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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from How microbes emerge
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Emergence and accumulation of novel pathogens suppress an invasive species - Stricker - 2016 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library

Emergence and accumulation of novel pathogens suppress an invasive species - Stricker - 2016 - Ecology Letters - Wiley Online Library | forest diseases | Scoop.it
Emerging pathogens are a growing threat to human health, agriculture and the diversity of ecological communities but may also help control problematic species. Here we investigated the diversity, distribution and consequences of emerging fungal pathogens infecting an aggressive invasive grass that is rapidly colonising habitats throughout the eastern USA. We document the recent emergence and accumulation over time of diverse pathogens that are members of a single fungal genus and represent multiple, recently described or undescribed species. We also show that experimental suppression of these pathogens increased host performance in the field, demonstrating the negative effects of emerging pathogens on invasive plants. Our results suggest that invasive species can facilitate pathogen emergence and amplification, raising concerns about movement of pathogens among agricultural, horticultural, and wild grasses. However, one possible benefit of pathogen accumulation is suppression of aggressive invaders over the long term, potentially abating their negative impacts on native communities.

Via Niklaus Grunwald
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from fungi bacteria publications
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Mycologia: Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Leotiomycetes based on rDNA data

Mycologia: Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Leotiomycetes based on rDNA data | forest diseases | Scoop.it

Phylogenetic relationships of one of the largest nonlichen-forming ascomycetous groups, the Leotiomycetes, were inferred from genes encoding three rDNA regions (SSU+LSU+5.8S rDNA). A dataset was prepared with rDNA sequences data from 108 isolates, among which we sampled 85 taxa representing four orders and 16 families in the Leotiomycetes. Equally weighted parsimony and Bayesian analyses were performed. Bootstrap proportion and Bayesian posterior probability under the GTR+Γ+I model were estimated along the branches. Based on our results the Leotiomycetes is relatively well defined as a class and it includes the Cyttariales, Erysiphales, Helotiales, Rhytismatales and two families of uncertain position, Myxotrichaceae and Pseudeurotiaceae. The placements of the Thelebolales and Ascocorticiaceae are not examined and are accepted as tentative in the Leotiomycetes. Our results agree with previous studies to remove the Geoglossaceae, including Geoglossum, Trichoglossum and Sarcoleotia, from the Leotiomycetes. Positions of the Erysiphales and Rhytismatales in the Leotiomycetes are confirmed. The Helotiales and Myxotrichaceae are paraphyletic. Close relationships are supported strongly among the Hemiphacidiaceae, Rutstroemiaceae and Sclerotiniaceae, among Loramycetaceae, the northern hemisphere Vibrisseaceae, the Dark Septate Endophyte fungus Phialocephala fortinii and Mollisia cinerea, and between species of Bulgaria and Phadidiopycnis. Sequence data of rDNA regions are not adequate to resolve the relationships among major groups of the Leotiomycetes.


Via LCR Mycology Group
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Forest health
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Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America

Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America | forest diseases | Scoop.it
Tree diseases cause unsightly blemishes to appear on your trees as well as cause death in many that are affected. Here is a list of the top 10 tree dise......
Via Richard Hamelin
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Richard Hamelin's curator insight, August 2, 2014 10:35 AM
Lists are always faulty: comandra blister rust but not white pine blister rust?
Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Phytophthora and their relevance to New Zealand
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Story of Phytophthora Ramorum.flv

“This 10-minute video documents the history of Sudden Oak Death, describes its pathology, and explains what measures may prevent its spread in the future. Vid...”
Via Nari Williams
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Nari Williams's curator insight, September 16, 2014 10:04 PM

More key lessons to be learnt from responses to Phytophthora species internationally. How would we respond if an aerially dispersed, broad host range species that impacts all parts of the plant such as  Phytophthroa ramorum was found in New Zealand tomorrow and what would it mean to our diverse plant production systems and natural plant estates?

Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Forest-Wood-Land
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The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of host tree species : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of host tree species : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | forest diseases | Scoop.it

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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Phytophthora biology
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Killer Plant Pathogen Is Widespread at SFPUC's Alameda County and Peninsula Restoration Sites -

Phytophthora tentaculata, a new and particularly pernicious strain of dangerous plant pathogens that has been on a federal watch list, was found throughout one of the SFPUC's restoration sites in central Alameda County.

Via Niklaus Grunwald
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Scooped by Rebecca McDougal
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Pathogenicity of four Phytophthora species on kauri: in vitro and glasshouse trials (Horner & Hough 2014).

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Decline in vitality of propagules of Phytophthora pluvialis and Phytophthora kernoviae and their inability to contaminate or colonise bark and sapwood in Pinus radiata export log simulation studies

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Indigenous Knowledge Could Help Rescue New Caledonia’s ‘Millennium Trees’ | Human Nature - Conservation International Blog

Indigenous Knowledge Could Help Rescue New Caledonia’s ‘Millennium Trees’ | Human Nature - Conservation International Blog | forest diseases | Scoop.it
The Mount Panié kauri is disappearing, posing a major threat to the ecosystems and culture tied to it.
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from The science toolbox
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Forests and global change: what can genetics contribute to the major forest management and policy challenges of the twenty-first century? - Springer

Forests and global change: what can genetics contribute to the major forest management and policy challenges of the twenty-first century? - Springer | forest diseases | Scoop.it

The conservation and sustainable use of forests in the twenty-first century pose huge challenges for forest management and policy. Society demands that forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services, from timber products, raw materials and renewable energy to sociocultural amenities and habitats for nature conservation. Innovative management and policy approaches need to be developed to meet these often-conflicting demands in a context of environmental change of uncertain magnitude and scale. Genetic diversity is a key component of resilience and adaptability. Overall, forest tree populations are genetically very diverse, conferring them an enormous potential for genetic adaptation via the processes of gene flow and natural selection. Here, we review the main challenges facing our forests in the coming century and focus on how recent progress in genetics can contribute to the development of appropriate practical actions that forest managers and policy makers can adopt to promote forest resilience to climate change. Emerging knowledge will inform and clarify current controversies relating to the choice of appropriate genetic resources for planting, the effect of silvicultural systems and stand tending on adaptive potential and the best ways to harness genetic diversity in breeding and conservation programs. Gaps in our knowledge remain, and we identify where additional information is needed (e.g., the adaptive value of peripheral populations or the genetic determinism of key adaptive traits) and the types of studies that are required to provide this key understanding.


Via Francis Martin, Niklaus Grunwald
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from fungi bacteria publications
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N.Z.J.Ecol: Causes and consequences of changes to New Zealand’s fungal biota

N.Z.J.Ecol: Causes and consequences of changes to New Zealand’s fungal biota | forest diseases | Scoop.it

This paper briefly reviews advances in knowledge of the non-lichenised fungi of New Zealand over the past 25 years. Since 1980, the number of species recorded from New Zealand has doubled, and molecular techniques have revolutionised studies on fungal phylogeny and our understanding of fungal distribution, biology and origins. The origins of New Zealand’s fungi are diverse; a few appear to be ancient, whereas many have arrived in geologically more recent times following trans-oceanic dispersal. Some of these more recent arrivals have evolved subsequently to form local endemic species, while others may be part of larger populations maintained through regular, trans-oceanic gene flow. Although questions remain about which fungi truly are indigenous and which are exotic, about one-third of the fungi recorded from New Zealand are likely to have been introduced since human settlement. While most exotic species are confined to human-modified habitats, there are some exceptions. These include species with potential to have significant impacts at the landscape scale. Examples from saprobic, pathogenic, endophytic and ectomycorrhizal fungi are used to discuss the factors driving the distribution and dispersal of New Zealand’s fungi at both global and local scales, the impact that historical changes to New Zealand’s vascular plant and animal biota have had on indigenous fungi, and the broader ecological impact of some of the exotic fungal species that have become naturalised in native habitats. The kinds of fungi present in New Zealand, and the factors driving the distribution and behaviour of those fungi, are constantly changing. These changes have occurred over a wide scale, in both time and space, which means New Zealand’s indigenous fungi evolved in response to ecological pressures very different from those found in New Zealand today.


Via LCR Mycology Group
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Forest health
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Nonhost resistance to rust pathogens – a contin...

Nonhost resistance to rust pathogens – a contin... | forest diseases | Scoop.it
The rust fungi (order: Pucciniales) are a group of widely distributed fungal plant pathogens, which can infect representatives of all vascular plant groups.
Via Richard Hamelin
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Phytophthora and their relevance to New Zealand
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Phytophthora Community Structure Analyses in Oregon Nurseries Inform Systems Approaches to Disease Management

Phytophthora Community Structure Analyses in Oregon Nurseries Inform Systems Approaches to Disease Management | forest diseases | Scoop.it
Nursery plants are important vectors for plant pathogens. Understanding what pathogens occur in nurseries in different production stages can be useful to the development of integrated systems approaches.
Via Nari Williams
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Nari Williams's curator insight, October 6, 2014 7:05 AM
An amazing study highlighting a global issue.
Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from How microbes emerge
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Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa

Secret lifestyles of Neurospora crassa | forest diseases | Scoop.it

Neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. Although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. However, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. Here we report that Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for N. crassa. The endophytic lifestyle of N. crassa was found in its interaction with Scots pine. Moreover, the fungus can switch to a pathogenic state when its balanced interaction with the host is disrupted. Our data reveal previously unknown lifestyles of N. crassa, which are likely controlled by both environmental and host factors. Switching among the endophytic, pathogenic, and saprotrophic lifestyles confers upon fungi phenotypic plasticity in adapting to changing environments and drives the evolution of fungi and associated plants.


Via Niklaus Grunwald
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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Forest health
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Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America

Top Ten Tree Diseases in North America | forest diseases | Scoop.it

Tree diseases cause unsightly blemishes to appear on your trees as well as cause death in many that are affected. Here is a list of the top 10 tree dise......


Via Richard Hamelin
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Richard Hamelin's curator insight, August 2, 2014 10:35 AM
Lists are always faulty: comandra blister rust but not white pine blister rust?
Scooped by Rebecca McDougal
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Urban Trees Save Lives

Urban Trees Save Lives | forest diseases | Scoop.it
A recent study by urban forestry guru David Nowak and other researchers at U.S. Forest Service and The Davey Institute found that urban trees save at least one life per year in most cities and up t...
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Pathogenicity of Phytophthora pluvialis to Pinus radiata and its relation with red needle cast disease in New Zealand

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Rescooped by Rebecca McDougal from Genomics for plant health
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Budget boosts fight for kauri - Northern Advocate - Northern Advocate News

Budget boosts fight for kauri - Northern Advocate - Northern Advocate News | forest diseases | Scoop.it
One of the quieter offerings of Budget 2014 is a multi-million-dollar weapon to help fight the disease that threatens Northern New Zealand's iconic kauri trees. - Northern Advocate

Via David Studholme
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Krabel D, Morgenstern K, Herzog S (2013). Endophytes in changing ...

Krabel D, Morgenstern K, Herzog S (2013). Endophytes in changing ... | forest diseases | Scoop.it
A comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge about this subject related to forest trees is given by A. M. Pirttilä and A. C. Frank in the book “Endophytes of forest trees” which has been published in 2011.
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