Exercise Physiology & Coaching
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Rescooped by Hannah Chappell-Dick from Exercise and Sports Physiology @ Curtin
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Born to run: genetic test can reveal those best able to run marathons - Telegraph

Born to run: genetic test can reveal those best able to run marathons - Telegraph | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
A new genetic test can reveal whether runners are likely to be able to complete a marathon in a good time.

Via Learning Futures
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

dislike! what a discouraging article. I post this only to tell how much I disapprove. I say this because if these kinds of genetic tests become available and children are being trained with extreme specificity from a young age, it will kill the passion that causes people to do things that others would have thought impossible.

 

"It may help to explain why some overweight runners can go streaking past other apparently fitter competitors."

ok, I can definitely see this. It's interesting! but...

 

"If months of marathon training fails to deliver the kind of finishing times you were hoping for this year, there is no need to beat yourself up - /you were not born to do it./"

"whether their efforts will be worthwhile."

"Anyone falling into this category would be better tto give up on their dream of completing a marathon"

wow. such a downer article. you weren't born to do it? what, and the fast people were more born to do it than you? God was like, "I think this person will be a marathon runner". I mean, maybe. But really, I don't think so. "give up on their dreams"? this seems like a joke. It makes me sad!

The genetic test is called XRPredict+. It says that 20% of people won't respond to aerobic training due to an inability to grow new blood vessels and may push themselves just as hard as everyone else, but just get worse. It does say that they can build up their strength and muscle tissue and excel at non-edurance sports.

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Girls and sport

Girls and sport | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

Where does girls’ "innate" cautiousness come from? Right about now, some readers are going to launch into a supposedly scientific explanation that begins in the Savannah and involves men outwitting Sabre tooth tigers while women sit at home and go online shopping. Or something like that.


Via Peter Mellow, Peter Mellow, Craig Crossley
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

-gender bias during instruction: girls are rewarded for avoiding risk-taking behavior and taught to be cautious

-academically, "giftedness is regarded as rare in boys and is therefore more often noticed"

*If I ever become a coach (especially of younger children) its so important to remember to very consciously treat them equally, or else the gender constructs that I grew up surrounded by will continue to repeat themselves!

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, May 2, 2013 6:17 PM

Girls and sport.....

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How Exercise Affects Your Body (and How to Pick the Right Workout) - HUMAN PERFORMANCE

How Exercise Affects Your Body (and How to Pick the Right Workout) - HUMAN PERFORMANCE | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
We all know that exercise is good for you, but when you understand why, it makes getting off the couch and into the gym a lot easier.

Via Craig Crossley
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

So this was definitely for beginners, so it would be very helpful to someone who doesn't yet know about fast and slow twitch muscle fibers or overloading or who is looking to lose weight. A good reference for introducing the topic!

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, May 16, 2013 10:26 PM

YEAR 10/11/12 HPE - RESPONSES TO EXERCISE

 

Excellent read on what, where, when and how it happens....and how to make the what/where/when and how respond even better....

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A Short Walk After Meals Is All It Takes to Lower Blood Sugar - Healthline

A Short Walk After Meals Is All It Takes to Lower Blood Sugar - Healthline | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
A Short Walk After Meals Is All It Takes to Lower Blood Sugar Healthline The innovative exercise science study was conducted at the Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health...
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

3 daily walk- morning noon and evening- can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes just as effectively as 1 45 min walk. The muscle contractions from walking right after dinner helps to prevent a spike in blood sugar, which, left unchecked, can raise 24-hr glucose levels.

WRM: Whole Room Calorimeter tiny controlled air-environment hotel-type room. Measures balance of O2 and CO2 to calculate person's energy expenditure.

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Stretching Is Dangerous: Don't Stretch For Better Health!

Stretching Is Dangerous: Don't Stretch For Better Health! | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
Stretching does not relax tight or sore muscles and is not therapeutic. Stretching can be very dangerous. Learn why you shouldn't stretch for better health and fitness!
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

Well, this wasn't all that interesting to me. But I'll mention a couple things that stood out to me:

"flexibility is a reflection of health and fitness, not stretching"

muscle tightness as an imbalance in the neuromuscular system. stretching can make your muscles longer and more flexible, but it does result in a loss of power.

ALSO, if you stretch one muscle, there has been some evidence of impairing of another, unstretched muscle through a "central nervous system inhibitory mechanism".

Instead of stretching?

-Try "using trigger point therapy can help those fibers line back up and heal properly. Feel around with deep pressure throughout the muscle, from the belly to both ends, looking for very tender “hot” spots. Hold them and/or rub them out with deep pressure in a slight circular motion for 15-30 seconds."

-eating less refined sugars and lower carbs to take stress off your nervous system.

-vitamin B12!

-if you have to stretch, contract the antagonistic muscle at the same time!

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, June 13, 2013 5:58 AM

HPE staff - debunking stretching....

Cassie Beaton's curator insight, July 18, 2013 7:08 PM

Debunking the "stretching" myths

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The 800 Meters by Steve Gardiner

The 800 Meters by Steve Gardiner | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

"It is wrong to run the first 400m too fast but this is better than running the 1st 400m too slow... The 800m is an event where the maximum acceleration-minimum deceleration tactical approach to racing applies. This is due to the speed of 400-800 races where oxygen debt and fatigue products induce exhaustion rapidly. The runner therefore seeks to cover as much of the race as possible at the greatest speed which will permit him/her to finish in a minimum time, before fatigue becomes intolerable"

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

800m types: sprint, all-purpose, distance

**I would classify myself as all-purpose with sprint tendencies.

67% anaerobic.

Only the first 400m can be planned.

No more than 5 second lap differential.

circuit training is essential at all times.

always include some speed drills or speed endurance.

never increase volume AND intensity.

avoid "workout record" syndrome & "flying" in workouts.

measure by minutes, not miles.

interval training starting point: add 25% to time for that distance with a rest interval of 2-3 times. can be upped as fitness improves

LA (anerobic system): 40-90 seconds

O2 (aerobic system): 3-5 minutes (pace sustainable for 12 min)

 

Training Cycles (not to exceed 4-6 weeks)

Early Season: -3 workouts/week

-put younger athletes in shorter events

-Sprint: LA and AT. no distance runs. cruise intervals. recovery is tempo 100-300m. 5x200m relays (careful they don't run too hard)

-Distance: prepare for track work with reps on trails or hills. every other week long run. Recovery is easy runs of 30-60 min.

Mid Season -volume drops, intensity higher

-run athlete in different events.

-continue AT runs (cruise intervals)

-Sprint: event runs (7/8 of race at date or goal time, broken 800's) are a confidence booster

-Distance: run the 4x4. They need speed. date pace 400m intervals at O2

Late Season: -don't do so much speed for high school as they have a sharpening opportunity in all the meets they run.

-Sprint: 150-400m intense. race simulators, broken 800's.

-Distance: goal pace rhythm runs... not too soon, or you'll peak early.

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Lactate Threshold – Science and Data Wonkery

Lactate Threshold – Science and Data Wonkery | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

Put simply, the lactate threshold is the point at which your body can no longer maintain equilibrium between lactate production and clearance (Gore & Australian Sports Commission., 2000, p. 53).

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

Selected Quotes:

"LT1- the workload (given in watts) corresponding to a sustained increase in blood lactate concentration above resting levels (typically below 2.0 mmol/L) during progressive exercise (see graphic below). 

LT2- corresponding to a rapid rise in blood lactate signifying the upper limit of sustainable exercise, typically around a blood lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol/L (see graphic below). *LT is usually LT2

The LT2 and endurance performance are closely relatedidentify and prescribe potentially optimal training intensitiesYour LT2 is an objective measure of your progress"

Question: I'm confused! Is LT1 your resting blood lactate concentration? and LT2 is the level that you can't pass for more than a short amount of time?

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, June 13, 2013 5:54 AM

YEAR 11/12 HPE - ENERGY SYSTEMS & TRAINING.

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A Cardio Conundrum - Men's Journal

A Cardio Conundrum - Men's Journal | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

Doctors say statins, the most widely prescribed type of cholesterol-lowering drugs, have prevented millions of heart attacks and saved countless lives. But a new study published in the 'Journal of the American College of Cardiology' found that these meds, including Lipitor, may also counteract the benefits of exercise, the other tried-and-true way to boost cardiac health.

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

VO2 Max:

Exercise, no statins: + 10%

Exercise, statins: + 1.5%

Muscle Function:

Exercise, no statins: + 13%

Exercise, statins: - 4.5%

WHY? -suggests that they block exercise from increasing mito, which makes energy for muscle contraction

BUT - might still be positive effects of exercising like heart health, burned calories, runners' high, and longevity.

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The Physiology of an IRONMAN - ENERGY SYSTEMS/RESPONSES TO EXERCISE

The Physiology of an IRONMAN - ENERGY SYSTEMS/RESPONSES TO EXERCISE | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
A “Magic School Bus” tour of your body's inner workings over 140.6 miles.

Via Craig Crossley
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

Pre-Race

-epinephrine release: blood rushing to muscles, jitters

Swim

-Swimming take 4x more energy than running that distance

-thermoregulation easier in cool water

-produce ATP with less oxygen: anaerobic glycolysis

-epinephrine dulls discomfort

Bike

-dehydration causes loss in blood volume, less O2 gets to heart

-fat nearly unlimited resource, but won't keep you moving fast.. need electrolytes. and to build a new source of carbs for the run.

Run

-body starts eating muscle tissue for protein: catabolism

Post-Race

-susceptible to sickness due to low amino acid levels

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, April 23, 2013 9:16 PM

YEAR 10/11/12 HPE - Responses to Exercise/Energy systems.

Peter Mellow's comment, June 13, 2013 9:47 PM
I remember doing my only Full IronPerson back in 1991. I still have the Polar Heart Rate graphs for my bike and run. Fun physiology and fatigue! :-)
Kelly Paduch's curator insight, September 23, 2013 3:26 PM

this is a sport near and dear to my heart; what a great way to have an understanding of what you put your body through during an Ironman

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Cross Country: What Are Your Objectives?

Cross Country: What Are Your Objectives? | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

A coach like Steve Gardiner reminds everyone that this image isn’t always the case, that an athletic program where the emphasis is on the mastery of fundamentals and the sheer joy of competition is alive and well.

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

Build a base, with no cross country miles.

Each week workouts:

-aerobic long run (20-25%)

-threshold/steady state @ AT ("Anaerobic threshold is exercising as close as possible to that invisible dividing line that separates the aerobic and anaerobic energy zones)

-cruise intervals (20 min of 800-1600m with short rest- use a time trial and Daniels' running formula for pace)

-light fartlek (keep it structured for beginners. walking is ok)

Emphasis and form development:

-striding 100-150m @ 1500m date pace (Bowerman term- current performance level)

-hill technique (not hard, just form)

-proper running mechanics

**do not attempt to 3-peak. Choose your aim (any one season or both XC and outdoor)

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We Need More Physical Education in Schools

http://www.sparkpe.org/ - Dr. Thom McKenzie explains why it's so important for children to have quality Physical Education in school and how caring adults ca...

Via Craig Crossley
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

When I was in Jr. High, I hated gym class so much. & I know exactly why:

1. The boys got competitive and would get mad at me if I messed up so...

2. I didn't want to "try" in case someone made fun of me and..

3. I didn't want to be sweaty.

I thought it was ridiculous that we had to be in gym and tried my very best to avoid participating. The problem was, I had teachers that absolutely LET me (and most of the girls) not participate. So, if none of the other girls were doing it, why would I go and make a fool of myself?

That's not how it should be! I think one of the problems is that there aren't enough PE teachers who want to engage everyone and do things well. Many that I've been exposed to are more interested in coaching and PE "teaching" is their "in" to the school sports program.

Goes back to the idea that our education system is broken because we don't value teachers monetarily as highly as doctors or engineers or lawyers, so the brightest minds (who want or need high salaries) feel pressure to go towards the high paying jobs.

We need passionate, inclusive gym /teachers/, not just people who know about sports.

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Carlos J. López's comment, July 17, 2013 12:43 PM
I completely agree
Carlos J. López's comment, July 17, 2013 12:44 PM
the future of physical education http://www.uq.edu.au/news/?article=26458
Lauren Aboytes's curator insight, April 12, 2014 4:45 PM

Students need to run around and play to get rid of their energy. They cannot sit in a seat for hours at a time. Even just getting up to stretch every 15 minutes helps. However, we should try and get more physical activity in schools. 

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What is Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness? - TRAINING PROGRAMS (Fatigue/Recovery)

What is Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness? - TRAINING PROGRAMS (Fatigue/Recovery) | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
You have likely experienced the evil of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) several times before.  It is the intense feeling of pain in certain used muscles around your body after a hard workout. ...

Via Craig Crossley
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

I struggle with this very badly in my quads every single time I try to do the standing long jump more than 1-2 times. It's caused me to miss multiple days of practice, and my coaches pulled me out of the high jump just in case as well.

SO. DOMS. 2-3 days after. long term health not affected. decreased muscle power. caused by forceful eccentric muscle contractions while a muscle lengthens (downward phase of squats)

Caused by:

-micro tears

-inflammation (causes swelling = oedema)

-increased content of muscle enzymes (?).. cell membranes destroyed (burst) because of the eccentric activity.

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, May 20, 2013 5:10 AM

YEAR 11/12 HPE - TRAINING PROGRAMS (Fatigue/Recovery)

Cassie Beaton's curator insight, May 22, 2013 6:22 PM

Training and recovery

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The 3 R's of Endurance Athletes: Recover, Rest, Regenerate - Dr. Newton's Naturals

The 3 R's of Endurance Athletes: Recover, Rest, Regenerate - Dr. Newton's Naturals | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

With the Stanley Cup on the line, many people have hockey on the mind.  Hockey players are tough, endurance athletes who push themselves to be the best they physically can be. How do they do it night, after night?

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

"-Recover with proper nutrition. Refueling is like putting money in the bank–it’s the body’s safe deposit box for muscle sugars called glycogen.  Without “good for the body” food after exercise, the body is unable to completely recover from workouts and improve performance.

-Rehydrate. Keep a water bottle with you all day.

-Take a Calcium Supplement. proper rehydration decreases the normal rate of urinary calcium, need for extra calcium after a workout.

-Regenerate with B-12. Vitamin B-12 is called a ‘micronutrient’ and is used to convert proteins and carbohydrates into energy. They are also used for cell repair and production.  Athletes who lack B-12 have reduced high-intensity exercise performance and are less able to repair damaged muscles or build muscle mass than their peers who eat a diet rich with B-vitamins

-Get More Sleep. During sleep important things happen to aid in the muscle recovery process. make a big difference in the recovery process and is the easiest way to boost endurance performance."

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Science of Running: 180 isn't a magic number- Stride Rate and what it means

Science of Running: 180 isn't a magic number- Stride Rate and what it means | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

Speed= Stride Rate X Stride length

There seems to be an ingrained belief that stride rate is constant and that to increase speed we simply lengthen the stride.

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

This relates to my research report in Motor Learning. I wish I had read this before I started collecting data. Honestly though, it's good because so much of what I learned through observation is confirmed here, which was a good learning experience for me.

-I counted my stride as over 200 during the 400m dash, and I wondered if that was normal (it is). Additionally, some of the collegiate runners I studied had cadences over 190 during their "fast" running phase of the experiment. I was still working under the impression that 180 was a target value, not a minimum..

-Also, I learned very quickly that the "hobby joggers" couldn't hit 180 and this article confirms- at 11min pace, 180 bpm would be a stride length of only 32 inches. For them, 180 should not be the goal, rather just avoiding overstriding.

-To change speed, we don't simply increase stride length. This was what I found in my research!

Other things I found interesting:

-We compensate for our exhaustion and consequent lack of ability to produce force by increasing stride frequency or "opening up the arms" (increase range of motion like a sprinter- helps us maintain force production)

-to kick, or at least maintain at the end of a race, we use the method of speeding up that we haven't used the rest of the race (either lengthening stride or increasing cadence)

-Tyson Gay reaches about 300spm in the 100m.. wow!

** Stride rate and length are outcomes of what you do: feedback. "If you take care of the mechanics, whether it’s arm swing, body position, force application, footstrike or whatever, the rate and length will optimize."

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Data Driven Athlete: Coaching

Data Driven Athlete: Coaching | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it

Nathanael Dunn, M.S., cycling coach.

Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

"What makes a good coach:

-solid background in exercise science/kinesiology/exercise physiology and can apply this knowledge to create data driven, science-backed training plans.

-knowledge of current technological advances in the sport and how to best use technology to improve performance.

-artfully blend exercise science, training/performance data, and human variability into a flexible and dynamic training plan for long term athletic success.

-communicate the what, why, when, and where to maximize motivation and personal ownership.

-personal investment in their athletes and cares about their success and fulfillment in life."

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Burn Baby Burn: The Truth About Lactic Acid and Exercise

Burn Baby Burn: The Truth About Lactic Acid and Exercise | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
Lactic Acid, it's likely that most of us have heard of it—whether it was from a 1980′s Richard Simmons aerobics tape or from your personal trainer last week. The fitness industry has tossed this term around for years to ...
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

lactic acid formation is not caused by oxygen debt!

glycogen stores --> glucose --> pyruvate or lactate

pyruvate --> mito --> ATP

body's in constant equilibrium, so when mito reach limit of processing pyruvate during exercise, start to produce lactate to balance out the increasing free pyruvate. All dependent on number of mito available. higher lactate with intense exercise, but not causal.

*lactate in muscles does not significantly lower muscle's ability to contract and produce force*

mito can convent lactate --> pyruvate with a transport molecule (which one?). So if you build fitness and create more mitochondria, lactate can be used as fuel!

What causes the "lactic acid" feeling (old terms die hard)

-unknown

-acidosis? Hydrogen lowers pH. H released from breaking down fuels. Muscles become most acidic during "short bouts of intense, maximal effort that last anywhere from 1-10 minutes" (ah yeah, 400m-3000m.. middle distance!)

Finally, "popular belief is often the default for many fitness professionals." .. that's not a good thing. Gotta keep informed!

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Craig Crossley's curator insight, June 13, 2013 5:57 AM

YEAR 11/12 HPE - ENERGY SYSTEMS (L.A specific!) - excellent read!

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30 Minutes of Exercise Each Day Is Better Than One Hour

30 Minutes of Exercise Each Day Is Better Than One Hour | Exercise Physiology & Coaching | Scoop.it
According to a study published in the American Journal of Physiology, 30 minutes of daily exercise is just as effective for losing weight as 60 minutes.

 

In fact, those who exercised less lost more weight than their counterparts in the study. Researchers explain the likely reasons for their surprising findings. . . .


Via SustainOurEarth
Hannah Chappell-Dick's insight:

This is really misleading, because it claims that it's "better" in the title, but is actually "just as effective." Also, it's ONLY about weight gain- what about other health benefits? I did read about some negative effects of long endurance exercise over a lifetime, but that's another thing altogether.

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