Evidence-based Educational Methods
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Evidence-based Educational Methods
Evidence-based Practice and Practice-based Evidence
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Precision Teaching: Inference Game

“ In this clip, students are actively engaged in a game that reinforces their understanding of the term "inference." The teacher pulls unfamiliar objects from ...”
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The CRAAP test for Evaluating Web Resources

The CRAAP test for Evaluating Web Resources | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
“ This is a multidisciplinary guide on evaluating research sources, especially resources found on the World Wide Web.”
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Could be useful for PKM and our year 1students
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A Critical, Simple, Almost Never Used, Measure of Academic Performance

A Critical, Simple, Almost Never Used, Measure of Academic Performance | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
Whether you are a teacher, homeschooler or therapist, when we teach, we want to know that our teaching has been successful. Whether it is at the kitchen tab
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Mulitply Divide Scale wins Everytime

PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Standard Celeration Society

Standard Celeration Society | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it

Home of the Standard Celeration Society, a special interest group of the Association of Behavior Analysis...

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Morningside Academy, Seattle, Washington

Morningside Academy Summer School Institute (July 2010)


In July, 2010, I was fortunate to gain a place to attend the Summer School Institute (SSI) to study The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction and to gain practice in teaching using their methods. The Morningside Academy (Seattle, USA) is a world-renowned example of evidence-based teaching, and I was lucky enough to be granted a place on this intensive, specialist course.

 

In the Summer School children, aged between 5 -14 years, enrol on the four week programme. Morningside build on existing academic skills, and tailor individualized and small-group instruction to meet each student's needs. This is achieved through the combination of various evidence-based approaches: two of the main ones of which are adhering to the principles of effective instructional design, and the use of Precision Teaching methodologies to measure learning for each individual child.

 

Precision Teaching is a system that builds fluency and helps teachers ensure that every child in a class maintains rapid and successful learning. This approach has had considerable success across a number of educational settings and subject areas. Combined with regular teaching it represents a powerful accelerated learning approach. Precision teaching is a general approach that can determining whether an instructional method is achieving its aims. It is not, as the name implies, a method of teaching. It would be more accurately described as Precision Measurement, or Precision Learning because it is primarily a sensitive measurement and navigation tool for learning. The value of precision teaching lies in identifying a subject area in which the child is failing to progress, followed by a daily session of teaching, fluency building, monitoring and evaluating progress in order to optimise learning (Lindsley, 1992). Some key methodological characteristics of PT are: component/composite analysis, fluency training, time probes, tailoring practice materials to the progress of individual children based on learning pictures and the use of a standardised graphical display (referred to as the Standard Celeration Chart [SCC]).


Component-composite analysis. This refers to conducting an analysis of each composite (or complex) task in terms of what pre-skills or components are needed to complete that task. Precision teachers believe that children start to experience problems in learning when they are not fluent at some of the basic prerequisite skills that are required to effectively complete a task. For example, a child who is not fluent at simple multiplication or the times tables would likely experience difficulties when encountering maths problems that required them to use times tables in order to complete a more complex task (e.g., long division sums). Another example, if a child is confusing the numbers ʻ6ʼ and ʻ9ʼ because of the similarity in the two numbers, he or she will likely find solving maths problems that contain these numbers more difficult and if a child were confusing the letters ʻdʼ and ʻbʼ, he or she would likely find reading more difficult as in the previous example. Similarly, if a child is not fluent at decoding some of the basic sounds of the alphabet, they will likely experience problems when they come to read words that contain those components. The issue of basic components skills sets extends across all curriculum activities.
Fluency training is a method used to develop speed and accuracy on component skills (Binder, 1991). It is also known as “automatic”, “effortless”, “smooth” and “second nature” (Kubina & Morrison, 2000). It is important because speed is a significant indicator of expertise (Binder, 2003; Chiesa & Robertson, 2000). For example, two children might score the same in a mathematics exercise, but one of the children might have taken five minutes to complete the task and the other thirty minutes. The child who completed the exercise in the shorter time can be viewed as more accomplished. Fluency training cannot only much improve the performance of composite skills, but can improve the learning of new skills (Binder, 1996). It is obvious why: if a child who performs at a slow rate on basic mathematical skills is taught a new and more advanced skill, the childʼs learning will be hampered in comparison with a child whose component skills are more fluent. The objective of mastery learning at each stage in the curriculum sequence is “fluency”. Once a behaviour or skill reaches an established aim for fluency particular learning outcomes are expected.

 

Fluency is usually sufficient to ensure retention and application of skills and knowledge even in the absence of instruction (Binder, 1991). The PT approach concentrates on building fluency in basic skills by giving children plenty of opportunities to practice, until the skill becomes fluent (preformed with ease and without hesitation). This approach is common in other areas of learning: more notably learning to play a musical instrument, martial arts, and sports in general. Precisions teachers believe that this approach is also beneficial to other areas of learning, such as numeracy and literacy.

 

More information about precision teaching can be found at, for example, http://precisionteaching.pbworks.com/ and http://celeration.org/

 

Whilst in Seattle, I worked in the classroom with children as well as attending lectures and workshops to improve my skills in Precision Teaching. Whilst working with the children I had the opportunity to further develop the skills I have been acquiring during work on my PhD in Evidence Based Educational Methods at Bangor University. During the last week of the School we had guest lectures from Carl Binder (http://fluency.org), Michael Fabrizio (http://o4rl.com/), TV Joe Layng (http://headsprout.com/), and Marilyn Gilbert; these lecturers are world-renowned within the teaching field.

 

This training has been invaluable for both my personal development within my PhD and for the development of the year three module that I teach at Bangor. I have now seen and experienced first-hand many of the techniques that I had only learned about from textbooks and journal articles. This trip has allowed me to deepen my understanding of a complex and fascinating subject area and as a result of this, in partnership with my mentor and PhD supervisor Dr. J Carl. Hughes we continue to deliver training to teachers in both mainstream and special educational establishments to spread these methods to a wider audience.

 

References

 

Binder, C. (1991). Marketing measurably effective instructional methods. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(3), 317-328. Retrieved from http://www.fluency.org/
Binder, C. (2003). Doesn't everybody need fluency? Performance Improvement Quarterly, 42(3), 14-20.
Chiesa, M., & Robertson, A. (2000). Precision teaching and fluency training: Making maths easier for pupils and teachers. Educational Psychology in Practice, 16(3), 297-310.
Kubina, R. M., & Morrison, R. S. (2000). Fluency in education. Behavior and Social Issues, 10, 83-99.
Lindsley, O. R. (1992). Precision teaching: Discoveries and effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 51-57.

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Precision Teaching: The Way Forward? « psucd3

Precision Teaching: The Way Forward? « psucd3 | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction: Measurably superior instructional technology in schools. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 3(4), 74-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1937-8327.1990.tb00478.x. Lindsley, O.
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An evaluation of instructional methods in increasing medication ...

Direct instruction and precision teaching methods of instruction were evaluated along with a self-taught control condition using a three-group between subjects group design. The results indicated that both precision teaching ...
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The Precision Teaching Book

The Precision Teaching Book | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
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The place to discover PT.
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Parent/Teacher Interview Tips: Ask “What Does My Child Know Now?”

Parent/Teacher Interview Tips: Ask “What Does My Child Know Now?” | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
This is the first post in a series covering four critical questions you need to ask your child’s teacher in your next parent-teacher interview: Question
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I will certainly be using these questions at my next open day. Teachers should be able to measure a students progress.
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Psychological Foundations of Education

Psychological Foundations of Education | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
About 150 years ago, the medical community was seeped in non-scientific traditions. Doctors of the day were offended by the suggestion that they should wash between patients. How could anyone sugge...

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Test Your Brain: Bust the Myths About Educational Neuroscience

Test Your Brain: Bust the Myths About Educational Neuroscience | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
Educational neuroscience is a new and rapidly changing field, and numerous myths have percolated up through the years, based on unsubstantiated studies, findings taken out of context, and plain old snake-oil salesmen.
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Highland Park Students File Class-Action "Right to Read" Lawsuit

Highland Park Students File Class-Action "Right to Read" Lawsuit | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
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Direct Instruction: an effective teaching method for ALL learners ...

Direct Instruction: an effective teaching method for ALL learners ... | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
Having being introduced to Direct Instruction as a method of teaching primarily for children under the age of ten, I was interested to discuss whether the method can be applied to older students. Direct Instruction uses behavioural ....
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If you still hate Direct Instruction, Read on. « Zo Lucock's Blog

If you still hate Direct Instruction, Read on. « Zo Lucock's Blog | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it
... Direct Instruction. Miconception 4- Direct Instruction stifles teacher creativity and teachers hate it ...
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Technology: Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction

Technology: Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction | Evidence-based Educational Methods | Scoop.it

Carl Binder posted on The Fluency Channel.

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