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Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus): the Iceman’s polypore fungus with modern biotechnological potential

Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus): the Iceman’s polypore fungus with modern biotechnological potential | Forest health | Scoop.it
Higher Basidiomycota have been used in natural medicine throughout the world for centuries. One of such fungi is Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus), which causes brown rot of birch wood. Annual white to brownish fruiting bodies of the species can be found on trees in the northern hemisphere but F. betulina can also be cultured as a mycelium and fruiting body. The fungus has a long tradition of being applied in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent. Probably due to the curative properties, pieces of its fruiting body were carried by Ötzi the Iceman. Modern research confirms the health-promoting benefits of F. betulina. Pharmacological studies have provided evidence supporting the antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotective, and immunomodulating activities of F. betulina preparations. Biologically active compounds such as triterpenoids have been isolated. The mushroom is also a reservoir of valuable enzymes and other substances such as cell wall (1→3)-α-d-glucan which can be used for induction of microbial enzymes degrading cariogenic dental biofilm. In conclusion, F. betulina can be considered as a promising source for the development of new products for healthcare and other biotechnological uses.

Via Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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Contrasting microsatellite diversity in the evolutionary lineages of Phytophthora lateralis

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Root disease can rival fire and harvest in reducing forest carbon storage - Healey - 2016 - Ecosphere - Wiley Online Library

Root disease can rival fire and harvest in reducing forest carbon storage - Healey - 2016 - Ecosphere - Wiley Online Library | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast

Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast | Forest health | Scoop.it
Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche.

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Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America

Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America | Forest health | Scoop.it
Tree diseases cause unsightly blemishes to appear on your trees as well as cause death in many that are affected. Here is a list of the top 10 tree dise......
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Lists are always faulty: comandra blister rust but not white pine blister rust?
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Gene expression profiling of candidate virulence factors in the laminated root rot pathogen Phellinus sulphurascens

Background Phellinus sulphurascens is a fungal pathogen that causes laminar root rot in conifers, one of the most damaging root diseases in western North America. Despite its importance as a forest pathogen, this fungus is still poorly studied at the genomic level. An understanding of the molecular events involved in establishment of the disease should help to develop new methods for control of this disease.Results We generated over 4600 expressed sequence tags from two cDNA libraries constructed using either mycelia grown on cellophane sheets and exposed to Douglas-fir roots or tissues from P. sulphurascens-infected Douglas-fir roots. A total of 890 unique genes were identified from the two libraries, and functional classification of 636 of these genes was possible using the Functional Catalogue (FunCat) annotation scheme. cDNAs were identified that encoded 79 potential virulence factors, including numerous genes implicated in virulence in a variety of phytopathogenic fungi. Many of these putative virulence factors were also among 82 genes identified as encoding putatively secreted proteins. The expression patterns of 86 selected fungal genes over 7 days of infection of Douglas-fir were examined using real-time PCR, and those significantly up-regulated included rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase, 1,4-benzoquinone reductase, a cyclophilin, a glucoamylase, 3 hydrophobins, a lipase, a serine carboxypeptidase, a putative Ran-binding protein, and two unknown putatively secreted proteins called 1 J04 and 2 J12. Significantly down-regulated genes included a manganese-superoxide dismutase, two metalloproteases, and an unknown putatively secreted protein called Ps0058.Conclusions This first collection of Phellinus sulphurascens EST sequences and its annotation provide an important resource for future research aimed at understanding key virulence factors of this forest pathogen. We examined the expression patterns of numerous fungal genes with potential roles in virulence, and found a collection of functionally diverse genes that are significantly up- or down-regulated during infection of Douglas-fir seedling roots by P. sulphurascens.
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The Infection Biology of Sphaerulina musiva: Clues to Understanding a Forest Pathogen

The Infection Biology of Sphaerulina musiva: Clues to Understanding a Forest Pathogen | Forest health | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi

Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Gene discovery for enzymes involved in limonene modification or utilization by the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera

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Fungus, pests take toll on region's ponderosas - Spokesman.com ...

Fungus, pests take toll on region's ponderosas - Spokesman.com ... | Forest health | Scoop.it
“Tags:Department of Natural Resourcesforest healthGuy GiffordHigh Drive BluffKent MolinePaul Zambinoponderosa pineSteve McConnelltree pathogensWashington State University Extension. You have viewed free articles or blogs allowed within a 30-day ...”
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Tree disease sweeps through Everglades - Sun-Sentinel

Tree disease sweeps through Everglades - Sun-Sentinel | Forest health | Scoop.it
“Tree disease sweeps through Everglades Sun-Sentinel A plant disease blazing through South Florida is killing off swamp bay trees, an important part of the architecture of the Everglades that provides food for a vast range of wildlife and...”
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Beating the beetles

Beating the beetles | Forest health | Scoop.it
The Arnold Arboretum celebrates a successful collaboration with the U.S. government to prevent tree destruction by the invasive Asian longhorned beetle.
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Phylogeny, divergence time and historical biogeography of Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales)

Phylogeny, divergence time and historical biogeography of Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) | Forest health | Scoop.it
Background

The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular relationship, origin and historical biogeography of the species in important brown rot fungal genus Laetiporus from East Asia, Europe, Pan-America, Hawaii and South Africa. We used six genetic markers to estimate a genus-level phylogeny including (1) the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), (2) nuclear large subunit rDNA (nrLSU), (3) nuclear small subunit rDNA (nrSSU), (4) translation elongation factor 1-α (EF-1α), (5) DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (RPB2), and (6) mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU).
Results

Results of multi-locus phylogenetic analyses show clade support for at least seventeen species-level lineages including two new Laetiporus in China. Molecular dating using BEAST estimated the present crown group diverged approximately 20.16 million years ago (Mya) in the early Miocene. Biogeographic analyses using RASP indicated that Laetiporus most likely originated in temperate zones with East Asia and North America having the highest probability (48%) of being the ancestral area.
Conclusions

Four intercontinental dispersal routes and a possible concealed dispersal route were established for the first time.

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Towards an integrated ecosystem of R packages for the analysis of population genetic data - Paradis - 2016 - Molecular Ecology Resources - Wiley Online Library

Towards an integrated ecosystem of R packages for the analysis of population genetic data - Paradis - 2016 - Molecular Ecology Resources - Wiley Online Library | Forest health | Scoop.it
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From yeast to hypha: defining transcriptomic signatures of the morphological switch in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

From yeast to hypha: defining transcriptomic signatures of the morphological switch in the dimorphic fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi | Forest health | Scoop.it
Yeast-to-hypha transition is a major morphological change in fungi. Molecular regulators and pathways that are involved in this process have been extensively studied in model species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mitogen-Actived Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascade, for example, is known to be involved in the yeast-to-pseudohypha switch. Yet the conservation of mechanisms regulating such morphological changes in non-model fungi is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate cell remodeling and transcriptomic modifications that occur during this morphological switch in the highly aggressive ascomycete fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. Using a combination of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the morphological switch occurs in less than 27 h, with phenotypic cell modifications being detected within the first 4 h. Using RNAseq, we found that over 22% of the genome of O. novo-ulmi is differentially expressed during the transition. By performing clustering analyses of time series gene expression data, we identified several sets of genes that are differentially expressed according to distinct and representative temporal profiles. Further, we found that several genes that are homologous to S. cerevisiae MAPK genes are regulated during the yeast-to-hypha transition in O. novo-ulmi and mostly over-expressed, suggesting convergence in gene expression regulation. Our results are the first report of a time-course experiment monitoring the morphological transition in a non-model Sordariomycota species and reveal many genes of interest for further functional investigations of fungal dimorphism.
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Nonhost resistance to rust pathogens – a contin...

Nonhost resistance to rust pathogens – a contin... | Forest health | Scoop.it
The rust fungi (order: Pucciniales) are a group of widely distributed fungal plant pathogens, which can infect representatives of all vascular plant groups.
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Tree diseases finally addressed in new practical guidebook

Tree diseases finally addressed in new practical guidebook | Forest health | Scoop.it
Winnipeg, Canada (PRWEB) July 16, 2014. From consulting urban forester Michael Allen comes a brand-new picture book that addresses hundreds of questions about tree diseases. “Dr. Tree's Guide to the Common ...
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In the Field » The Butterfly Effect: The impact of an invasive disease ...

In the Field » The Butterfly Effect: The impact of an invasive disease ... | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Back to the future: natural history and the way forward in modern fungal ecology

'Paradoxically, as these extensive datasets accumulate we are often at a loss for interpretation due to the lack of basic autecology and natural history information for most 'fungi. As a result we are in danger of learning less and about more and more.
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Moving beyond the GM Debate

Moving beyond the GM Debate | Forest health | Scoop.it
PLOS Biology is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that features works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science, from molecules to ecosystems, including works at the interface with other disciplines.
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UAS to Detect Fruit Tree Diseases in Flanders | UAS VISION

UAS to Detect Fruit Tree Diseases in Flanders | UAS VISION | Forest health | Scoop.it
“UAS to Detect Fruit Tree Diseases in Flanders http://t.co/Xmc9ytluE5”
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Pathogenicity of Phytophthora pluvialis to Pinus radiata and its relation with red needle cast disease in New Zealand - Springer

Pathogenicity of Phytophthora pluvialis to Pinus radiata and its relation with red needle cast disease in New Zealand - Springer | Forest health | Scoop.it
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Nari Williams's curator insight, July 8, 2014 9:01 PM

Link to paper: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40490-014-0006-7

 

Check out our other RNC publications:

Decline in vitality of propagules of Phytophthora pluvialis and Phytophthora kernoviae and their inability to contaminate or colonise bark and sapwood in Pinus radiata export log simulation studies. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40490-014-0007-6

 

The use of adjuvants to improve uptake of phosphorous acid applied to Pinus radiata needles for control of foliar Phytophthora diseases. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40490-014-0008-5/fulltext.html

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Population structure of the invasive forest pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus - Gross - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online Library

Population structure of the invasive forest pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus - Gross - Molecular Ecology - Wiley Online Library | Forest health | Scoop.it
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