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How artificial intelligence is transforming the criminal justice system

How artificial intelligence is transforming the criminal justice system | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Many of us are familiar with the idea that artificial intelligence systems are regularly making benign decisions, like recommendations on Netflix or Amazon. What about decisions that have a significant impact on someone’s life though? Should AI systems be used in life-changing situations, like criminal sentencing?
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Politicians can’t control the digital giants with rules drawn up for the analogue era | Andrew Rawnsley | Opinion | The Guardian

Politicians can’t control the digital giants with rules drawn up for the analogue era | Andrew Rawnsley | Opinion | The Guardian | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Legislators need to be robust if we are to restore faith in the integrity of democratic politics
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Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach | News | The Guardian

Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach | News | The Guardian | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Whistleblower describes how firm linked to former Trump adviser Steve Bannon compiled user data to target American voters
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'Abertura é a mãe de todas as reformas' Edmar Bacha

Entrevista: Edmar Bacha, economista e escritor Um dos formuladores do Plano Real, o economista Edmar Bacha defende que o próxim
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Que tiro foi esse? - Isto É

Que tiro foi esse? - Isto É | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Peritos questionam a veracidade das informações de petistas sobre os tiros contra dois ônibus da caravana de Lula no Paraná
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A Field Guide to Jordan Peterson’s Political Arguments

Jordan Peterson, a politically outspoken University of Toronto psychology professor, popped up on my news feed after he was invited to address a Monsanto audience about “The Danger of Allowing…
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Jordan Peterson leads a rising movement of Canadian millennials

Jordan Peterson leads a rising movement of Canadian millennials | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Dr. Peterson comes off as an incredibly modest man and the proposition that he may be “leading” anything may set him on the defensive, but it’s the truth, and I’m not convinced that’s a bad thing.
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JORDAN B. PERSON:  ‘pseudo-facts’ and conspiracy theories

JORDAN B. PERSON:  ‘pseudo-facts’ and conspiracy theories | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Since his confrontation with Cathy Newman, the Canadian academic’s book has become a bestseller. But his arguments are riddled with ‘pseudo-facts’ and conspiracy theories
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Sharing is Not Always Sharing

Sharing is Not Always Sharing | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it

Some people view sharing initiatives as frontrunners of a new, solidary and sustainable economy. Reality is, as always, more complex, as these different initiatives are grounded in different models of cooperation, ownership and value creation. And, unfortunately, these different models of sharing do not generate the same societal and financial return at all

Ihering Guedes Alcoforado's insight:
The Car Sharing System Autopia. : An example of  ‘Urban Commons

"This association supports citizens who want to share their car as peers: a so-called peer-to-peer system. The model commits to a clear-cut societal goal: dedicated citizens cooperate to make mobility more sustainable. Furthermore, the system does not generate a financial return in the classical, economic sense of the term. This is an example of ‘urban commons’: something citizens create together, without being tied to a logic of profit. Cooperation is of the highest degree: property and added value are shared transparently."


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This is how Cambridge Analytica’s Facebook targeting model really worked — according to the person who built it » Nieman Journalism Lab

This is how Cambridge Analytica’s Facebook targeting model really worked — according to the person who built it » Nieman Journalism Lab | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
The method was similar to the one Netflix uses to recommend movies — no crystal ball, but good enough to make an effective political tool.
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How technology is allowing police to predict where and when crime will happen

How technology is allowing police to predict where and when crime will happen | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Police in the UK are starting to use futuristic technology that allows them to predict where and when crime will happen, and deploy officers to prevent it, research has revealed. “Predictive crime mapping” may sound like the plot of a far-fetched film, but it is already widely in use across the US and Kent Police is leading the technological charge in the UK.
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Artificial Intelligence as TEchnology Policy | Tech Policy Lab

Artificial Intelligence as TEchnology Policy | Tech Policy Lab | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
The Tech Policy Lab at the University of Washington brings together experts in law, information, and computer science to enhance technology policy.
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Facebook, Inc., and Cambridge Analytica,

Facebook, Inc., and Cambridge Analytica, | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
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Ihering Guedes Alcoforado's insight:
Este arquivo é uma petição que cidadãos norte americanos enviaram a justiça contra o Facebook e a Cambridge Analytica. Traz informações detalhas e valiosas relacionadas ao ciclo de vida da parceria, em especial as articulações Da Cambridge analytica. 
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Watchdog to launch inquiry into misuse of data in politics | Technology | The Guardian

Watchdog to launch inquiry into misuse of data in politics | Technology | The Guardian | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Investigation follows revelations of digital firm’s involvement in Brexit
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CHRISTOPHER WYLIE:  Cerebro de  Cambridge Analytica 

CHRISTOPHER WYLIE:  Cerebro de  Cambridge Analytica  | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
La principal fuente del escándalo que ha puesto contra las cuerdas a Facebook explica en una entrevista cómo diseñó el arsenal de la ciberguerra de la nueva derecha populista
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STEVE BANNON: A Manipulação e Análise de Dados ( Cambridge Analytica) Como um Detalhes das Campanhas Políticas by Ihering Guedes Alcoforado 

STEVE BANNON: A Manipulação e Análise de Dados ( Cambridge Analytica) Como um Detalhes das Campanhas Políticas by Ihering Guedes Alcoforado  | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
La principal fuente del escándalo que ha puesto contra las cuerdas a Facebook explica en una entrevista cómo diseñó el arsenal de la ciberguerra de la nueva derecha populista
Ihering Guedes Alcoforado's insight:




A sociedades contemporâneas estão se digitalizando, e quanto mais se digitalizam, mais importância adquirem os dados e, nesse processo os dados pessoais os dados pessoais se estão convertendo em parte integral da digitalização da sociedade.  Os  ão nossa nova eletricidade, e, em si, não são um problema, existe um potencial incrível de coisas que podemos fazer com eles. O que a CA (Cambridge Analytica) tem exposto é o fracasso em por limites no seu uso, não só dos nossos legisladores mas também de nós como sociedade.  Em função disso  a questão não é evitar que se usem dados pessoais. A pergunta é quais são os riscos dos dados pessoais e como podemos assegurar-nos de que são processados e geridos de uma maneira segura para nós. 

A sociedades contemporâneas estão se digitalizando, e quanto mais se digitalizam, mais importância adquirem os dados e, nesse processo os dados pessoais os dados pessoais se estão convertendo em parte integral da digitalização da sociedade. 
Nesse novo cenário digitalizado a campanha política focada em coletivos concretos indecisos é requalificada por três novas possibilidades que devidamente exploradas constituem os três passos das novas campanhas políticas.    

A primeira  possibilidade é o uso de  algoritmos  de manipulação e analise de dados na elaboração de grande numero desses perfis.    A segunda possibilidade é a criação de uma realidade voltada para um grupo que se sabe, em função do seu perfil, ser mais suscetível de entrar em teorias conspiratórias e, assumir as narrativas fundadas em fake news e nas informações que parecem notícias.  A terceira possibilidade é acoplar grupos políticos ou candidatos a essas narrativas.

A primeira possibilidade, corresponde  o primeiro passo:  é  a  pesquisa com métodos qualitativos, em especial o "focus grupos" "deep state" e das "paranóias" dos clusters de perfis (a população alvo).  Os resultados do focus group, mesmo não sendo generalizáveis permitem extrair pequenos traços das coisas que,  em seguida são testadas quantitativamente.  Esses resultados são  subsídios básico  na calibragem do perfilamento do grupo de pessoas mais receptivas as teorias conspiratórias que vão estruturar as narrativas. E, assim se estabelece a "mente coletiva" a ser alimentada e  manipulada 

A segunda possibilidade enquanto  criação de uma narrativa plausível  corresponde ao segundo passo:  a criação de blogs ou webs alimentados do  que parecem noticias,  e que são direcionados  as pessoas mais receptivas ao pensamento conspiratório. O efeito a ser instrumentalizado na construção da narrativa vem em seguida, as pessoas submetidas a esse bombardeamento  logo passam a admitir que a midia tradicional  esconde algo.   Capturado o coração e a mente do público alvo passa-se a construção das  narrativas,  o que envolve moldá-las, a partir de  uma tendência cultural com as quais o público alvo se  identificará em função das suas afinidades culturais e afetivas; o que implica algumas vezes a própria promoção da tendência cultural ou da moda, afinal politica e moda são a mesma coisa, já que expressa nossa identidade e papel na sociedade

A terceira possibilidade,  acoplar grupos políticos ou candidatos a essas narrativas corresponde ao terceiro passo da campanha: é associar a narrativa a um grupo político, ou um candidato.   

Um exemplo emblemático (talvez seminal)  dessa estratégia foi a fabricação da ALTRIGHT (Direita alternativa) por Steve Bannon com o apoio de Robert Mercer (Co-proprietário da CA e mecenas da  ALTRIGHT e que levou Donald Trump à Presidência dos Estados Unidos, em cuja experiência extraimo a esquematização acima.  Um  detalhe relevante deste componente das novas campanhas políticas é sua forma de financiamento:   o apoio se expressa num  investimento  na organização não governamental ou  empresa, e não por meio de uma doação aos partidos políticos.   


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University of Toronto Prof Jordan Peterson's Dangerous Views On Why Men Assault Women

University of Toronto Prof Jordan Peterson's Dangerous Views On Why Men Assault Women | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Peterson, who has become a conservative hero, provided an archaic explanation for why men like Louis C.K. sexually harass and assault women.
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JORDAN PETERSON: On the Political Axis

JORDAN PETERSON: On the Political Axis | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Ever since speaking out against a controversial bill in the Ontario legislature, Professor Jordan Peterson of the University of Toronto has exploded not simply across his home of Canada, but all around the world. A clinical psychologist, Prof Peterson has had fascinating things to say about the rise of social justice Left and how their …
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"Peterson states a very interesting idea of his that one’s political ideals often are a function of their own personal temperament. As a general rule, certain traits may make people tend towards liberalism and others more towards conservatism. Liberals are seen as being high in openness or creativity and low in conscientiousness, which describes rigidity, order and hard work or industriousness, whereas conservatives simply have the vice versa. The values of the temperament of individuals may manifest itself in political ideologies leaning more conservative or liberal, depending on what they are. Given this understanding of the biological underpinnings of politics, Peterson hypothesises that the real dividing line between conservatism and liberalism is one thing: borders. The important thing to note here is that these are not necessarily borders in the sense of international boundary lines, but rather the concept of borders in any aspect of life." 
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12 Rules for Life by Jordan B Peterson 

12 Rules for Life by Jordan B Peterson  | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
The psychologist and internet celebrity with contentious views on gender, political correctness, good and evil, offers hectoring advice on how to live
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The Emergence of Post-Modern Conservatism by Ihering Guedes Alcoforado

The Emergence of Post-Modern Conservatism by Ihering Guedes Alcoforado | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it

Few things rile up today’s conservatives like the boogeyman of post-modernism. 


"But my point in this article isn’t to criticize conservatives for getting post-modernism wrong. It is for not recognizing that many conservatives have started to move closer and closer to the ideology and stereotypes of post-modernism they claim to criticize. In other words, we are witnessing the emergence of post-modern conservatism."

Ihering Guedes Alcoforado's insight:

O artigo em tela evidencia a emergência de um Conservadorismo Pós-Moderno como um paradoxo, já que os conservadores pretendem estruturar suas narrativas a partir de uma crítica ao pós-moDernismo, o qual é    "Associated with identity politics, political correctness, social justice warriors, and relativistic cultural Marxism, post-modernism is often degraded as the locus of everything that is wrong with society."

O crítica  da ditos conservadores  ao pós-modernismo  é em parte motivada pela crítica  dos pós-modernos a " the idea of universal truth".

Ou seja, segundo os conservadores, os pós-modernos " In lieu of believing that there are universal scientific and moral truths that apply everyone and to everyone, regardless of their background, critics claim that post-modernism leads to the belief that everything is dependent on social context."


E, mais os conservadores admitem que os pós-modernistas crêem " [...]  that, rather than being singular, truth is fundamentally pluralistic. What counts as truth for a wealthy white male like Donald Trump might not count as truth for a black single mother living in Chicago." 

Em função da criticas dos pós-modernistas explicitadas acima, os conservadores também criticam suas implicações pós-moderna segundo a qual "[...]  there are no universal truths which everyone is beholden true, identity becomes singularly important since it is now the locus for what we think and why.  This means that identity becomes the primary driver behind politics as different groups compete to have their identity-specific truths reflected in the law and social behavior."

Mas, a despeito da critica dos conservadores das premissas e das consequência do que eles entendem ser o  discurso pósmodernos, os conservadores paradoxalmente,

"[...]  have mobilized their identity to push for a retrenchment of traditional values against the demands of both classical liberals who believe in the objective truth of liberalism, and post-modern leftists who want a more pluralistic society."

Daí a adjetivação de pós-modernos que se agrega para identificar os novos conservadores.
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Cambridge Analytica didn’t abuse the happiness industry – it was used exactly how it was intended to be

Cambridge Analytica didn’t abuse the happiness industry – it was used exactly how it was intended to be | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Now that our media is full of reports and comments on Cambridge Analytica, a key feature of the affair is, as a rule, ignored: the context of Cambridge Analytica makes it clear how cold manipulation and the care for love and human welfare are two sides of the same coin.
Ihering Guedes Alcoforado's insight:
O texto chama atenção que o procedimento ético implícito na Cambridge Analytica é uma extensão no campo da politica da dita "happiness industry" que sua vez se assenta nos resultados dos ditos "happiness studies", cujo rebatimento na Economia é "Hapiness Economics".    Vamos aos seus argumentos. 

Primeiro,     But all these are well‐known facts, and we have to go a step further. It is not enough to demystify the innocent‐sounding research into happiness and to bring out a hidden gigantic complex of social control and manipulation that uses it. 
What is urgently needed is also the opposite move: we should focus on the form itself. Is the topic of scientific research of human welfare and happiness ﴾at least the way it is practised today﴿ really so innocent, or is it already in itself permeated by the stance of control and manipulation?    What if sciences are here not just misused, what if they find here precisely their proper use?   We should question the recent rise of a new discipline: “happiness studies.” 

Segundo: "Happiness is something confused and inconsistent – recall the proverbial answer of a German immigrant to the US who, when asked “Are you happy?”, answered: “Yes, yes, I am very happy, aber gluecklich bin ich nicht…” It is a pagan category: for pagans, the goal of life is to live a happy life – no wonder Dalai Lama himself is having such a success recently preaching around the world the gospel of happiness, and no wonder he is finding the greatest response precisely in the US, this ultimate empire of the ﴾pursuit of﴿ happiness. In our daily lives, we ﴾pretend to﴿ desire things which we do not really desire, so that, ultimately, the worst thing that can happen is for us to get what we officially desire. Happiness is thus inherently hypocritical: it is the happiness of dreaming about things we really do not want"

Terceiro:"So, back to our starting point, not only are we controlled and manipulated, “happy” people secretly and hypocritically demand even to be manipulated for their own good. Truth and happiness don’t go together – truth hurts, it brings instability, it ruins the smooth flow of our daily lives. The choice is ours: do we want to be happily manipulated or expose ourselves to the risks of authentic creativity?"

MORAL DA HISTÓRIA: "Cambridge Analytica whistleblower: If we allow any amount of cheating in a democratic election, the problem will snowball."
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The rise of big data policing –

The rise of big data policing – | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
Andrew Guthrie Ferguson Contributor Andrew Guthrie Ferguson is Professor of Law at the UDC David A. Clarke School of Law and author of the book The Rise of Big Data Policing: Surveillance, Race, and the Future of Law Enforcement (NYU Press 2017). This article is excerpted with permission of NYU Pre…
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Privacy in Online Dating | Tech Policy Lab

Privacy in Online Dating | Tech Policy Lab | ENSAIOS | Scoop.it
The Tech Policy Lab at the University of Washington brings together experts in law, information, and computer science to enhance technology policy.
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