Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare
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Importance of Correct Front Leg Conformation

Importance of Correct Front Leg Conformation | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
Conformation of the front legs of your horse is discussed in this article, third in the series by noted author Heather Smith Thomas.
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0d847772badb45d73246c1f7ac8a5b0a3e2dbce7.jpg (1010x1226 pixels) | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
Remissum Equine Sports Therapy's insight:
Passive stretching should only be performed after the horse has been adequately warmed up - either under saddle after training/performing or after 10 mins on a lunge line.  Passive stretching should form part of your regular training program.
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Developing Your Horse's Back: the Biomechanics of Engagement

Learn how to properly ENGAGE YOUR HORSE'S BACK through gymnastic stretches.

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New research sheds fresh light on equine back pain - Horse & Hound

New research sheds fresh light on equine back pain - Horse & Hound | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
Discover the findings of new research into sacroiliac joint region pain in horses
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Cerebral and brainstem electrophysiologic activity during euthanasia with pentobarbital sodium in horses. - PubMed - NCBI

Cerebral and brainstem electrophysiologic activity during euthanasia with pentobarbital sodium in horses. - PubMed - NCBI | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it

 

These findings confirm that an overdose of pentobarbital sodium administered by rapid intravenous injection is an effective, fast, and humane method of euthanasia, with brain death occurring within 73 to 261 seconds of injection,” Aleman concluded. Oowners and veterinarians faced with the difficult task of euthanizing a horse can take comfort in knowing that the procedure is rapid, painless, and minimally distressful for their equine companion.

This means that owners and veterinarians faced with the difficult task of euthanizing a horse can take comfort in knowing that the procedure is rapid, painless, and minimally distressful for their equine companion.owners and veterinarians faced with the difficult task of euthanizing a horse can take comfort in knowing that the procedure is rapid, painless, and minimally distressful for their equine companion.

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The Occurrence of a Congenital Malformation in the Sixth and Seventh Cervical Vertebrae Predominantly Observed in Thoroughbred Horses - Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

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 Access to full research findings requires Subscription Login. Please use your subscription login to access this journal article from the Journal of Veterinary Science.

 

PREVIEW:

 

1. Introduction

The function of the equine neck in postural and locomotive presentations has been well researched and documented [[1], [2], [3]]. However, these presentations are reliant on normal symmetry within the cervical musculoskeletal system so that function may follow form without being compromised [[4], [5], [6]]. In principle, the equine form is a skeletal framework with specialized anchor points designed for soft tissue attachments that are primarily governed by muscles. Furthermore, these muscles are specifically attached to the skeletal framework to act in agonistic and antagonistic arrangements, so to articulate the skeleton and thus provide function, whether it is postural or locomotive [2].

With this in mind, each bone in the equine neck is purposely designed to provide a specific function, and the caudal cervical vertebrae (CCV) with specialized characteristics form a pronounced concave curve that is in the opposite direction to the cranial cervical vertebrae [7]. This curvature lies within the cervicothoracic junction (C5–T2), and C6, C7, and T1 have shortened vertebral bodies that aid in the directional transition, with C7 being at the most ventral point [[3], [7]]. This requires significant stabilization by the perivertebral muscle longus colli that has three layers: superficial, medial, and deep [8]. All three layers use the caudal ventral tubercle (CVT) on C6 as a point of attachment and, in particular, the superficial thoracic part that inserts with a strong tendon on the CVT of C6 and then travels in a fusiform bellied muscle ventral to C7, originating from the vertebral bodies of T1–T6 [[7], [8]].

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The Perfect Hoof: Hoof Testers "How To"

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Colic in Older Horses | Equinews

Colic in Older Horses | Equinews | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it

Colic, loosely defined as any type of abdominal pain in horses, is one of the most common reasons horses are examined by veterinarians or admitted to equine veterinary clinics. It is not unusual for colic to resolve without treatment, and equally common for no specific cause to be identified. However, more serious cases require surgical treatment and a percentage of horses do not survive, regardless of treatment method.

 

In horses over the age of 15, colic is the leading reason for clinic admission, and these senior horses that undergo colic surgery have a lower survival rate than younger horses. To explain these facts, researchers* reviewed the records of 3777 horses and ponies admitted to veterinary clinics in Germany during 2012. Colic signs were diagnosed in 25% of the equines. Among the horses and ponies with colic, there were similar numbers of males and females and the average age was 19.9 years. Other findings included:

 

41% of cases involved the colon.22.5% of cases involved the small intestine.No specific cause was identified in 34.8% of cases.79% of horses were treated medically and 21% were treated surgically.44% of surgical cases and 75% of medical cases survived to clinic discharge.Twice as many horses survived colon surgery compared to those undergoing surgery on the small intestine.Strangulating lipoma (a fatty tumor with a long stalk that becomes tangled around the intestine) was the most common finding in surgically treated horses aged 21 to 29, and these horses had a low short-term survival rate (31%).Survival of surgically managed aged horses was lower (44%) than for horses in other age categories (70%).

The researchers concluded that while colic episodes are a major health problem in geriatric horses, there is a high short-term survival rate and a good prognosis, especially in medically managed horses and after colon surgery.


*”A retrospective study of colic in aged horses” was published in the Proceedings of the 7th European Workshop on Equine Nutrition.


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The Effect of Feeding Two or Three Meals Per Day of Either Low or High Nonstructural Carbohydrate Concentrates on Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Concentrations in Horses - Journal of Equine Veter...

Full access to this article is via your Institutional Logon or via Science Direct subscription

 

Study abstract text provided by Kentucky Equine Research

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Despite the fact that horses evolved as near perpetual grazers, modern management practices in many areas of the world involve stabling and feeding horses only a few times per day. But how many meals should they be fed? What should those meals consist of? And what impact does being fed meals rather than being able to graze freely have on a horse’s health?

The study authors found that horses fed high-NSC meals two times per day had higher resting insulin levels than horses fed low-NSC meals or fed thrice daily.

“We know that mature, idle horses that are fed diets high innonstructural carbohydrates, which are sugars and starches, can have an increased risk of colic and insulin resistance. This means that a horse’s body becomes less sensitive to the effects of insulin, and they must produce more and more insulin to effectively control blood sugar levels,” explains Kathleen Crandell, Ph.D., equine nutritionist at  Kentucky Equine Research.

To better assess how a horse’s body responds to meals with either high (43%) or low (18%) levels of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), a research team* from North Carolina State University led by Shannon Pratt-Phillips, Ph.D., fed eight mature, idle geldings one of four diets: a high-NSC concentrate in either two or three meals or a diet low-NSC concentrate either two or three times per day. All horses were fed a total of 0.5% of their body weight in concentrates, which means that if they were only fed two meals daily, each of those meals was bigger than if the horses were fed three meals daily. After seven days of each diet, insulin levels in blood were measured.

The study authors found that horses fed high-NSC meals two times per day had higher resting insulin levels than horses fed low-NSC meals or fed thrice daily. It was also noted that NSC content of the concentrate had a bigger impact on other insulin measures than did number of meals.

According to the researchers, horses at risk of developing insulin resistance, equine metabolic syndrome, and laminitis would benefit from decreasing the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates and potentially by decreasing meal size and consumption rate.

*Pratt-Phillips, S., J. Kutzner-Mulligan, R. Marvin, H. Brown, C. Sykes, and J. Federico. 2014.

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Intra-articular treatment with triamcinolone compared with triamcinoline and hyaluronic acid

Equine Vet J. 2014 Nov 6.

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Dutch Researches yield unexpected results in a study of the comparison of the corticosteroid triamcinolone and a combination of triamcinolone and hyaluronic acid (a natural articular cartilage and synovial fluid component) for horses with osteoarthritis yielded.

 

Historically, Vets have used the practice of steriodal injections into arthritic joints with or without hyaluronic acid and many of those practitioners are under the impression that any hyaluronic acid can minimize potential negative effects of steriods and that the combination provides more effective alleviation of lameness than steroids alone.

 

Despite the combination triamcinolone and hyaluronic acid's popularity, there is little data to support it. The study used 80  client-owned horses with clinical joint disease with a lameness of at least grade 2, diagnosied with a lameness in one joint.  Researchers assessed horses' lameness and effusion scores at the start of the study, just before the joint was injected, and again three weeks after injection.

 

Horses were randomly to one of two treatment groups that received either 12 mg of triamcinolone or 12 mg of triamcinolone and 20 mg of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid. Horses received a single injection and were walked for the first three weeks of the study.

 

Three weeks following injection:

 

Horses treated with triamcinolone alone had a success rate of 87.8%, meaning that the horse showed more than two lameness grades' improvement, compared to baseline; andHorses treated with triamcinolone and hyaluronic acid had a success rate of 64.1%.

 

Three months following injection, only half of the horses in each group had returned to their previous performance level.

 

The results show that despite a high short-term success rate, which surprisingly was highest for triamcinolone alone, only approximately 50% of horses in both treatment groups were back in full work three months after treatment.

 

The authors noted that although this study did not find any clinical benefit of adding hyaluronic acid to triamcinolone in the short-term, the reasons behind the lack of benefit remain unknown. Potential reasons could include unknown drug interactions, dilution from joint distension, or a retrograde loss of drug when both medications were administered, among others. Additionally, they noted that this study did not address any potential chondroprotective (cartilage-sparing) effects of the combination treatment.

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Differences in rider movement pattern between different degrees of collection at the trot in high-level dressage horses ridden on a treadmill

Highlights•

A kinematic study of dressage riders in free trot vs. collected trot vs. passage.

The rider’s lumbar back was more flexed in passage and less flexed in free trot.

The horse-to-rider phase-shift decreased in passage and increased in free trot.

Differences in the rider’s body position followed instructions in equestrian texts.

Abstract

Collection is a central term in equine dressage, defined as a shortening of the horse’s stride length with retained energy and hind limb activity. How collection is induced by the rider has yet not been investigated objectively. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the movement pattern of high-level dressage riders between free trot (loose reins), passage and a range of three speeds in collected trot.

Both at higher speed in collected trot and in passage, the rider’s pelvis became more caudally rotated and the rider’s lumbar back became more flexed. However, in passage there was also a decrease in phase-shift between horse and rider movements, suggesting that the rider used the seat more actively. In free trot, the rider’s pelvis was more cranially rotated, the lumbar back was more extended, the rider’s body inclined more forwards, and the phase-shift between horse and rider was increased, compared to collected trot. The observed changes were partly explainable from changes in the horse’s movement pattern. However, most differences in rider body position seemed unrelated to the horse’s movements, but were in accordance with instructions in equestrian texts, suggesting that those changes were voluntarily adopted by the riders.

1. Introduction

Collection is a central term in equine dressage, defined as a shortening of the horse’s stride length with retained energy and hind limb activity (Fédération Equestre Intenationale [FEI], 2011). The ability of the horse to perform collected gaits, in particular the piaffe and the passage, is crucial for high-level dressage performance (Holmström, Fredricson, & Drevemo, 1995). The collected gaits are created and shaped through the interplay between horse and rider. However, what that means in terms of rider kinematics has, to the authors’ knowledge, not yet been investigated.

5. Conclusion

Even though the basic movement pattern of the rider has been shown to be closely related to the horse’s movements, the results of the current study suggest that differences in the rider’s body position and movement synchronicity relative to the horse observed between different degrees of collection at the trot are predominantly related to active rider intervention, at least among high-level dressage riders. The findings give a scientific insight into horse–rider interaction, providing some clues to how different gait patterns are induced and maintained by the rider.

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A Close Look at Vitamin A in Equine Diets | Equinews

A Close Look at Vitamin A in Equine Diets | Equinews | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
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Is it true forelimb lameness or is it actually misdiagnosed and actually a neck issue?

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Neck and forelimb injuries are very common in horses and, often, a neck issue is misdiagnosed as a primary forelimb lameness.

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f62db9df8481c14c8e8f4f48c3760a87108844d0.jpg (975x935 pixels)

f62db9df8481c14c8e8f4f48c3760a87108844d0.jpg (975x935 pixels) | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
Remissum Equine Sports Therapy's insight:
Passive stretching should only be performed after the horse has been adequately warmed up for approx 10 minutes either under saddle or on a lunge line.  Passive stretching should form a regular part of any Equine training program.
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a9f1fd755dd5fcebc08c7dba23477d8dafebcd7a.jpg (1080x723 pixels) | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
Remissum Equine Sports Therapy's insight:
Stretches should only be performed after at least a 10 minute warm up such as lunging the horse before performing passive stretches.  Passive stretches should form a regular part of your training program.
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Sport and Recreation Horse Welfare with Dr Andrew McLean

The International Society for Equitation Science and the principles of learning theory by Dr Andrew Mclean.

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Complications After Intramuscular Injections in Equids - Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

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Literature on complications after intramuscular (IM) injections in equids is fairly sparse and consists of a few studies, case series, personal opinions, and surveys. The necessity of injection-site preparation protocols and appropriate localization for IM injections are often discussed, especially when compensation claims arise. The variety of adverse reactions and their symptoms is well known to all practitioners, with some being less frequently observed than others. Especially, the contribution of tissue-irritating capacities of IM administered drugs to abscess formation or even clostridial myonecrosis is discussed. With this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge, standards and opinions on injection-site preparation protocols, injection techniques, adequacy of injection sites, complications after IM injections, and possible causes of IM injection complications.

 

Complications after IM injections occur infrequently, which makes clinical studies difficult. Recent specific scientific literature on IM injections in equids is very sparse, and some early literature does not reflect today's scientific or practical standards. Therefore, conclusions can be drawn on several topics, whereas others certainly need further scientific investigation. Successfully summarizing new scientific results therefore cannot be achieved with this literature review. Instead, we summarize today's scientific standard and aim to highlight areas of interest where further scientific research is desirable.

For equine medical standards, performing a cleaning or disinfection of the injection site before performing injections is considered obligatory, whereas clipping is only advised if the hair is long, despite the lack of scientific literature on the difference of disinfection of clipped and nonclipped injection sites of horses. There is an early study describing that the bacterial detection of injection needle's contents after disinfection of the injection site is reduced, and even more so, if injection sites were clipped and disinfected [4]. Considering antiseptic site preparation, the antiseptic effect does not differ between unclipped and clipped skin specimens [69]. Only very infrequently drugs may contain infective agents today. Nevertheless, it is advisable to handle drug vials correctly and disinfect the top of drug vessels before extracting the solution, because it reduces the risk of low ADRs significantly [7]. Injections should be performed with small needle sizes because it reduces the intensity of inflammatory reactions at the injection site [10]. To the author's knowledge, there are no scientific studies on the maximal volume to be administered per injection site, as well as studies comparing injection volumes to different injection sites. If repetitive IM injections need to be performed, using different injection sites is advised because otherwise severe tissue alterations have to be anticipated as shown by Garbade et al [22]. The hamstring area, the neck, and the pectorals are the predominant injection sites used for IM injections [7]. In the hamstring area, complications are low and the safety risk is considered high, whereas the complication rate in the pectorals is higher. Nevertheless, alterations heal faster in the pectorals than the neck and the hamstring area [22]. The suitability of the neck as an IM injection site is ambiguously discussed. Tissue alterations are observed less in the neck than they are in the pectorals, but the risk of causing extensive damage to neighboring structures in the neck must be estimated to be the highest. It must be considered the veterinarian's responsibility to know about the benefits and risks of the different injection sites. The veterinarian should choose the most adequate injection site, considering his own safety according to the horse's character, the risk of complications causing further damage, the contamination status of the hair coat, the drug volume, and the tissue-irritating capacity of the drug to be administered.

The incidence of nerve injury and aseptic tissue necrosis is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, not described for equids in scientific studies, whereas hematomas after injections occur infrequently. The predominant complications after IM injections are edema, cellulitis, and abscess formation, often causing hindrance in movement [7]. Septicemia after injection abscess formation with severe or lethal progression is only described in humans. Clostridial myonecrosis develops infrequently after IM injections, presenting the most severe infective injection complication in horses with often lethal outcomes. Infections may be initiated through reactivation of dormant spores, which were detected in equine muscle tissue, but so far their relevance is not confirmed scientifically [61]. Another possibility is the transport of bacteria adhering to skin cores or debris, carried into the muscle tissue along with injection needles, because even after antiseptic site preparation, bacteria were detected in needle contents after skin punctures, including clostridia in two studies in men [[11], [90], [91]]. Nevertheless, the tissue-irritating capacities of drugs must be considered to contribute to infective complications as well, and their accreditation for IM use might need reconsideration. A large-scale field evaluation of complication rates due to tissue-irritating capacities of flunixin, for example, after IM injections are desirable, as it is discussed on Internet forums and also Web pages of veterinary services. Measuring the CK elevation after injections is a valuable method for studying tissue-irritating capacities of drugs [77].

Complications after IM injections occur very infrequently. Nevertheless, some complications turn out severe or even cause fatalities. There are only very few scientific studies considering this topic. Larger multicenter studies are desirable to furthermore reduce complications and adverse reactions or to evaluate the suitability of drugs for IM injections and the influence of tissue-irritating capacities on infective complications. Therefore, reporting and evaluating ADRs is obligatory to every veterinarian. Although anaphylactic, anaphylactoid, and idiosyncratic reactions have to be considered unforeseeable, infective complications can be reduced. Therefore, further investigation of a possible exogenic or endogenic path of infection is needed, especially for minimizing the incidence of severe abscessation and/or cellulitis and clostridial myonecrosis after IM injections.

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The Mystery of the Missing Lamellae

The Mystery of the Missing Lamellae | Equine Sports Therapy, Nutrition, Physiology, Hoof, Equine Behaviour & Welfare | Scoop.it
th researchers’ opinions, the large range of movement may be due to the lack of lamellae, what is not as clear to them is whether it is a result of the missing lamellae or it is contributing.
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In both researchers’ opinions, the large range of movement may be due to the lack of lamellae, what is not as clear to them is whether it is a result of the missing lamellae or it is contributing.

The greatest range of lateral bending is firstly, C7-T1 and secondly, C6-C7; flexion and extension again the articulations from C5-T1 with axial rotation greatest at C1-C2 (due to joint specificity) and C6-C7, C7-T1 second and third respectively. 

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Oral Joint Supplementation

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Studies  have shown that the potency of joint supplements varies tremendously and that commercially available supplements may not contain the type or amount of ingredient listed on the label and studies by 'FADS' have shown that the potency of joint supplements varies tremendously and that commercially available supplements may not contain the type or amount of ingredient listed on the label

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The Impact of nutrition on metabolism - Proceedings 2014 Leipzig University

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Selecting Hay for Horses - Individual Dietary Management Plan - Fiber, Energy, Protein, Vitamins & minerals

Hay is an important feedstuff for many horses. It’s a staple for stalled and dry-lotted horses that don’t have access to pasture. Horses that do have grazing space need supplemental hay if the forage is of low quality or in a dormant stage. Hay is also easy to take along as you and your horse travel to shows or events where no other forage will be available for a day or two.

 

To keep ingested material moving through the digestive tract, horses have a requirement for a certain amount of dietary fiber. Hay fulfills this need any time pasture access is restricted, but this fibrous material contributes much more than just a mechanical action. High-quality hay contains energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals that can make up a significant part of the equine dietary requirement.

To choose the right hay, you need to think about your horse’s total dietary management plan. Hay selection can be based on the horse’s nutritional needs, his body condition, and the other things he eats (pasture, grain, supplements).

 

Pregnant and lactating mares, stallions in an active breeding program, and young horses will probably benefit from the best-quality hay. This is usually a legume hay (clover, alfalfa (lucerne)) that offers high levels of energy, protein, and other nutrients. Calcium is particularly abundant in legume hay, making it a good choice for horses that are growing rapidly. Indigestible fiber is low in this type of hay so it is appetizing to horses and there is less waste than with a coarser hay.

 

For many horses with average body condition and a moderate exercise program, hay that contains a mixture of grass and legumes is a good choice. Mixed hay contains fewer calories and more indigestible fiber than legume hay, but it is still appetizing and nutritious if it is fresh and clean. This hay has less calcium and somewhat more phosphorus than alfalfa, but the amounts and ratios are well within acceptable ranges.

 

Grass hay is the best type for many mature, idle, overweight horses and those with some metabolic problems. Caloric level is lowest, though it may still be too high for safe use with horses that have insulin resistance. Obese horses can eat more of this hay without taking in the energy contained in a better-grade hay. Grass hay has the lowest levels of protein, energy, and other nutrients, so horses eating this hay may need to be given fortified grain or a balancer pellet to meet their vitamin and mineral requirements.

 

All hay for horses should be clean, sweet-smelling, and free of mold, dust, and excessive rough or stemmy vegetation. Horses should be given 1 to 2% of their body weight in hay or another forage each day. Owners need to monitor their horses’ body weights on a regular schedule and consider feeding a different type of hay if necessary to maintain an acceptable body condition. If horses tend to gain weight on a particular type of hay, gradually switching to a lower-quality hay is preferable to restricting the amount of a better type.   

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Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing

Highlights•

The impact of housing design on physiological and behavioural parameters was assessed.

Group housing resulted in lower levels of faecal glucocorticoids.

Horses were easier to handle whilst housed in designs that allowed social interaction.

Social housing designs provided an improved standard of equine welfare.

Abstract

The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare.

KeywordsEquine; Behaviour; Corticosterone; HousingKelly Yarnella, , , Carol Halla, Chris Roylea, Susan L. Walkerba Nottingham Trent University, Brackenhurst Campus, Southwell, Nottingham NG25 0QF, United Kingdomb North of England Zoological Society, Chester Zoo, Caughall Road, Upton-by-Chester CH2 1LH, United KingdomReceived 9 December 2014, Revised 21 February 2015, Accepted 24 February 2015, Available online 25 February 2015
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An educational review of cartilage repair: precepts & practice – myths & misconceptions – progress & prospects - Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

SummaryObjective

The repair of cartilaginous lesions within synovial joints is still an unresolved and weighty clinical problem. Although research activity in this area has been indefatigably sustained, no significant progress has been made during the past decade. The aim of this educational review is to heighten the awareness amongst students and scientists of the basic issues that must be tackled and resolved before we can hope to escape from the whirlpool of stagnation into which we have fallen: cartilage repair redivivus!

Design

Articular-cartilage lesions may be induced traumatically (e.g., by sports injuries and occupational accidents) or pathologically during the course of a degenerative disease (e.g., osteoarthritis). This review addresses the biological basis of cartilage repair and surveys current trends in treatment strategies, focussing on those that are most widely adopted by orthopaedic surgeons [viz., abrasive chondroplasty, microfracturing/microdrilling, osteochondral grafting and autologous-chondrocyte implantation (ACI)]. Also described are current research activities in the field of cartilage-tissue engineering, which, as a therapeutic principle, holds more promise for success than any other experimental approach.

Results and Conclusions

Tissue engineering aims to reconstitute a tissue both structurally and functionally. This process can be conducted entirely in vitro, initially in vitro and then in vivo (in situ), or entirely in vivo. Three key constituents usually form the building blocks of such an approach: a matrix scaffold, cells, and signalling molecules. Of the proposed approaches, none have yet advanced beyond the phase of experimental development to the level of clinical induction. The hurdles that need to be surmounted for ultimate success are discussed.

KeywordsArticular; Cartilage; Repair; Tissue engineering; Osteoarthritis; Review
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Comparison of Nutrient Digestibility Between Adult and Aged Horses - Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

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Conclusions

In comparison with previous work, this study evaluated a larger number of healthy horses, all of which had received regular anthelmintic treatment and had acceptable dentition. They were tested on three commonly fed formulated diets (high roughage, high oil and fiber, and high cereal) and underwent a relatively long diet adaptation period of 5 weeks. This study suggests that, under most practical feeding situations, differences in digestive capacity are unlikely to be present in healthy aged horses compared with adult horses. However, it is important to note that the nutrient digestibilities of diseased aged horses and those with dental disorders may differ.

 

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