Family, Friends & OHS
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Courtney Rieck's insight:

This document, explains the steps that need to be taken when an occupational health and safety issue occurs and how to conduct a risk management matrix. Marilyn could use the processes outlined in the document to undertake an assessment, and also the document would assist Marilyn to teach her students how they should conduct a risk assessment. A comprehensive demonstration of the risk assessment and management process is outlined in an easy to understand manner, using a relevant example to the aviation industry.

I believe this is a helpful document for use in the aviation industry to assess and manage occupational health and safety risk assessment and management.


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Risk Management For Pilots - AVweb Features Article

Why does the risk of accidents increase in the few hundred flight hours after primary flight training? Are we still not properly teaching students how to manage risk as they build experience in a variety of flight situations? AVweb presents some suggestions to get you started.By Chuck Matheson | July 13, 2003




The majority of all aircraft accidents are attributed to pilot error. Most accidents occurred because of a chain of events or factors that contributed to the accident. If any one of these events in the chain had been broken or stopped it is likely that the accident could have been avoided. Break the chain, prevent the accident.

Although the number of accidents occurring during flight training is relatively small compared to that after flight training, there is not enough emphasis being placed on risk-management training during flight training. Statistics show that the number of accidents that occur after flight training -- that is to say after students receive their Private Pilot Certificates -- increases by 80%. During flight training, the accident rate is approximately 5 accidents per 100,000 flight hours. After flight training, this rate increase to approximately 9 accidents per 100,000 flight hours. Since there is not enough emphasis being placed on risk management during flight training, the pilot is left with doing things on a trial-and-error basis. He may do something that he has never done before or press his limits beyond what he has done before and if he is successful, he then evaluates the outcome: "Just how risky was this, how did it make me feel, would I do it again and, if so, would I do anything differently? Was the outcome worth the risk?" If he was unsuccessful, well, he probably does not have to worry about doing that again. It is often said experience comes from making mistakes. We can not possibly hope to make all the mistakes required to make us experienced pilots. So what are we supposed to do? We learn and hopefully we can learn in other ways than from the school of hard knocks. In the flying business, the school of hard knocks can be extremely unforgiving.

The following will be an attempt to give us a few tools we can learn to use to manage the risks associated with every flight. Proper risk assessment and management begins before the flight -- sometimes days before the flight -- and continues throughout the flight until we land and the engine is shut down.

Flying seems to be all about acronyms and I am going to present a couple of them here. Some you may have heard of already and some may be new to you but -- if used consistently -- data show that these tools significantly reduce the risk and the number of accidents and incidents. (King Schools has also used these in their new Practical Risk Management DVD, which AVweb has reviewed.)


Are You SAFE?


We are all familiar with the acronym I.M.S.A.F.E. It is an assessment of the pilot's condition before flight. Let's look at each of the letters individually.

I = Illnesses. Do you have any illnesses, a cold, or severe allergies that would inhibit your decision-making capabilities or motor skills? If you do, you probably should not be flying.

M = Medications. Are you taking any prescription or non-prescription medication? Prescription medication needs to be cleared by your Aviation Medical Examiner (AME). Non-prescription medication -- although it may not cause any adverse side effects while you are firmly planted on terra firma -- may cause adverse side effects at altitude. Non-prescription medicine also needs to be cleared by your AME.

S = Stress. Are you under any kind of stress? Did you just lose your job, are you going through a divorce, do you have an extremely sick child? If so, you should not be flying, as your mind will not be focused on the tasks at hand.

A = Alcohol. How long has it been since you had your last drink? Remember the eight-hour bottle-to-throttle rule. In addition to that don't forget the 0.04% blood alcohol content. Even though it has been longer than eight hours since your last drink, depending on how much and what you drank, your blood alcohol level may still be higher than 0.04%. And I don't know about you, but I don't even want to walk with a hangover let alone do something like fly.

F = Fatigue. Were you up early and worked all day and now you're planning a three-hour flight at 0-dark-30? Were you awake all night tossing and turning, thinking about that important meeting with that client that you have to meet tomorrow, which requires you to be airborne by 6:00 a.m. to meet him at 11:00 a.m.? Are you really as sharp as you could be?

E = Emotions/Eating. Are you mad because you just had a fight with your boss? When was the last time you ate? If you are planning a four-hour flight and plan to be airborne by 3:00 p.m. and you haven't had anything to eat or drink since 7:00 a.m., watch out. The combination of being low on hydration and having low blood-sugar levels can set you up for extremely poor performance.


PAVE Your Way


The above checklist is a good start but only covers the pilot. What about other factors such as the aircraft itself, or weather, or even the reason you are making the flight? Well, as luck would have it, there is another acronym/checklist that we can use to address those other issues. It is P.A.V.E..

P = Pilot. What kind of shape are you really in? Use the I.M.S.A.F.E. checklist above. Are you familiar with the aircraft that you are getting ready to fly or have you only flown it once? What about the avionics; are you up to speed on how to use them? Are you current and proficient? You may be legally current but not proficient. Are you IFR current? When was the last time you flew in actual IMC? Are you up to the challenge?

A = Aircraft. Are you using the right aircraft for the trip or are you using a 145-horsepower Cessna 172 that has a service ceiling of 13,000 feet to cross a long stretch of mountains that top out at 11,000 to 12,000 feet? Are you up to speed on the aircraft performance and limitations and have you checked them? What about weight and balance? Will it carry the required payload as well as fuel? Does all the required equipment and instrumentation work? Even if a piece of equipment is not required by regulation, would it make your life a lot easier if it worked?

V = Vironment, meaning environment. What is the weather forecast to be? What about ceiling and vis? How does the actual weather compare to the forecast? Is it better or worse than forecast? Will you be flying into improving or worsening conditions? If you're flying over mountainous terrain will you be IMC or will the ceilings be a comfortable level above the minimum enroute altitude? Where is the freezing level? Don't forget winds aloft and winds at your destination. If your destination is forecasting a stiff crosswind at your arrival time, did you check it against the aircraft's demonstrated crosswind capability? Speaking of crosswinds, if your airplane has a 17-knot demonstrated crosswind capability, don't forget that is based on a dry runway. If the runway is wet, that number is significantly reduced. If you are flying at night don't forget to check all interior and exterior lighting before your departure -- airborne is not the time to realize that none of the cockpit lighting works. I'm sure that you checked all en route and destination NOTAMs for any airspace restrictions and TFRs, right? Unless you ask briefers for the published NOTAMs, they will not give them to you. If the NOTAM has already been published, it is assumed that you already have read it. Always ask for any published NOTAMs that may affect your route. Also, don't forget survival gear and appropriate clothing for the type of terrain you will be flying over. Many times one survives the crash only to be killed from exposure to the elements.

E = External Pressures. Why are you making this trip? Are you in your best friend's wedding -- which is tomorrow -- and since you could not take vacation you could not leave earlier, so now there is a ton of pressure for you to make it? Are there people waiting for you at the airport because you told them you would be there at a certain time, or do you have to get to an important meeting that can ultimately affect your career? External pressures can place a huge demand on us to make the trip.

Pilots are typically goal-oriented people and allowing these external pressures to be placed on us can make us take risks that we otherwise would not take, pushing that proverbial envelope. Knowing this, plan ahead and leave yourself an out. Build in extra time in case your groundspeed is slower than predicted and you have to make an unplanned fuel stop. Speaking of fuel stops, you can never have too much gas unless you are on fire. Don't keep pushing into your reserves. My personal minimum -- as well as that of the flight school I teach out of -- is one hour minimum fuel in the tanks when I land. Depending on the weather, I might bump it up a little. If you have someone waiting at the airport for you, tell them you will be there an hour after you really plan to arrive. I would rather I have to wait than have a friend or loved one wait on me and then start to worry. Have an airline option. Remember, if you absolutely have to be somewhere on time, your chances are better with the airlines. The bottom line is life is all about having options and one can not have too many options available when it comes to flying.

As stated in the beginning, no one thing causes an accident; it usually takes a chain of events. The events that create this chain have a cumulative effect. The more things that are stacking up against you, the higher the odds are that you will have a bad experience. Don't let it happen to you.


Take CARE In Flight


So, we have gone through our risk-management checklist and now we are airborne. Well, guess what? Another acronym: C.A.R.E.

C = Consequences. As the flight continues things are constantly changing. We, as pilots, need to evaluate these changes and decide what consequences they are going to have on the safe outcome of this flight.

As the flight progresses, the pilot gets more and more fatigued. The aircraft is constantly changing too: For example, it has less and less fuel and it may have developed a maintenance problem. The environment may be changing too. For example, it may be getting dark, the visibility might be dropping, the ceiling might be dropping, and the winds might be picking up, which will also affect that precious fuel you thought you still had.

What about external pressures; can they be changing too? Sure they can. For example, the closer you get to your destination, the more pressure you are going to feel to proceed to your destination rather than making a smart choice to land short and wait out the weather, purchase more fuel, etc. The closer you get, the more likely you will press on. Statistics show that most fuel-exhaustion accidents occur only a few miles short of the destination airport. There should be no excuse for that. For all of the changes listed above, ask yourself what the consequences would be if you took no action and just continued. Ignoring any one of them and deciding to just press on could have disastrous results.

A = Alternatives. As the flight progresses, always be thinking of alternatives in case something out of the ordinary or unexpected occurs. What if you suddenly had a passenger become sick or your destination airport -- served by only one runway -- is closed when you arrive because of a disabled aircraft on the runway? Do you have enough fuel to hold until the runway is reopened or to divert to another airport? What if the weather starts deteriorating worse than you expected? All too often, non-instrument-rated pilots continue flying into worse weather because they are almost at their destination. The results are often disastrous, ending in controlled flight into terrain (CFIT). There is no excuse for that.

My wife and I were flying back from Vegas and I had only one cup of coffee before departure, knowing I could then make the trip nonstop. After all, the same strategy worked for the flight to Vegas. Anyway, we were on our way back and I started feeling that all-too-familiar feeling but I just squeezed a little tighter knowing I could make it. Well, guess what? We were overhead Visalia, Calif., when I couldn't take it anymore. I thought I was going to die. I started an immediate, rapid descent to an airport. I threw the A/FD at my wife and told her to look up the pertinent information. The truth was that it really didn't matter at that point what the pertinent information was. I was on a mission and I was going to land no matter what. There was one aircraft in the pattern and I announced my position and my intentions to do a straight-in landing. I landed, did a high-speed taxi to parking and did a rolling shutdown. Fortunately I had the presence of mind to set the parking break before I exited. I ran across the ramp to the facilities, where life once again became good.

In evaluating that experience I realized that I had an emergency on board although I did not declare one. I did some stupid and unsafe things during that time. I blocked out all other things involved with flying the airplane and had only one thing on my mind. The point is, I didn't have an alternative plan. I could have landed sooner before things got to that point, or I could have been prepared for such an annoyance and had something on board the aircraft into which I could have relieved myself. Lesson learned and, fortunately, nothing bad happened.

As your flight progresses towards your destination, your available options decrease: You have less fuel and less range and are more fatigued. The bottom line here is to try to think of all possibilities and suitable alternatives before you depart.

R = Reality. Don't deny that things are starting to go south. Recognize the situation, accept it and then develop an alternative plan. Accept as reality that the weather is getting worse, you're eating more of your fuel reserve, you're running late and now it is getting dark, and you're not that comfortable flying at night. The number-one cause of cross-county fatalities is continuing VFR flight into worsening weather. Accept the reality and do something about it. This process is not something you can just do once. It is an ever-evolving process. If things are starting to change, things aren't going as planned or you are developing aircraft mechanical problems, accept the reality, develop a plan, implement the plan and then evaluate again to see if the plan is working. If the plan is not working then develop another alternative plan. Implement it and re-evaluate and continue the process. Don't just sit there and do nothing and accept a bad outcome. To do so will seal your fate.

E = External Pressures. Again we see that external pressures play an important role in the successful outcome of a flight. In fact, external pressure is the most significant of all risk factors. External pressures make pilots ignore all other risk factors -- the "I just have to get there" mentality. It is the reason we keep going when we should land. There are two little people that live in our head. The one little guy is the conservative one. He tells us, "You know, you really ought to land and wait this out, or get more fuel," or whatever the case may be. The other little guy that lives in our head is the one that says, "You can do it. What are you, a wimp? You're almost there, don't stop now." It is this second guy that you need to ignore, and listen to the first guy, the more conservative and safer guy.

The number-one job as a pilot is risk management. This task can never stop. Use the P.A.V.E.checklist prior to flight and then use the C.A.R.E. checklist while in flight. Pay attention to your gut feeling and instinct. Never, ever give up or resign that there is no hope. As long as you are still flying, there is always hope. Always look for ways to learn more by attending seminars and flying with an instructor more often that just once every 24 months as required by regulation. Take some specialty training. Always look for ways to broaden your educational horizons.

Remember, there are old pilots and bold pilots, but there are no old, bold pilots.

Courtney Rieck's insight:

Health and safety  are important aspects of the aviation industry.  As a pilot first, and an instructor second, it is important that Marilyn applies a risk management framework when she is flying and teaching, because as the article identifies most aircraft incidences occur due to pilot error. Marilyn can apply the I.M.S.A.F.E. assessment checklist prior to flying, the use of this tool will help Marilyn undertake an assessment of her health and wellbeing in areas such as  current illnesses, alcohol, medications, fatigue and emotional state. The checklist can be used by the pilot to inform the P.A.V.E assessment, which considers other factors that the pilot would not have considered using the I.M.S.A.F.E. assessment checklist.


P.A.V.E considers other factors that the pilot may need to address such as familiarity with the aircraft, the weather, and the terrain of the flight path.


These acronyms are simple tools that can be used by pilots, like Marilyn, before every flight.

Lizette Greyling's curator insight, May 1, 2015 5:42 AM

Fatigue can often go unnoticed because the signs are subtle and easy to ignore. According to the FAA (2009) it is easy for the more experienced pilots to ignore the signs because they feel their experience would compensate for it.


Recently the regulations have changed where the pilot now have to be on the ground for 10 hours instead of 8 hours to ensure they get sufficient rest. Flying requires an unimpaired pilot and being fatigued means they are impaired and it can affect their judgement. 


It is also important that they keep in mind the time they take to commute to the airport, the quality of sleep they get and their daily nutrition. It is often difficult for pilots and flight attendants to find good nutritious meals while they are on the go which will also have an affect on their wellness and performance.

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Courtney Rieck's insight:

This document shows how Marilyn can conducted a risk
management while teaching students, using the method
of the 3P's, Perceive, Process and Perform. There are a number of checklists discussed, including Pave, Care and Team, these checklists are used with the 3P method and are critical to actual flying time.


When flying With students, Marilyn is constantly analyzing the environment both within and outside the plane, for potential risks. Using all of this information Marilyn is able to produce a risk management chart to manage any issues that may occur.

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Ashton Cooper- Event Manager

Ashton Cooper- Event Manager | Family, Friends & OHS |

Ashton Cooper is the event manager and race director of the Ipswich Park2Park.  After completing her Event Management Diploma six years ago she began working for the Ipswich Hospital Foundation. She works on community event projects such as movies in the park and the Ipswich park2park. 

Courtney Rieck's insight:

As the manager of these community events Ashton is required to manage both environmental and health hazards.  As the events are held outside in Community Park areas the environmental hazards include the natural terrain, the equipment that is added to the natural terrain and the weather. The equipment used in these events may present safety risks to the organisers, participants and spectators, including the risks of falls, injury from assembling equipment and electrical injuries


Other environmental hazards or the Ipswich Park2Park event include a number of marquees that needs to be constructed, and removed after the event, and electrical equipment that needs to be in place for the event.  All of the electrical equipment is required to be regularly tested by a qualified electrician to ensure the safe use and decrease the risk of injuries to anyone involved in the event.


As the Ipswich Park2Park is a series of running events of various lengths including a 21 kilometre half marathon, it is important that the participants maintain their hydration and are not injured when they are on the course. So there are regular water stations and safety officers positioned around the course to lessen the risk of injuries occurring to the participants. A traffic management plan needs to be in place to ensure the safety of participants.


In my discussion with Ashton I learnt that there is a lot of planning that needs to be in place before, during and after community events to ensure that the risks and hazards are managed to provide safety for everyone involved in these events.

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Marilyn Anderson - Flight Instructor

Marilyn Anderson - Flight Instructor | Family, Friends & OHS |

Marilyn Anderson is a flight instructor for the Darling Downs Aero Club. Before Marilyn became a flight instructor she was involved in film production, horse grooming and instructing in Horse riding, software company management, executive assistant roles, the Civil Aviation Safety Authority as a team leader for communication and general aviation task force, and was an assistant to Dick Smith himself as the OHS manager.  A significant part of Marilyn employment history has been in jobs within the aviation industry.

Courtney Rieck's insight:

As an aviation instructor Marylyn has responsibility for herself, but also for the student she is instructing.  Some of the hazards faced by an aviation instructor include environmental hazards of the workplace, as well as health hazards associated with the instructor and / or the student.


An airport or airfield has a range of environmental hazards including the propellers of the planes, the vehicles driving around the airfield, chemical hazards such as fuel and wildlife that could cause hazards to the planes on the runway and in the air through airstrikes. A student is new to this environment, so it is important that the instructor provides training and instruction to ensure the safety of the student and other people at the airport.


When training to be a flight instructor, like all training, teaching or instruction roles, people are required to participate in extensive training and ongoing assessment of their training role. In aviation there are regular assessments of the instructor and the aero club, mainly by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA), but also by the senior instructors at the training school.


While speaking to Marilyn I discussed the reasons and priorities for the assessments and we acknowledged that these are a priority for the safety of both the pilot, the instructors, the students and for the safety of personal around an airport. 

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Neil Rieck- Boiler Maker

Neil Rieck- Boiler Maker | Family, Friends & OHS |

Neil Rieck, is the owner of Neily Done Engineering, and he is self-employed and a subcontractor. Before starting his business 23 years ago when he became a boiler maker he worked in main other areas as a labour these areas included farming, carpentry, Main Roads, he also was a knife hand in a meat works.  Neil has worked on many different jobs including farm machinery and construction of cattle yards. A major part of his current job is working on timber treatment plants, these are plants where timber is sent to be treated for white ant rot. When working on the treatment plants Neil’s work includes welding and repair of machinery. Travelling to and from the timber plant sites with a heavy vehicle and equipment, from his home where the business is based to the work sites, is an important aspect of Neil’s work.

Courtney Rieck's insight:

As a subcontractor, it is important for Neil to have a broad understanding of safety procedures as he works at different work sites.  Welding requires Neil to use and maintain personal protection equipment (PPE) to ensure his own vision and hearing safety. Without the use of PPE, Neil would be exposed to a range of hazards including grinding sparks, weld flash, noise damage from the high decibels, ray burns as well as any other burns and weld fumes.


All of the electrical equipment used in the business needs to be maintained and regularly checked and tagged.


As Neil travels long distances, in a large vehicle, he needs to make sure the vehicle is well maintained to meet government vehicle registration and safety requirements. The equipment carried on the vehicle needs to be safely stored a restrained to prevent any risk of injury.


There are many hazards faced by Neil both in his workplaces and in Neil travelling to and from work.

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Courtney Rieck's insight:

The Civil Aviation Safety Authority, known also as CASA, is the peak authority of aviation safety in Australia.  As a pilot, and an instructor, Marilyn is required to follow all the protocols and regulations implemented by CASA.  Each year CASA reviews existing protocols and regulations, and produces new regulations and protocols as required by the aviation industry. This document provides information on identifying hazards and understanding risk assessments.

Risk management and prevention are two of the most important aspects of the aviation industry, and as an instructor they are important aspects of Marilyn’s role. Marilyn needs to understand and apply risk management and prevention techniques as a pilot, but she also needs to train her students in how to use these assessments.

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SSM - Risk Assessment

SSM - Risk Assessment | Family, Friends & OHS |

Risk AssessmentA Risk Based Approach to SMS

A key feature of an aviation Safety Management System is that is takes a risk based approach. This means that the company is required to understand all its risks, formally record these and be capable of demonstrating that these risks are managed to levels that are at or moving towards "As Low As Reasonably Practicable" (ALARP).

Due to the nature of the aviation industry, the total elimination of accidents or serious incidents is unachievable. No endeavour can be free from risk, and that is additionally true when human interaction is involved. Predictably some failures might be expected in spite of those controls the company puts in place to prevent them. However, it is also the case that the majority of those failures are predictable and preventable and we need error tolerant processes built-in to manage these. It is through fully understanding the risks that the company faces that the management team can develop risk reduction processes which could adequately control the underlying hazards that drive the risks.

The term safety is defined as the "freedom from the risk of harm". The term risk actual describes a "point of uncertainty", and a risk assessment is the calculation that is made to try to quantify that uncertainty. To undertake a risk assessment there are two basic approaches:

Quantitative (mathematical calculation based on reliable data)Qualitative (brainstormed for historical information, industry knowledge, experience and imagination)

Qualitative in the normal method applied in the operation and maintenance of aircraft as there is usually a shortage of reliable data to use the alternate method. To be able to do qualitative risk assessment you need to know certain things, these include:

What is the source of energy that could cause harm (Hazard)?What is the context in which this hazard could be released (Top event)?What in isolation or combination could cause the release of the hazard (Threats)?How often are you exposed to this hazard / hazardous event (Exposure)?When it happed how bad was it (Severity)Has this happened before and if so how often (Frequency).

When considering the risk assessment it is important to determine what is envisaged as the worst credible outcome. Credible in this case means - supported by some level of evidence (e.g. it would be wrong to conclude that because aircraft crash, therefore it is likely that they could do so on every flight - the evidence says that a very high proportion of flights are safely executed). Some organisations consider the most probable outcome rather than the worst credible, the problem with this approach is for senior management to judge how much resource to put behind a risk for which the worst credible outcome could be catastrophic, but the most probable is a non event (e.g. loss of separation between two aircraft is normally managed by simple and non aggressive manoeuvre following a TCAS RA, but can be as bad as a mid air collision).

One additional piece of information you need to assess the risk and that is what the release of the hazard would look like, this we call the top event as it provides the context to evaluate the hazard.

There a number of risk assessment and hazard management models choose to use the "Bowtie" hazard management methodology. AHML utilises the BowTieXP software package to do the hazard analysis because of its visual presentation capabilities. The package includes a built in series of customisable risk assessment matrices which enable risk assessments to be done on:

Risk to life, (People)Risk of harm to the environment, (Environment)Risk of harm to the companies aircraft or facilities, (Assets)Risk of damage to the company reputation, (Reputation)

To carry out the qualitative risk assessment it is best use a brainstormed approach using Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) (e.g. your pilots and engineers) and a representative of the process owner in a facilitated session. To support this brainstorming any company occurrence history, industry information as available and the knowledge and imagination of the SMEs to assess the risk.

Risk assessment is a calculation of two basic elements how often is it likely to happen (frequency) and if it does how bad is it likely to be (severity). The calculation of these two frequency x severity is done using a matrix approach of which there are many choices and most will work.

A risk assessment enables an organisation to rank the assessed risks and determine which risks need to be reduced and which top events it will analyse using the Bowtie analysis approach. The risks that rank highest in the organisation are normally those reported up to the Accountable Manager and the senior management team. It is their responsibility to decide to what level these and other risks are managed, and to what extent risk reduction measures will be applied. The Executive Management Team are empowered to assess the levels of risk that is acceptable to them and at the same time to decide what will be considered As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) which is the safety level that they aspire to achieve. It is also to ensure that the limited resources available are used to best effect by addressing the appropriate risk first for the Executive Management Team to delivery its corporate duty.

There are three terms used in aviation that often lack full understanding by the users. Each for these suggests a different level of safety and each needs to be understood:

Acceptable Level of Safety (ALS) was described in ICAO 9859 and is a level of safety that shall be agreed with the regulator. What in effect this means is full compliance with the regulations and that which you have documented in your Company Operations Manual (COM), Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE) and Continuing Airworthiness Management Exposition (CAME). The reason for this is that these three manuals are approved by the regulator, and thereby you have agreed a safety standard in getting these approved.

Tolerable is the definition used to describe the lowest level of safety (or highest level of risk) that the company is prepared to tolerate. In other words if the worst credible case outcome should occur in the company, the company would be able to survive. This is often a higher level safety requirement than ALS.

As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) is a term established in law and which is the test of whether the Company has done enough to manage the risks. Originally when this term was encapsulated it was meant to be a based on reasonableness, but more recently the lawyers have used this test as a means of proving the Company's actions were unsatisfactory. Following a fatal accident the directors of a company may well find themselves in court and their ALARP levels will be tested by a jury. It will be a matter of the Company demonstrating that they have done all that they might reasonably done to reduce and manage the risk. It is for this reason that the Company must ensure that it has considered all the options and can demonstrate what has been done. The definition below identifies the "disproportion factors" that would be expected.

A risk can be said to be reduced to a level that is ALARP when the cost of further reduction is "grossly disproportionate" to the benefits of the risk reduction. This cost may include more than just financial cost and will include the time and trouble involved in taking measures to avoid that risk. Therefore, an ALARP argument should balance the "sacrifice" (in time, money or trouble) of possible further risk reduction measures with their expected safety benefit. The balance should be weighted in favour of safety, with a greater "disproportion factor" for higher levels of risk exposure.

There is however an acceptable position that allows some short term alleviation, in as much, when a risk is identified a gap analysis is done to assess "where the company is" and "where the ALARP level is". To close that gap will not necessarily be an immediately achievable and therefore it would be acceptable to have a safety improvement plan to close the gap over a reasonable period of time. However, although the plan gives the Company a period of time to resolve its short falls, there is a need for cautionary note: The plan must be reasonable in terms of what is required to be done to improve and how long this will take the reasonableness of those decisions would be tested in court following an accident. It should be noted that if the action needed could have been done quickly, such as, write a procedure then it should be done straight away not written into a plan. Therefore, the Company should make sure:

The plan timing is justifiable andThe plan is being followed and achievement is on track

The final choice which is sometimes forgotten, if the risk cannot be reduced to acceptable levels and the Company can not formally justify operating with the risk then it is necessary to protect the organisation and Stop the risk bearing activity.

ICAO laid out a Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment model which effectively is described in the following pictorial representation.

Courtney Rieck's insight:

The aviation industry has high risk levels, where the risks or accidents cannot be completely eliminated, but it is important that all risks are assessed.As an instructor Marilyn always has a duty of care when instructing students to identify, assess and manage risks that may arise, and also to teach her students how to undertake these tasks as well.  As explained in this document, it is important to undertake risk assessments before, during and after the training lessons.

This document provides examples of some if the questions that Marilyn would have to ask when a occupational health and safety issue is identified. Using a PEAR approach, risk to life (People), risk of harm to the environment (Environment), risk of harm to the company’s aircraft or facilities (Assets) and risk of damage to the company’s reputation (Reputation), the document applies a severity / frequency risk matrix.

As a flight instructor, Marilyn can use the information in this document to demonstrate to her students how they can undertake a risk assessment.

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Stephanie Clark - Student /Part time worker

Stephanie Clark - Student /Part time worker | Family, Friends & OHS |

Stephanie Clark is currently a student studying an associate degree of electrical engineering.  Whilst completing high school and her current university study, Stephanie has worked at McDonalds’s as a crew trainer and at Donut King. Both of these employers are retail food service industries. 

Courtney Rieck's insight:

In her current job Stephanie has seen hazards such as fire, spillages, and hot objects.  When Stephanie completes her studies she will encounter different hazards, and as a part of her training will prepare her with knowledge and information about the potential hazards.  Examples of hazards include exposed wires, and faulty equipment.


Whilst talking to Stephanie I found that she had a lot of experience within the area of OHS for the retail jobs where she is currently employed. I believe that this existing knowledge will help Stephanie to understand the role of OHS in her future career. In my discussion with Stephanie I furthered my knowledge and understanding of OHS in different working environments.

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Frances Scerri - Franchise Manager

Frances Scerri - Franchise Manager | Family, Friends & OHS |

Frances Scerri, Manager of Donut King franchise Warwick. Frances has been working for many years mostly in the retail sector, but Frances is also a qualified geologist.  As the manager for Donut King for the past eight years, Frances has had the following roles and responsibilities, including staff selection, product preparation, customer service, and staff management.  Donut King is a franchise, so as the franchise owner Frances also has to ensure that all aspects of the franchise are meeting the standards of the franchise, including health and safety standards. 

Courtney Rieck's insight:

Whilst at school I was an employee of Frances and so I was aware of some of the safety aspects of this business, including maintaining a safe workplace by keeping food preparation services clean, preparation and serving of food and drinks in a hygienic way, safe use of equipment – such as the coffee machines and the food fryers to prevent scalds and burns and ensuring the floor areas were free of slip or other hazards.


I have learnt that as a franchise the business also has to participate in daily checks which are provided to the quarterly reviews by the head office and council and health and safety officers inspections every one to two years, to make sure it is meeting the legal and other requirements for the production of products for human consumption. 

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Glen Krause - Business Owner

Glen Krause - Business Owner | Family, Friends & OHS |

Glen Krause is the owner and manager of Warwick Brewing Supplies, and he has owned this business for 17 months.  Since he was 14 years old, Mr Krause has worked in many different employment areas, including Queensland Rail, Ulan mines, TAFE Queensland, and whilst employed he has gained the qualifications of a training instructor and staff development consultant. Mr Krause’s’ current business is a retail business that includes customer service, maintain storage and cleanness, staff recruitment and training and quality management.

Courtney Rieck's insight:

Retail business hazards include the maintenance of the premises, management of the products and general health and safety issues.


Maintenance of a retail outlet requires the owner to ensure that all electrical equipment is regularly checked to comply with government regulations, and also the owner needs to ensure that the entrances and exits to the premises are clear, well identified and free of hazards.


The management of products in the retail outlet requires the owner to be aware of, and manage any potential chemical hazards to staff and customers, as well as appropriate storage of the products and lifting and moving products in a safe way to prevent injuries.


The management of fire risk, including the fire extinguishers and staff awareness of responding to fire situations, and the management and availability of first aid equipment are important occupational health and safety (OHS) aspects of small businesses.


Businesses are subject to inspection to ensure that they meet all OHS requirements; these inspections usually occurs when a business is established or following a complaint.


During my interview with Mr Krause I have realised that there are a number of OHS requirements on small businesses.

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