic head injuries each year, and roughly 52,000 will die. The leading causes of traumatic brain injury are falls and motor-vehicle related events.

  
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