Final Project - Marine Sounds
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NOAA Ocean Explorer: Sounds in the Sea 2001: diagram of how sound travels underwater

NOAA Ocean Explorer: Sounds in the Sea 2001: diagram of how sound travels underwater | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
Russell Henke's insight:

Great, easily understandable peice about the Sofar Channel.  Not sure if I'll be including any direct quotes from this small article, however it is still useufll.

 

 

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15 Fun and Surprising Facts about the Earth’s Oceans

15 Fun and Surprising Facts about the Earth’s Oceans | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
The oceans may make up 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, but we know very little about them, especially compared to our knowledge of the Earth’s land spaces — or even those of Mars and Venus.
Russell Henke's insight:

Fun facts to use in the opening and closing paragraphs to grab the readers attention.  And they're just interesting to read.

 

Vaughn, Aubrey. "15 Fun and Interesting Facts about the Earth's Oceans." Mother Earth News.   N.p., 1 Aug. 2009. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.

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PLOS ONE: Calling in the Cold: Pervasive Acoustic Presence of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic Coastal Waters

PLOS ONE: Calling in the Cold: Pervasive Acoustic Presence of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic Coastal Waters | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
Russell Henke's insight:

Further review of an article I read about earlier.  This article is referring to humpback whale studies.  Lot's of usefull information.

 

Opzeeland,Ilse Van, Sofie Van Parijs, Lars Kindermann, Elke                   Burkhardt, Olaf Boebel. Calling in the Cold: Pervasive                 Acoustic Presence of Humpback Whales (Megaptera               novaeangliae) in Antarctic Coastal Waters. PLoS ONE,               2013; 8 (9): e73007       DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073007.           20 Sept. 2013

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DOSITS: Determine if a sound affects a marine animal

DOSITS: Determine if a sound affects a marine animal | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
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Russell Henke's insight:

This article explains how sound travels underwater, and what we can do to study the affects of conducting underwater sonar tests.effectively.  I could use this in many aspects throughout my paper.

 

Discovery of Sound in the Seas. NOAA NSF, 2013. Web. 11 Aug. 2013. <www.dosits.org>.

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Marine Mammals - MarineBio.org

Marine Mammals - MarineBio.org | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
Marine Mammals @ MarineBio.org
Russell Henke's insight:

Very expansive article covering many different species.  And theres a short video on marine communication.  Very usefull cite.  i'm able to use this in the part of the paper that I want to describe how animals communicate with eacho other.

 

"Marine Mammals - MarineBio.org". MarineBio Conservation Society. Web. Sunday, November 03, 2013. <http://marinebio.org/oceans/marine-mammals.asp>.

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NRDC: Lethal Sounds

NRDC: Lethal Sounds | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
NRDC: The use of military sonar poses a deadly threat to whales and other marine mammals
Russell Henke's insight:

This article explains the effects of sonar on marine mammals.  

The Navy is even quoted saying that the sonar it uses has drastic effects on marine life.  This site has a small timeline of sonar testing and the effects its had on marine life.  

 

NRDC1, . Natural Resources Defense Council. N.p., 6 Oct. 2008. Web. 6 Oct. 2013.             <http://www.nrdc.org/wildlife/marine/sonar.asp>.

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The bloop - An Unexplained Phenomenon [Actual Sound]

''The Bloop is the name given to an ultra-low frequency and extremely powerful underwater sound detected by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis...
Russell Henke's insight:

Basically random noise.  This noise could be from a variety of different causes.  I refer to this in my paper, this sound byte might be of some assistance only if people know that every animal in the ocean that makes noise, and any other thing that makes noise, will have it's own, individual signature.

 

Bloop Signature. 2009. Web. 16 Aug. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCw16_Yxid0&gt;.

 

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Surprising Underwater-Sounds: Humpback Whales Also Spend Their Winter in ... - Science Daily (press release)

Surprising Underwater-Sounds: Humpback Whales Also Spend Their Winter in ... - Science Daily (press release) | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
Nature World News
Surprising Underwater-Sounds: Humpback Whales Also Spend Their Winter in ...
Russell Henke's insight:

Great article displaying the use of hydrophones currently in studying migratory habits of humpback whales.  I refer to hydrophones and humpack whales in different parts of my paper, so I will be using information from here, not sure exactly what yet.

 

Helmholtz Association. "Surprising underwater-sounds: Humpback whales also spend their winter in Antarctica." ScienceDaily, 9 Sep. 2013. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.

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How does sound travel in the ocean?

How does sound travel in the ocean? | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
Russell Henke's insight:

Interesting little bit of info relating to sound speeds in water compared to open air.  Links to other usefull sources within the NOAA website.  May be usefull attention getter within the body of the paper.

 

NOAA, . "Sound Travels Faster in Water than in Air." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ed. Troy Kitch. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.   <http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sound.html>.

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Shallow-Water Acoustics: EBSCOhost

Russell Henke's insight:

This is a nifty article that helps to describe why it is hard for scientists to extract sound from shallow water.  Will definitely use this to explain why sound travels faster (better) in deep water through the use of the Sofar channel.


Kuperman, William A., and James F. Lynch. "Shallow-Water Acoustics." Physics Today 57.10 (2004): 55-61. Science Reference Center. Web. 20 Aug. 2013.

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Acidic Oceans Getting Noisy, Too: EBSCOhost

Russell Henke's insight:

This article discusses ocean acidity and how it relates to how sound travels through the ocean.  Apparently, acidic water is a better conductor of sound, resulting in a noisier ocean.

 

Berardelli, Phil. "Acidic Oceans Getting Noisier." Science 2008.813 (2008): 1. Science Reference Center. Web. 3 Nov. 2013.

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High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) was an ionospheric research program jointly funded by the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the University of Alaska, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).[1] It has allowed the US military to communicate with its fleet of submarines by sending radio signals over long distances, via the ionosphere. The ocean acts as the antenna, and submarines are able to pick up the signal.[2][3]

Designed and built by BAE Advanced Technologies (BAEAT), its purpose is to analyze the ionosphere and investigate the potential for developing ionospheric enhancement technology for radio communications and surveillance.[4] The HAARP program operates a major sub-arctic facility, named the HAARP Research Station, on an Air Force–owned site near Gakona, Alaska.

The most prominent instrument at the HAARP Station is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), a high-power radio frequency transmitter facility operating in the high frequency (HF) band. The IRI is used to temporarily excite a limited area of the Ionosphere. Other instruments, such as a VHF and a UHF radar, a fluxgate magnetometer, a digisonde (an ionospheric sounding device), and an induction magnetometer, are used to study the physical processes that occur in the excited region.

Russell Henke's insight:

Usefull peice to refer to about the ionosphere.

Not related to this project.  

 

No Citation Necessary

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DOSITS: How do marine animals use sound?

DOSITS: How do marine animals use sound? | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
[NULL]
Russell Henke's insight:

This article tells how marine animals communicate with each other.  This site talks about a few different animal species.   The same site as before, only different article.  I can use this in the part of my paper to describe animal communication in depth.

 

 Discovery of Sound in the Seas. NOAA NSF, 2013. Web. 11 Aug. 2013. <www.dosits.org>.

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Navy: Hundreds of dolphins, whales to die from bomb tests, sonar use

Navy: Hundreds of dolphins, whales to die from bomb tests, sonar use | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
More than 340 marine mammals estimated to die between 2014 and 2019 as a result of bomb training and sonar use
Russell Henke's insight:

This article describes what the navy has planned for the future.  Very short article. Interesting, but probably won't use it.

 

No citation, still interesting but am not going to use it.

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NOAA, partners predict possible record-setting deadzone for Gulf of ...

NOAA, partners predict possible record-setting deadzone for Gulf of ... | Final Project - Marine Sounds | Scoop.it
Less oxygen dissolved in the water is often referred to as a “dead zone” (in red above) because most marine life either dies, or, if they are mobile such as fish, leave the area. Habitats that would normally be teeming with life ...
Russell Henke's insight:

Interesting peice on a topic we covered.  Not part of the project.

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