English and Maths
5 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Viral infection of oceanic plankton could affect greenhouse gas capture

Viral infection of oceanic plankton could affect greenhouse gas capture | English and Maths | Scoop.it
When plankton on the high seas catch a cold, the whole ocean may sneeze. Viruses hijacking these microbes could be an important overlooked factor in tracing how living things trap — or in this case, fail to trap — the climate-warming gas carbon dioxide.

Plants and other organisms that photosynthesize use energy from the sun to capture CO2 for food. The most abundant of these photosynthesizers on the planet are marine cyanobacteria with hardly any name recognition: Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus.

Now, for the first time, a study looks in detail at what happens when some of the abundant viruses found in the sea infect these microbes. Two viruses tested in the lab hijacked cell metabolism, allowing photosynthesis to continue but shunting the captured energy to virus reproduction. The normal use of that energy, capturing CO2, largely shuts down, David Scanlan of the University of Warwick in England and colleagues report online June 9 in Current Biology. As a result, people could be overestimating by 10 percent the amount of CO2 that photosynthesis in the oceans captures.

On any given day, 1 to 60 percent of these plankton may have picked up a viral infection, researchers have estimated. That means that between 0.02 and 5.39 petagrams of carbon — up to 5.39 billion metric tons — may not be captured by marine organisms a year. The high end of that scenario is equivalent to 2.8 times the CO2 routinely captured annually by all the planet’s salt marshes, coral reefs, estuaries, sea grass meadows and seaweeds put together.

Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus plankton “are organisms that you’ve never heard of but you really should have,” says Adam Martiny of the University of California, Irvine. He studies the same kinds of plankton but wasn’t involved in the new virus research, and what he appreciates about it is the intriguing biology of viral manipulation the new work has uncovered.

Until now, Scanlan says, the prevailing view was that while infected plankton were still alive, they were probably carrying on normal photosynthesis. As early as 2003, researchers had clues that the viruses attacking these tiny marine organisms might manipulate photosynthesis in some way, perhaps keeping the process running in an infected cell. These viruses have genes for proteins used in photosynthesis, even though a virus doesn’t even have its own cell much less a way to photosynthesize.

What the viruses are doing, Scanlan and his colleagues have now shown, is subverting their victim’s photosynthesis. Energy capture, the part of photosynthesis directly involved with light, goes on as usual; the cells carry out the routine electron transport for catching energy. But instead of using those sizzling electrons to capture CO2 and turn it into carbohydrates for basic cell metabolism, the viruses shut down this process (called carbon fixation). The light reactions are the ones that researchers normally measure to estimate how much carbon photosynthesis captures in the oceans, but the covert viral shunting means that estimate could be too high.

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from English and Maths
Scoop.it!

English Revision Resources for GCSE and A Level English & English Literature - Resources - TES

English Revision Resources for GCSE and A Level English & English Literature - Resources - TES | English and Maths | Scoop.it
A selection of revision resources assembled to engage students in a range of reading, writing and speaking & listening revision tasks for GCSE and A Level English & English Literature. The collection includes:Printable...

Via Pilar Pamblanco, Eireann Brooks
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from The Indigenous Uprising of the British Isles
Scoop.it!

First fall in GCSE A*-C grades

First fall in GCSE A*-C grades | English and Maths | Scoop.it
The proportion of teenagers scoring at least five Cs at GCSE including English and maths has fallen for the first time, official figures have shown.

Via Infidel Patriot
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from Apprenticeships
Scoop.it!

Why You Should Consider An Apprenticeship Just As Seriously As University

Why You Should Consider An Apprenticeship Just As Seriously As University | English and Maths | Scoop.it
Students are still choosing to study in debt and graduate with scarce job prospects - and even less financial security - over taking up an apprenticeship. Recently UCAS revealed a 4% rise in university applications, so why aren't young people considering becoming an apprentice?

Via Amy Williamson
more...
Amy Williamson's curator insight, March 5, 2014 5:20 AM

A great article on why apprenticeships should be taken seriously

Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from GCSE Maths
Scoop.it!

Learn GCSE Maths in One Day

Learn GCSE Maths in One Day | English and Maths | Scoop.it
GCSE Foundation Maths Revision for Edexcel, OCR, AQA, WJEC and MEI.

Via Ann Higgins
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from (e)Books and (e)Resources for Learning & Teaching
Scoop.it!

English Teaching Resources with PowerPoints, worksheets and schemes of work - Teacher-of-English.com | Online Teaching Resources Ltd

English Teaching Resources 14,000+ pages of KS3, KS4, GCSE English teaching resources - PowerPoints, worksheets, schemes of work and ready made lessons, Teacher-of-English.com has over 13,000 of pages of fully editable teaching resources rated...

Via Daniel Tan
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from Digital Delights for Learners
Scoop.it!

What is Maths4Us? Improving #Maths Skills

What is Maths4Us?  Improving #Maths Skills | English and Maths | Scoop.it
One in four people in England struggle with maths.  That’s why, from now until the end of March, a partnership of national organisations will work together to raise awareness of the importance of m...

Via Ana Cristina Pratas
more...
Carmen Arias 's curator insight, March 31, 2013 12:59 PM

Only in England ?? I bet this can be said for mor than this country...

Ana Cristina Pratas's comment, April 1, 2013 1:13 PM
So true Carmen!!!
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from Educational deals online
Scoop.it!

Free course "Help With GCSE Maths"

A bunch of video tutorials to make GCSE Maths a whole lot easier. This course is pitched at the D/C borderline. ‘> WHAT’S INSIDE Lifetime access to 44 lectures 3+ hours of high quality content A community of 2500+ students learning together! TAUGHT BY Tom Cassidy Thought Engineer,... http://www.edudealer.com/coupon/free-course-help-with-gcse-maths/?utm_source=SC&utm_medium=&utm_campaign=coupons%2Bfrom%2BEduDealer.com


Via EduDealer
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from Digital Delights for Learners
Scoop.it!

Maths Online Resource Banks

Maths Online Resource Banks | English and Maths | Scoop.it
Essential, essential resource banks that I have found invaluable and a good starting point for lesson planning, inspiration and ideas.

1) TES Teaching Resources

The TES  teaching resources ...

...


Via Ana Cristina Pratas
more...
numberloving's comment, October 30, 2011 11:22 AM
Thank you Ana! Great to connect!
Andrew Li's curator insight, March 24, 2014 6:55 AM

This is an entry from a blog focusing on all things numbers and teaching. It contains a good number of links to valuable teaching resources in maths topics, including teacher networks and commercial sites.

Rescooped by Eireann Brooks from Teaching & Learning Resources
Scoop.it!

English Revision Resources for GCSE and A Level English & English Literature - Resources - TES

English Revision Resources for GCSE and A Level English & English Literature - Resources - TES | English and Maths | Scoop.it
A selection of revision resources assembled to engage students in a range of reading, writing and speaking & listening revision tasks for GCSE and A Level English & English Literature. The collection includes:Printable...

Via Pilar Pamblanco
more...
No comment yet.