Everything Human Geography
136 views | +0 today
Follow
Everything Human Geography
Everything Human Geography
A progressive culminating assignment for the AP Human Geography course at Royal St. George's College.
Curated by Adam
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"The World's Fastest-Growing Megacities"

"The World's Fastest-Growing Megacities" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

            Over the course of the last several years, the use of the term ‘megacity’ in denoting a large and densely populated metropolitan area has become quite popular. In the Forbes article, some of “The World’s Fastest-Growing Megacities” are outlined, as well as the futures of such cities and their demographic trends. The article begins by pointing out that the megacity was largely a product of the West, but has since become a world phenomenon, as seven of the world’s largest megacities are found in Asia. China has four megacities, the most of any country, including Shanghai and Beijing. Three more are found in India, such as Mumbai and Delhi. Megacities in other locations around the world include Lagos, Mexico City, Moscow, New York City, and London, England. While gathering data, however, researchers noticed that growth occurs much more slowly in developed cities (e.g. Tokyo, Japan), whereas cities in less-developed countries experience population explosions. Such data leads to the conclusion that the world’s largest megacities in, say, twenty years, will be those in regions of the world where little development occurs and low income is a characterizing factor. Finally, in its conclusion, the article hints at future problems that megacities will undoubtedly face (or continue to face), such as pollution and poverty.

            Megacities are characteristic of the developing world and serve to exemplify several concepts in urban geography Defined by high population growth (10 million people) and a high population density (2000 per square kilometer), megacities are commonly surrounded by squatter settlements, or poor residential developments on the outskirts. A megacity is not to be confused with a megalopolis, the result of several metropolitan areas that join to form an enormous urban complex. Not surprisingly, many megacities are gateway cities, or cities that act as entry points or distribution centers due to their geographic location (e.g. New York City), and some megacities are primate cities, meaning that they are by far the largest cities in their respective countries (e.g. Mexico City.) Gentrification, or the trend of middle and upper class American lifestyle is also evident in several megacities such as London. The article suggests that megacities will become plagued with several issues in the near future; however, such problems as pollution, poverty, traffic congestion, and urban sprawl are already universally evident.

           Nevertheless, the authors are correct in their implication that rising population is the primary cause of the issues megacities will face, and ultimately remind us of just how many urban centers there are around the world.

 

(Kotkin, Joel. Forbes. April 8th, 2013. May 22nd, 2013.)

more...
Miles and Reece's curator insight, October 16, 2014 11:26 PM

Asia is growing bigger and stronger than in the past. Many places in Asia like Japan have small ares so they must have a vertical city.

Emerald Pina's curator insight, May 26, 2015 9:02 PM

This article gives you info about various megacities around the world. It gives you a look into how some big cities are set up and their characteristics. It gives you a look into how far the city has developed, the GDP of the city, and the birth and death rates affects if it's a megacity or not. You can compare the megacities that are talked about.

 

This article relates to Unit 7: Cities and Urban Land Use because it talks about a type of city and its characteristics, megacities. It gives you a look at how cities are set up in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America. I think this is a really cool article because you are able to compare and contrast the cities to find conclusions about it.

Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"Five Farm Products that can Change India's Agricultural Landscape"

"Five Farm Products that can Change India's Agricultural Landscape" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

           Despite overall success, the Indian agricultural system has suffered from various problems over the years, causing some decline in the country’s agriculture sector. Ever since the “Indian Green Revolution” in the 1970s, however, individuals and corporations have aimed to revolutionize Indian agriculture and take it to new levels. Business Standard’s article, entitled “Five Farm Products that can Change India’s Agricultural Landscape”, names five agricultural products that could help India further improve its farming sector. These five commodities include mangos, bananas, potatoes, soybeans, and poultry. According to the article, India should be aiming to “build a strong brand for these products” in international markets if they are to fulfill their vision of India becoming a high-value food powerhouse by 2030. Using intensive subsistence farming, India has already become the world’s third largest producer of bananas and the world’s sixth largest producer of chicken meat, and has also become a significant producer of soybean, mango, and potato crops. While domestic consumption rates for most of these products are high, many of them are already being exported. “Traceability” and the limiting of genetic modification have also become future expectations for India’s agricultural landscape.

            As a developing nation, India’s farming systems consist mainly of intensive subsistence agriculture (dense population, local consumption) and shifting cultivation, where plots are abandoned after use. Pastoral nomadism (herding) also exists, as well as livestock ranching and intensive commercial farming. India’s farming techniques are clearly very diverse, with people farming to feed either their families, their livestock, or foreign demands. India should continue to act as a part of global commodity chains, or linked systems of processes that convert resources into goods for distribution and sale in order to sustain its agricultural sector. Other factors that might help India’s agricultural landscape are mechanization (vehicles and processing), improved irrigation, and the use of fertilizer (chemical farming and soil modification). If India is to perform at a high level agriculturally, however, it must address the problems of shifting cultivation and overcultivation in various regions across the country. After land is farmed and abandoned, the ecosystem requires time to rebuild itself; further use before this happens could very well result in ecological deterioration.

            India produces large amounts of the five products mentioned in the article, and many more – the success of Indian agriculture now depends upon how the country handles its agricultural business internationally, how it plans to integrate technology into its farming, and if it is willing to address land-use issues. 

 

(Mukherjee, Sanjeeb. Business Standard. April 13th, 2013. April 13th, 2013.)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"Indonesia's Greatest Challenge: Cultural Imperialism"

"Indonesia's Greatest Challenge: Cultural Imperialism" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

           “Indonesia’s Greatest Challenge: Cultural Imperialism” brings to attention the visible effects of globalization and privatization in Jakarta, Indonesia, and discusses various aspects of how one culture dominates another. According to the article, American culture began to enter developing regions, including Asia and the South Pacific, during the 1970s. The startling presence of consumer culture like CNN, MTV, Starbucks, McDonald’s, and Hollywood in Jakarta is distinguished as a problem for some, but as a rise toward modernity for others. The article also points out that American media plays the role of reflecting not only the country’s own culture, but the cultures of other countries, and also of creating a worldwide following. People are even conditioned to feel that they can comprise of a wealthier class by embracing American culture. For example, ‘dangdut’ is usually a popular style of music native to Indonesia, but is now being rejected by those wealthier classes of Indonesian media consumers, demonstrating the dangers of cultural imperialism. In fact, the article ends by proclaiming that Indonesia’s cultural diversity is on the line because of cultural imperialism.

            What has happened in Jakarta serves as a perfect example of cultural imperialism, the dominance of one culture over another. There is considerable danger in the exportation of American culture to Indonesia and other parts of Asia due to the fact that American culture will become ‘wealthy’ and Indonesian culture ‘poor’. After this transformation, few will want to embrace the latter, which really says something about the importance of marketing and the inseparability of economics and culture. Although the article identifies the problem, it proposes no possible methods of preserving Indonesia’s cultural diversity while still allowing for modernization. Originality versus modernization resembles the familiar conflict between folk culture and popular culture, or between rural and urban ways of life. Indonesia should strive to emphasize the originality of cultural aspects such as music, cuisine, festivities, language and religion. Clearly, Indonesia is in need of some appreciation of its heritage, traditions, and past, before the diverse and colorful Indonesian folk culture is deemed inappropriate by those who have embraced North American popular culture.

 

(Bey, Daniel. Jakarta Globe. March 3rd, 2012. January 14th, 2013.)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"80% of Americans Live Within 20 Miles of a Starbucks"

"80% of Americans Live Within 20 Miles of a Starbucks" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

        Presenting the results of recent population research, “80% of Americans Live Within 20 Miles of a Starbucks” verifies that 80% of America’s population does indeed live 20 miles from a Frappuccino. James Davenport used Starbucks locational data for the United States in conjunction with a real estate computer mapping program, and then triangulated to create a map of Starbucks clusters around the country. Students at the University of Washington then created different-sized radii around the locations, and calculated the population percentage living within the radii to discover this interesting reality.

       The fact that so many live in the vicinity of Starbucks locations is actually quite predictable considering the nature of hierarchical diffusion. Hierarchical diffusion involves the diffusion (spreading of something over space and time) of a phenomenon firstly to the biggest cities and then to progressively smaller and less populated areas, to those at the bottom of the social hiearchy. This is a type of expansion diffusion, but with specific properties (those described above), meaning that when Starbucks shops move across the country, they still remain in their original locations. The distance decay effect, where places farther away are less likely to be impacted, does not exist in the Starbucks case, as the company will install themselves wherever there are high numbers of customers with money. It is no wonder that so many reside near a Starbucks becase the corporation has purposely established their locations in the most densely populated areas to maximize revenue and profit. 

        The interpolated dot map above shows that the highest concentrations of Starbucks locations are found in large cities (near New York, San Francisco, etc.), which is a common characteristic of anything that has diffused hierarchically. Before our very eyes, the ubiquity of Starbucks is becoming a reality: and it makes for a perfect example of hiearchial diffusion in the modern world.

 

(Dai, Serena. The Atlantic Wire. October 4th, 2012. October 8th, 2012.)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"Offshore Outsourcing Not Always a Negative Thing"

"Offshore Outsourcing Not Always a Negative Thing" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

             One of the most controversial economic practices today is outsourcing, or the transfer of industrial business processes overseas. Offshore outsourcing is “not always a negative thing”, as the title of CBC Canada’s article suggests. The prompt for the article is the outsourcing issue involving the Royal Bank of Canada, which leads to thoughts about where outsourcing can have positive and negative effects, and for who. In particular, small businesses benefit the most from outsourcing, as any one company is able to capitalize on efficiency abroad. For instance, consider a small Toronto media business, Majestic Media. While strategy and sales are handled in Toronto, creative and technological development occurs in Latin American countries such as Argentina, and even in European countries like Poland. According to a professor at Ryerson in Toronto, outsourcing can lower costs by 30 to 40 percent, which acts as the primary motivation for outsourcing. The article proceeds to cover how outsourcing can maximize efficiency through low costs and high returns, while also discussing responsibility in business and location-specific specialty companies.

            Outsourcing and its effects on the world connect to several themes of economic geography, including Weberian Theory, site factors, and Wallerstein’s model. On a global scale, outsourcing is representative of the change in distribution of the world’s service sector, and of changing location factors. According to Alfred Weber’s Least Cost Theory, industries located themselves so as to maximize profits, which is exactly what happens with outsourcing. Weber also asserts that labor is the most important site factor, as low labor costs have clearly convinced many companies to bank on foreign labor. Furthermore, transport costs are also kept at bay, with ship transport being the most cost-effective method of moving goods. Now, consider the example of Majestic Media in Toronto. According to Wallerstein’s theory of Core-Periphery, countries in the economic periphery of the world (less-developed) supply labor for the core countries (most developed), which purposely orient themselves to take advantage of low labor costs. The company in the example executes its strategic planning in Toronto, but uses Latin American and European technopoles (agglomerated high-tech centers) to produce the best technological results.

            As suggested at the end of the article and by the example, the need for outsourcing is ultimately determined by a company’s needs in manufacturing and specialized labor. If companies continue to outsource responsibly and ensure that national jobs are not compromised, outsourcing may not be as negative as so many have considered it to be.

 

(Kazia, Alexandra. CBC News Canada. April 13th, 2013. May 21st, 2013.)

more...
Katie Elizabeth's curator insight, August 8, 2013 1:08 PM
Great current example of cultural change.
Anthony Bidwell's curator insight, November 22, 2013 11:12 AM

This article highlights...Weber's Least Cost Theory

Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"What's Happening In Mali?"

"What's Happening In Mali?" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

           The recent political and military uprising in Mali has been a popular topic of discussion and exemplifies some important concepts of geopolitics. Fairplanet’s briefing on the Mali situation, “What’s Happening in Mali? Geopolitics and the Long-Arm of French Economic Influence” outlines the situation in Mali as of early January and discusses various aspects of the conflict, the major players, and some historical logistics. A group of Islamic soldiers, AQIM (al-Qaeda In The Islamic Maghreb) aims to overthrow the Algerian government and attacks French, American, Algerian, and Spanish targets. They took control of Northern Mali from the Tuareg people, who were forming a kind of breakaway country in the region. But now, France is intervening with hopes of putting a stop to the AQIM advance, and has stationed some 2500 troops to fight alongside the Malian Army. France’s interest in Mali can be justified by the fact that it was once a French colony, but also by the apparently enormous oil and natural gas resources in the region. Naturally, this conflict is associated with high humanitarian risks, and, as such, there have already been civilian casualties.

            Mali’s situation is geopolitically relevant with regards to topics including terrorism, nations, and superimposed colonial boundaries. Terrorism is the systematic use of violence to intimidate a population or coerce a government, which is exactly what AQIM has taken part in, thus its classification as a terrorist organization. In this case, AQIM is attempting to “coerce” the governments of Mali and Algeria to give in to demands. The Tuareg people, who formerly controlled Northern Mali, are known as a nation, or a group of people sharing a common identity. They are also a stateless nation, meaning that they do not have a state to call home, and a multi-state nation, because their territory actually encompasses parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, and Libya. This most likely happened during the division of Colonial Africa, where the ethnic realities of the Tuareg people were not taken into account. As a result, the multi-state nation was created, as seen in the image above (Tuareg territory is highlighted in red). The boundaries of the region today are classified as superimposed, or put in place by a superior power (in this case, the nations who attended the Berlin Conference). Are these boundaries responsible for the conflict that has occurred in Mali? Leaving an entire nation of people without a state clearly has consequences.

            Although the situation in Mali seems very jumbled, geopolitics can explain many aspects of the problem. The only questions remaining, however, are who is really responsible for the conflict, and how it will play out.

 

 (Bicker, Jack. Fairplanet. January 16th, 2013. February 3rd, 2013.)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Adam
Scoop.it!

"Parenthood Policies in Europe"

"Parenthood Policies in Europe" | Everything Human Geography | Scoop.it

            “Parenthood Policies in Europe” explores some of the various fertility-related policies of European governments attempting to raise their countries’ fertility rates. These policies are intended to make balancing parenthood and work easier for prospective mothers, as the lack of time to raise children is decidedly preventing birth rates from rising. In countries such as Sweden and Norway, women participate tirelessly in the work force and have no time for children. Understandably, Norwegian mothers are entitled to an entire year off from work with 80% of their pay, and Sweden adopts a similar policy. Governments in the UK, Ireland, and France also allow time off work for raising children. Sweden and Germany subsidize schools and daycares to make caring for children easier. Some countries such as Italy and Poland offer monetary rewards for bearing children, yet they tend to be meager.

            Each of the policies described by the article are expansive population policies because their final goal is to increase the amount of children women are having, and, in doing so, increase the population. Such policies are useful in countries where the birth rates are dangerously low, as in those mentioned above. Factors other than a lack of time to care for children can also contribute to low birth rates, and are not significantly addressed by the article. These factors include decreases in marriages and increasing popularity of contraception. The question here, however, is whether expansive policies actually work. Balancing work and family seems like a national ideal, but does it really happen? Since these policies were first employed, some countries have seen their desired results. The New York Times noted that Norway’s population had increased substantially about a year after their expansive policy was established, and also that the paid maternity leave in Sweden did the trick, increasing the country’s number of babies. Not all countries with expansive policies have seen success; in fact, Italy has seen little progress. This could be because the so-called ‘baby bonuses’ offered are not enough, or simply because of the aging population.

             Looking at Norway/Sweden and Italy, it seems that in order for a country to increase its population, it needs to employ a policy that addresses its specific needs. The examples provide some insight into the fact that each country has a low fertility rate for a different reason, and governments (like those in Sweden and Norway) need to pinpoint exactly what is causing the fertility problem in order to work around it.

 

(BBC World News. March 24th, 2006. October 8th, 2012. Friday, November 1st, 2012.)

more...
No comment yet.