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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant pathogenic fungi
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The Aspergillus fumigatus Damage Resistance Protein Family Coordinately Regulates Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Azole Susceptibility

The Aspergillus fumigatus Damage Resistance Protein Family Coordinately Regulates Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Azole Susceptibility | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
IMPORTANCE Knowledge of the ergosterol biosynthesis route in fungal pathogens is useful in the design of new antifungal drugs and could aid in the study of antifungal-drug resistance mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that three cytochrome b5-like Dap proteins coordinately regulate the azole resistance and ergosterol biosynthesis catalyzed by cytochrome P450 proteins. Our new insights into the Dap regulatory system in fungal pathogens may have broad therapeutic ramifications beyond their usefulness for classic azole antifungals. Moreover, our elucidation of the molecular mechanism of Dap regulation of cytochrome P450 protein functionality through heme-binding activity may extend beyond the Kingdom Fungi with applicability toward Dap protein regulation of mammalian sterol synthesis.

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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Pharma Biotech Industry Review (Krishan Maggon)
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FDA requires additional Phase III trial for Basilea antibiotic Ceftobiprole for NDA filing

Basilea Pharmaceutica Ltd. (SIX: BSLN) reports that it had a further discussion regarding ceftobiprole with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in light of new regulatory requirements for pneumonia in the U.S. In this recent discussion, the FDA confirmed that a potential regulatory approval of ceftobiprole for the treatment of pneumonia in the U.S. would require additional phase 3 data. The FDA confirmed that the current ceftobiprole studies should be complemented with prospective data in community and hospital-acquired pneumonia in accordance with its new guidelines. Basilea does not currently intend to initiate new phase 3 trials for ceftobiprole without a partner for the U.S.

 

Ronald Scott, Basilea's Chief Executive Officer, stated: "We are currently focused on preparing the launch of ceftobiprole for the treatment of community and hospital-acquired pneumonia in Europe with a pharmaceutical distributor or contract sales organization. We anticipate that ceftobiprole will be available in the first key European markets in the second half of this year." He continued: "Another major milestone for Basilea will be the regulatory submission of isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We anticipate filing in Europe mid this year and we also anticipate a mid-year filing by our partner Astellas in the U.S. We are excited to potentially adding a second anti-infective to our commercial portfolio of hospital drugs. The significant overlap in the prescribing base between ceftobiprole and isavuconazole could provide a unique opportunity to optimize the value of both drugs by leveraging significant promotional synergy."

About ceftobiprole

Ceftobiprole (ceftobiprole medocaril) is a broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic from the cephalosporin class for the first-line treatment of severe bacterial infections. Ceftobiprole has gained regulatory authorization from twelve European states for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP, excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients 18 years of age and older, and is currently under regulatory review in Switzerland. In the U.S., ceftobiprole is an investigational drug. Ceftobiprole demonstrated broad-spectrum in-vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, VRSA) and penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP, CRSP) as well as Gram-negative pathogens including strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas.

About isavuconazole

Isavuconazole (isavuconazonium sulfate) is an investigational once-daily intravenous and oral broad-spectrum antifungal for the potential treatment of severe invasive and life-threatening fungal infections. It is currently in phase 3 of clinical development. Detailed results from the SECURE phase 3 study were reported in May 2014, while topline data of the VITAL phase 3 study were reported in February 2014. The two studies will form the basis of a potential regulatory filing for isavuconazole in Europe and the U.S. mid-2014.

Isavuconazole demonstrated in-vitro and in-vivo coverage of a broad range of yeasts (such asCandida species) and molds (such as Aspergillus species), including emerging and often fatal molds such as those that cause mucormycosis. In the U.S., isavuconazole was granted FDA fast-track status and received QIDP and orphan drug designations for invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis (zygomycosis).

Isavuconazole is being co-developed with Astellas Pharma Inc. Basilea holds full rights to isavuconazole in all markets outside of the U.S. and Canada, where Astellas is the license holder.


Via Krishan Maggon
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Basilea requires a US marketing partner to pay for Phase III trials.

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, June 25, 2014 2:51 PM

Basilea requires a US marketing partner to pay for Phase III trials.

Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions

The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Asperterrestide A, a Cytotoxic Cyclic Tetrapeptide from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus SCSGAF0162

Asperterrestide A, a Cytotoxic Cyclic Tetrapeptide from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus SCSGAF0162 | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

A new cytotoxic and antiviral cyclic tetrapeptide, asperterrestide A (1), a new alkaloid, terremide C (2), and a new aromatic butenolide, aspernolide E (3), together with 10 known compounds were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus SCSGAF0162. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the Mosher ester technique and analysis of the acid hydrolysates using a chiral-phase HPLC column. Compound 1 contains a rare 3-OH-N-CH3-Phe residue and showed cytotoxicity against U937 and MOLT4 human carcinoma cell lines and inhibitory effects on influenza virus strains H1N1 and H3N2.

 

Fei He†, Jie Bao†, Xiao-Yong Zhang†, Zheng-Chao Tu‡, Yi-Ming Shi§, and Shu-Hua Qi

J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/np300897v

Publication Date (Web): June 12, 2013


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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by Fusarium Species

Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by  Fusarium  Species | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of antimicrobial compounds in their environments and often possess metabolic strategies to detoxify such xenobiotics. We have previously shown that Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of maize known for its production of fumonisin mycotoxins, possesses two unlinked loci, FDB1 and FDB2, necessary for detoxification of antimicrobial compounds produced by maize, including the γ-lactam 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA). In support of these earlier studies, microarray analysis of F. verticillioides exposed to BOA identified the induction of multiple genes at FDB1 and FDB2, indicating the loci consist of gene clusters. One of the FDB1 cluster genes encoded a protein having domain homology to the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Deletion of this gene (MBL1) rendered F. verticillioides incapable of metabolizing BOA and thus unable to grow on BOA-amended media. Deletion of other FDB1 cluster genes, in particular AMD1 and DLH1, did not affect BOA degradation. Phylogenetic analyses and topology testing of the FDB1 and FDB2 cluster genes suggested two horizontal transfer events among fungi, one being transfer of FDB1 from Fusarium to Colletotrichum, and the second being transfer of the FDB2 cluster from Fusarium to Aspergillus. Together, the results suggest that plant-derived xenobiotics have exerted evolutionary pressure on these fungi, leading to horizontal transfer of genes that enhance fitness or virulence.

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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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Scoop.it: Mycorrhizal fungal genomes (2014)

Scoop.it: Mycorrhizal fungal genomes (2014) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Genome and Transcriptome of Mycorrhizal fungi - by S. Ghignone & R. Balestrini


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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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MPMI: The genome of the saprophytic fungus Verticillium tricorpus reveals a complex effector repertoire resembling that of its pathogenic relatives (2014)

MPMI: The genome of the saprophytic fungus Verticillium tricorpus reveals a complex effector repertoire resembling that of its pathogenic relatives (2014) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Vascular wilts caused by Verticillium spp. are destructive plant diseases, affecting hundreds of hosts. Only few Verticillium spp. are causal agents of vascular wilt diseases, of which V. dahliae is the most notorious pathogen, and several V. dahliae genomes are available. In contrast, V. tricorpus is mainly known as saprophyte and causal agent of opportunistic infections. Based on a hybrid approach that combines second and third generation sequencing, a near-gapless V. tricorpus genome assembly was obtained. With comparative genomics, we aimed to identify genomic features in V. dahliae that confer the ability to cause vascular wilt disease. Unexpectedly, both species encode similar effector repertoires and share a genomic structure with genes encoding secreted proteins clustered in genomic islands. Intriguingly, V. tricorpus contains significantly less repetitive elements and an extended spectrum of secreted carbohydrate-active enzymes when compared with V. dahliae. In conclusion, we highlight the technical advances of a hybrid sequencing and assembly approach and reveal that the saprophyte V. tricorpus shares many hallmark features with V. dahliae.


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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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Leighton Pritchard's talk @ Microbial Agrogenomics, UK-MX Workshop (2015)

Keynote presentation, 4th February 2015, León, México - part of the 2015 Genomics Research on Plant-Parasite Interactions to Increase Food Production UK-MX Workshop.


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MPMI: Focus on The Good, the Bad and the Unknown: Genomics-Enabled Discovery of Plant-Associated Microbial Processes and Diversity (2015)

MPMI: Focus on The Good, the Bad and the Unknown: Genomics-Enabled Discovery of Plant-Associated Microbial Processes and Diversity (2015) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

MPMI has played a leading role in disseminating new insights into plant-microbe interactions and promoting new approaches. Articles in this Focus Issue highlight the power of genomic studies in uncovering novel determinants of plant interactions with microbial symbionts (good), pathogens (bad), and complex microbial communities (unknown). Many articles also illustrate how genomics can support translational research by quickly advancing our knowledge of important microbes that have not been widely studied.


Click on Next Article or Table of Contents above to view the articles in this Focus Issue. (From the mobile site, go to the MPMI March 2015 issue.)


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pearfriday's comment, June 4, 2015 6:09 AM
Thats amazing...
gobsmackedmumble's comment, July 1, 2015 6:32 AM
Thats striking...
Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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bioRxiv: Successful asexual lineages of the Irish potato Famine pathogen are triploid (2015)

bioRxiv: Successful asexual lineages of the Irish potato Famine pathogen are triploid (2015) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans was the causal agent of the Irish Great Famine and is a recurring threat to global food security. The pathogen can reproduce both sexually and asexually and has a potential to adapt both abiotic and biotic environment. Although in many regions the A1 and A2 mating types coexist, the far majority of isolates belong to few clonal, asexual lineages. As other oomycetes, P. infestans is thought to be diploid during the vegetative phase of its life cycle, but it was observed that trisomy correlated with virulence and mating type locus and that polyploidy can occur in some isolates. It remains unknown about the frequency of polyploidy occurrence in nature and the relationship between ploidy level and sexuality. Here we discovered that the sexuality of P. infestans isolates correlates with ploidy by comparison of microsatellite fingerprinting, genome-wide polymorphism, DNA quantity, and chromosome numbers. The sexual progeny of P. infestans in nature are diploid, whereas the asexual lineages are mostly triploids, including successful clonal lineages US-1 and 13_A2. This study reveals polyploidization as an extra evolutionary risk to this notorious plant destroyer.


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Mol Microbiol: Chemotaxis and oospore formation in Phytophthora sojae are controlled by G-protein-coupled receptors with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain (2013)

Mol Microbiol: Chemotaxis and oospore formation in Phytophthora sojae are controlled by G-protein-coupled receptors with a phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase domain (2013) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key cellular components that mediate extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Genome mining revealed that Phytophthora spp. have over 60 GPCR genes among which a prominent class of 12 encoding novel proteins with an N-terminal GPCR domain fused to a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPK) domain. This study focuses on two GPCR-PIPKs (GKs) in Phytophthora sojae. PsGK4 and PsGK5 are differentially expressed during the life cycle with the highest expression in cysts and during cyst germination, and at late infection stages. In P. sojae transformants that constitutively express RFP-tagged PsGK4 andPsGK5, the fusion proteins in hyphae reside in small, rapidly moving vesicular-like structures. Functional analysis using gene silencing showed that PsGK4-silenced transformants displayed higher levels of encystment and a reduced cyst germination rate when compared with the recipient strain. Moreover, GK4 deficiency (or reduction) resulted in severe defects in zoospore chemotaxis towards isoflavones and soybean roots. In contrast, PsGK5-silenced transformants exhibited no obvious defects in asexual development but oospore production was severely impaired. Both, PsGK4- and PsGK5-silenced transformants showed reduced pathogenicity. These results point to involvement of GKs in zoospore behaviour, chemotaxis and oospore development, and suggest that PsGK4 and PsGK5 each head independent signalling pathways.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Guogen Yang, Fana Omar
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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Market Research Report
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Global and China FF-02 Fungicide Industry 2014 Market Research Report

Global and China FF-02 Fungicide Industry 2014 Market Research Report | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
Global and China FF-02 Fungicide Industry 2014 Market Research Report

Via Pramod Pawar
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Pramod Pawar's curator insight, March 27, 2014 1:22 AM
 Global And China FF-02 Fungicide Industry 2014

 

The report firstly introduced FF-02 fungicidebasic information included FF-02 fungicidedefinition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, FF-02 fungicideindustry policy and plan, FF-02 fungicideproduct specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers FF-02 fungicidecapacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers FF-02 fungicideproducts customers application capacity market position company contact information etc company related information, then collect all these manufacturers data and listed Global and China Specialty Carbon Black capacity production capacity market share production market share supply demand shortage import export consumption etc data statistics, and then introduced Global and China FF-02 fungicide2009-2019 capacity production price cost profit production value gross margin etc information. 

 

Browse Full Report With TOC:

http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis-details/global-and-china-ff-02-fungicide-industry-2014-market-research-report

 

And also listed FF-02 fungicideupstream raw materials equipments and down stream clients survey analysis and FF-02 fungicidemarketing channels industry development trend and proposals. In the end, The report introduced FF-02 fungicidenew project SWOT analysis Investment feasibility analysis investment return analysis and also give related research conclusions and development trend analysis on Global and China Specialty Carbon Black industry. 

 

In a word, it was a depth research report on Global and China FF-02 fungicideindustry. And thanks to the support and assistance from FF-02 fungicideindustry chain related technical experts and marketing engineers during Research Team survey and interviews.

 

To Get Download Full Report with TOC:

http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/192175

 

Table of Contents

 

Chapter One FF-02 fungicideIndustry Overview

1.1 FF-02 fungicideDefinition

1.2 FF-02 fungicideClassification and Application

1.3 FF-02 fungicideIndustry Chain Structure

1.4 FF-02 fungicideIndustry Overview

 

Chapter Two FF-02 fungicideInternational and China Market Analysis

2.1 FF-02 fungicideIndustry International Market Analysis

2.1.1 FF-02 fungicideInternational Market Development History

2.1.2 FF-02 fungicideProduct and Technology Developments

2.1.3 FF-02 fungicideCompetitive Landscape Analysis

2.1.4 FF-02 fungicideInternational Key Countries Development Status

2.1.5 FF-02 fungicideInternational Market Development Trend

2.2 FF-02 fungicideIndustry China Market Analysis

2.2.1 FF-02 fungicideChina Market Development History

2.2.2 FF-02 fungicideProduct and Technology Developments

2.2.3 FF-02 fungicideCompetitive Landscape Analysis

2.2.4 FF-02 fungicideChina Key Regions Development Status

2.2.5 FF-02 fungicideChina Market Development Trend

2.3 FF-02 fungicideInternational and China Market Comparison Analysis

 

To Read Complete Report with TOC:

http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis/192175

 

Chapter Three FF-02 fungicideDevelopment Environmental Analysis

3.1 China Macroeconomic Environment Analysis

3.1.1 China GDP Analysis

3.1.2 China CPI Analysis

3.2 European Economic Environmental Analysis 

3.3 United States Economic Environmental Analysis 

3.4 Japan Economic Environmental Analysis

3.5 Other Regions Economic Environmental Analysis

3.6 Global Economic Environmental Analysis

 

Chapter Four FF-02 fungicideDevelopment Policy and Plan

4.1 FF-02 fungicideIndustry Policy Analysis

4.2 FF-02 fungicideIndustry News Analysis

4.3 FF-02 fungicideIndustry Development Trend

 

Chapter Five FF-02 fungicideManufacturing Process and Cost Structure

5.1 FF-02 fungicideProduct Specifications

5.2 FF-02 fungicideManufacturing Process Analysis

5.3 FF-02 fungicideCost Structure Analysis

5.4 FF-02 fungicidePrice Cost Gross Analysis

 

  

 

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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Fungi are the 'Secret Police' in Rain Forest Diversity, Study Finds ...

Fungi are the 'Secret Police' in Rain Forest Diversity, Study Finds ... | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
A new study has revealed that fungi, often seen as pests, play a crucial role policing biodiversity in rainforests. Rachel Gallery, an assistant professor of microbial ecology in the University of Arizona's College of Agriculture and ...

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Steve Marek's curator insight, January 27, 2014 11:34 AM

Fungi, NOT insects or oomycetes

Carla Garzon's comment, January 27, 2014 12:36 PM
I would expect Oomycetes to be underrepresented in natural soil microbial communities. They are poor competitors and are inhibited by several antagonistic bacteria and fungi.
Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Microscopy and Microanalysis - Live Cell Imaging of Actin Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

Microscopy and Microanalysis - Live Cell Imaging of Actin Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus nidulans | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
Hyphal cells of filamentous fungi grow at their tips in a method analogous to pollen tube and root hair elongation. This process, generally referred to as tip growth, requires precise regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and characterizing the various actin structures in these cell types is currently an active area of research. Here, the actin marker Lifeact was used to document actin dynamics in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Contractile double rings were observed at septa, and annular clusters of puncta were seen subtending growing hyphal tips, corresponding to the well-characterized subapical endocytic collar. However, Lifeact also revealed two additional structures. One, an apical array, was dynamic on the face opposite the tip, while a subapical web was dynamic on the apical face and was located several microns behind the growth site. Each was observed turning into the other over time, implying that they could represent different localizations of the same structure, although hyphae with a subapical web grew faster than those exhibiting an apical array. The subapical web has not been documented in any filamentous fungus to date, and is separate from the networks of F-actin seen in other tip-growing organisms surrounding septa or stationary along the plasmalemma.

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Study Links (Monsanto's) Roundup 'Weedkiller' To Overgrowth of Deadly Fungal Toxins

Study Links (Monsanto's) Roundup 'Weedkiller' To Overgrowth of Deadly Fungal Toxins | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
A new study lead by Argentinean researchers and published in the Journal of Environmental Science and Health titled, "Influence of herbicide glyphosate on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains isolated from soil on...
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Study Links (Monsanto's) Roundup 'Weedkiller' To Overgrowth of Deadly Fungal Toxins

Study Links (Monsanto's) Roundup 'Weedkiller' To Overgrowth of Deadly Fungal Toxins | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
A new study lead by Argentinean researchers and published in the Journal of Environmental Science and Health titled, "Influence of herbicide glyphosate on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains isolated from soil on...
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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Alkaloids from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013

Alkaloids from the Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Two new benzodiazepine alkaloids, circumdatins K and L (1, 2), two new prenylated indole alkaloids, 5-chlorosclerotiamide (3) and 10-epi-sclerotiamide (4), and one novel amide, aspergilliamide B (5), together with six known alkaloids were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of the compounds were tested for cytotoxicity toward human carcinoma A549, HL-60, K562, and MCF-7 cell lines.

 

Jiang Peng†‡, Xiao-Yong Zhang†, Zheng-Chao Tu§, Xin-Ya Xu†, and Shu-Hua Qi

J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAP

DOI: 10.1021/np400132m

Publication Date (Web): April 26, 2013


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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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Science: Genomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hosts (2014)

Science: Genomic-scale exchange of mRNA between a parasitic plant and its hosts (2014) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Movement of RNAs between cells of a single plant is well documented, but cross-species RNA transfer is largely unexplored. Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) is a parasitic plant that forms symplastic connections with its hosts and takes up host messenger RNAs (mRNAs). We sequenced transcriptomes of Cuscuta growing on Arabidopsis and tomato hosts to characterize mRNA transfer between species and found that mRNAs move in high numbers and in a bidirectional manner. The mobile transcripts represented thousands of different genes, and nearly half the expressed transcriptome of Arabidopsis was identified in Cuscuta. These findings demonstrate that parasitic plants can exchange large proportions of their transcriptomes with hosts, providing potential mechanisms for RNA-based interactions between species and horizontal gene transfer.


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Arjen ten Have's curator insight, April 10, 2017 6:22 PM
Sharing stuff is key yo any interaction. The higher the mutual dependency, the more partners will share. What I do not have clear yet is whether pathogenic relationships will differ substantially from mutualistic ones. miRNA has been shown in plant pathogen relationships, but I can also envisage these in a mutualistic symbiosis. Quite a conundrum. But that' s what  plant-pathogen relations are about anyway.
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Frontiers: Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors (2014)

Frontiers: Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors (2014) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defense proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialized gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.


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MPMI: Candidate Effector Proteins of the Rust Pathogen Melampsora Larici-Populina Target Diverse Plant Cell Compartments (2015)

MPMI: Candidate Effector Proteins of the Rust Pathogen Melampsora Larici-Populina Target Diverse Plant Cell Compartments (2015) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Rust fungi are devastating crop pathogens that deliver effector proteins into infected tissues to modulate plant functions and promote parasitic growth. The genome of the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina revealed a large catalogue of secreted proteins, some of which have been considered candidate effectors. Unravelling how these proteins function in host cells is key to understanding pathogenicity mechanisms and developing resistant plants. In this study, we used an effectoromics pipeline to select, clone, and express 20 candidate effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells to determine their subcellular localisation and identify the plant proteins they interact with. Confocal microscopy revealed that six candidate effectors target the nucleus, nucleoli, chloroplasts, mitochondria and discrete cellular bodies. We also used coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify 606 N. benthamiana proteins that associate with the candidate effectors. Five candidate effectors specifically associated with a small set of plant proteins that may represent biologically relevant interactors. We confirmed the interaction between the candidate effector MLP124017 and the TOPLESS-Related Protein 4 from poplar by in planta coimmunoprecipitation. Altogether, our data enable us to validate effector proteins from M. larici-populina and reveal that these proteins may target multiple compartments and processes in plant cells. It also shows that N. benthamiana can be a powerful heterologous system to study effectors of obligate biotrophic pathogens.


Via The Sainsbury Lab, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, February 5, 2015 7:23 AM

Rust fungi are devastating crop pathogens that deliver effector proteins into infected tissues to modulate plant functions and promote parasitic growth. The genome of the poplar leaf rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina revealed a large catalogue of secreted proteins, some of which have been considered candidate effectors. Unravelling how these proteins function in host cells is key to understanding pathogenicity mechanisms and developing resistant plants. In this study, we used an effectoromics pipeline to select, clone, and express 20 candidate effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells to determine their subcellular localisation and identify the plant proteins they interact with. Confocal microscopy revealed that six candidate effectors target the nucleus, nucleoli, chloroplasts, mitochondria and discrete cellular bodies. We also used coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify 606 N. benthamiana proteins that associate with the candidate effectors. Five candidate effectors specifically associated with a small set of plant proteins that may represent biologically relevant interactors. We confirmed the interaction between the candidate effector MLP124017 and the TOPLESS-Related Protein 4 from poplar by in planta coimmunoprecipitation. Altogether, our data enable us to validate effector proteins from M. larici-populina and reveal that these proteins may target multiple compartments and processes in plant cells. It also shows that N. benthamiana can be a powerful heterologous system to study effectors of obligate biotrophic pathogens.

Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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Nature Genetics: Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists (2015)

Nature Genetics: Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists (2015) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall–degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose. Similar functional categories of nonorthologous genes are induced in symbiosis. Of induced genes, 7–38% are orphan genes, including genes that encode secreted effector-like proteins. Convergent evolution of the mycorrhizal habit in fungi occurred via the repeated evolution of a 'symbiosis toolkit', with reduced numbers of PCWDEs and lineage-specific suites of mycorrhiza-induced genes.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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bioRxiv: The two-speed genomes of filamentous pathogens: waltz with plants (2015)

bioRxiv: The two-speed genomes of filamentous pathogens: waltz with plants (2015) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Fungi and oomycetes include deep and diverse lineages of eukaryotic plant pathogens. The last 10 years have seen the sequencing of the genomes of a multitude of species of these so-called filamentous plant pathogens. Already, fundamental concepts have emerged. Filamentous plant pathogen genomes tend to harbor large repertoires of genes encoding virulence effectors that modulate host plant processes. Effector genes are not randomly distributed across the genomes but tend to be associated with compartments enriched in repetitive sequences and transposable elements. These findings have led to the “two-speed genome” model in which filamentous pathogen genomes have a bipartite architecture with gene sparse, repeat rich compartments serving as a cradle for adaptive evolution. Here, we review this concept and discuss how plant pathogens are great model systems to study evolutionary adaptations at multiple time scales. We will also introduce the next phase of research on this topic.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from Plant Pathogenomics
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Frontiers: Computational analyses of ancient pathogen DNA from herbarium samples: challenges and prospects (2015)

Frontiers: Computational analyses of ancient pathogen DNA from herbarium samples: challenges and prospects (2015) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it
The application of DNA sequencing technology to the study of ancient DNA has enabled the reconstruction of past epidemics from genomes of historically important plant-associated microbes. Recently, the genome sequences of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans were analyzed from 19th century herbarium specimens. These herbarium samples originated from infected potatoes collected during and after the Irish potato famine. Herbaria have therefore great potential to help elucidate past epidemics of crops, date the emergence of pathogens, and inform about past pathogen population dynamics. DNA preservation in herbarium samples was unexpectedly good, raising the possibility of a whole new research area in plant and microbial genomics. However, the recovered DNA can be extremely fragmented resulting in specific challenges in reconstructing genome sequences. Here we review some of the challenges in computational analyses of ancient DNA from herbarium samples. We also applied the recently developed linkage method to haplotype reconstruction of diploid or polyploid genomes from fragmented ancient DNA.

Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia from pathogenic fungus
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Nature Communications: The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen (2013)

Nature Communications: The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen (2013) | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice sheath blight disease pathogen, R. solani AG1 IA, assembled using next-generation Illumina Genome Analyser sequencing technologies. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted proteins, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, which probably reflect an exclusive necrotrophic lifestyle. We find few repetitive elements, a closer relationship to Agaricomycotina among Basidiomycetes, and expand protein domains and families. Among the 25 candidate pathogen effectors identified according to their functionality and evolution, we validate 3 that trigger crop defence responses; hence we reveal the exclusive expression patterns of the pathogenic determinants during host infection.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Fana Omar
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Scooped by Manoj Kumar Chaurasia
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A reassessment of the risk of rust fungi developing resistance to fungicides. - Oliver - Pest Management Science

A reassessment of the risk of rust fungi developing resistance to fungicides. - Oliver - Pest Management Science | Fungal Biology | Scoop.it

Rust fungi are major pathogens of many annual and perennial crops. Crop protection is largely based on genetic and chemical control. Fungicide resistance is a significant issue that has affected many crop pathogens. Some pathogens have rapidly developed resistance and hence are regarded as high risk species. Rust fungi have been classified as being low risk despite sharing many relevant features with high risk pathogens. An examination of the evidence suggests that rust fungi may be wrongly classified as low risk. Of the 9 classes of fungicide to which resistance has developed, 6 are inactive against rusts. The three remaining classes are QoI, DMIs and SDHIs. QoIs have been protected by a recently discovered intron that renders resistant mutants unviable. Low levels of resistance have developed to DMIs but with limited field significance. Older SDHI fungicides were inactive against rusts. Some of the SDHIs introduced since 2003 are active against rusts so it may be that insufficient time has elapsed for resistance to develop, especially as SDHIs are generally sold in mixtures with other actives. It would therefore seem prudent to increase the level of vigilance for possible cases of resistance to established and new fungicides in rusts.

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