Empathy Magazine
316.7K views | +4 today
Follow
 
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
onto Empathy Magazine
Scoop.it!

Women in 50s and 60s show most empathy

Women in 50s and 60s show most empathy | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

Women in 50s and 60s show most empathy
 
 Anyone looking for someone to feel their pain should talk to a woman in her 50s or 60s, a new report shows.
 
 For according to the latest study of more than 75,000 adults, women in that age group are more empathic than men of the same age and than younger or older people.
 
 "Overall, late middle-aged adults were higher in both of the aspects of empathy that we measured," says Sara Konrath, co-author of an article on age and empathy forthcoming in the Journals of Gerontology: Psychological and Social Sciences.
 
 Culture of Empathy Builder Page: Sara Konrath
 http://j.mp/Ypd2pm

more...
No comment yet.
Empathy Magazine
The Empathy Movement Magazine: The latest news about empathy from around the world - CultureOfEmpathy.com
Curated by Edwin Rutsch
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Edwin Rutsch from Empathy Magazine
Scoop.it!

Empathy Movement Magazine

Empathy Movement Magazine | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

Sponsored by Edwin Rutsch Empathy Guide Services
Visit  http://cultureofempathy.com/Services/

These one-to-one empathy sessions support; well-being, healing, practicing to be a better listener and supporting you in creating empathic environments in your relationships, family, school, work, communities and beyond.


Subscribe to our Emailed Empathy Newsletter


Sections

*   Front Page (this page)
*   Animals
*   Art
*   Compassion

*   Compassionate Communications (NVC)

*   Curriculums
*   Education
*   Empaths

*   Empathic Family & Parenting

*   Empathic Design - Empathy in Human-Centered Design
*   Health Care

*   Justice

*   Self-Empathy & Self-Compassion
*   Teaching - Learning
*   Work 

*   etc.


Please Click 'Follow' to receive updates.
It also helps us rise in the rankings 
and gives us more exposure
on Scoop.it. 



Thanks so much.

Edwin Rutsch, Editor

Our Website CultureOfEmpathy.com

Join us on Facebook Center for Building a Culture of Empathy

more...
Brenda Robinson's curator insight, May 13, 2015 9:52 PM

Hon. Liz Sandals: Introduce a new course called "COMPASSION" for Grade 1 and Grade 12. https://www.change.org/p/hon-liz-sandals-introduce-a-new-course-called-compassion-for-grade-1-and-grade-12

Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathy and Art) Minneapolis Institute of Art: world’s first Center for Empathy and the Visual Arts.

(Empathy and Art) Minneapolis Institute of Art: world’s first Center for Empathy and the Visual Arts. | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

The Minneapolis Institute of Art recently received a $750,000 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation grant to establish the world’s first Center for Empathy and the Visual Arts. A team of experts will come together to focus on how art museums can teach empathy and compassion. This news has left some asking whether these qualities can be taught.

Educators have been using the arts and humanities to teach empathy for some time. In 2003, Lauren Christine Phillips tracked the ways in which she set out as an art teacher to nurture empathy. Phillips writes about how her school, Norcross Elementary, has set out to teach and instill empathy in their 900 students. “From an early age,” she explains, “they learn how to treat others with respect, work together to solve problems, and be a part of our community. They learn this from adults at our school, as well as from each other.”

Through the artistic process, imagination, modeled behavior, and human connection, art can have transformative powers.

In her classroom, Phillips stresses caring and imagination, while acknowledging that the idea of teaching empathy is not something as concrete as other lesson plans, like teaching perspective or watercolor. “I have not discovered the 10-step process for teaching kids to care,” she notes. But she believes that through the artistic process, imagination, modeled behavior, and human connection, art can have transformative powers.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Here's Why Empaths And Highly Sensitive People Suffer From Anxiety

Here's Why Empaths And Highly Sensitive People Suffer From Anxiety | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
The Empath’s Anxiety

Empaths are scientifically proven to be more susceptible to anxiety, social anxiety, and depression. A study published in the Journal of Psychiatry indicates that:

Individuals with social phobia (SP) show sensitivity and attentiveness to other people’s states of mind.

Meaning that individuals who suffer from social anxiety may also be extremely empathetic and susceptible to the feelings of others. This study concludes that:

. . . socially anxious individuals may demonstrate a unique social-cognitive abilities profile with elevated cognitive empathy tendencies and high accuracy in affective mental state attributions.

This hypersensitivity to emotions also causes empaths to become ill and suffer from stress, experience burnout in the workplace, and suffer from physical pain more often than others.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Empathy between man and environment

Empathy between man and environment | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
How might we change people’s attitudes and who should take on this challenging task? 

It’s important, first of all, to try to better understand what forces are driving behaviour and begin to discuss the values which support them. If the only goal is to produce food at a low cost, the current agri-food system is fine as is. But if, for example, we want to produce healthy food which aims for environmental, economic and social sustainability, it’s essential to try to get people coming from very different points of view in touch.

 

The values we need to work on can’t just be “taught”. Instead, they must be transmitted through experience: we need to create empathy between humankind and the environment. Sustainability and resilience aren’t just technical matters: they also need to be approached from a social perspective.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathic Leadership) Why Empathetic HR Leaders Are More Effective

(Empathic Leadership) Why Empathetic HR Leaders Are More Effective | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Why Empathy Is an Essential HR Leadership Skill

Empathy is the ability to place yourself (psychologically speaking) in another person's shoes—to understand their thoughts, feelings and perspective. Empathy makes it possible to work cooperatively with people who have very different experiences, preferences, styles and opinions.

"Empathy is not a soft skill," Browne said. "It's a business skill. HR practitioners can't be effective in their jobs if they don't know how to be empathetic."

He prides himself on being approachable, practicing "management by walking around." Instead of barricading himself in his office and waiting for people to come to him with their problems, he prefers to mingle informally with his colleagues and co-workers to really get to know them. Then, when problems emerge, he has a pre-existing relationship that makes it easier to place information in context, give constructive feedback and tactfully resolve tricky situations.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Lack of Empathy: Disorders, Signs & Causes

Lack of Empathy: Disorders, Signs & Causes | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Empathy: Definition
Your friend Mary is just standing there, tears running down her face. She looks like her whole world has collapsed. She's hoping that you will make her feel better. But you just don't get it. You're feeling like, ''Who cares? Get over it!'' You're missing that normal human quality called empathy.

Empathy, derived from the Greek word empatheia, which means ''passion or state of emotion'', is the ability to feel what others are feeling. It is an important part of human interaction that is unfortunately lacking in some people. When that lack is extreme, severe problems can be the result.

Psychopathy & Disorders
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(3) Empathy vs. Codependence in Relationships  

Yvette Erasmus compare the differences between having empathy for friends, family, and loved ones and acting in ways we might judge as co-dependent.

Dr. Yvette Erasmus is a therapist and organizational psychologist who integrates the principles and practices of nonviolent communication, mindfulness, self-compassion, and integral theory into her work.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

4 ways to cultivate empathy in the classroom

4 ways to cultivate empathy in the classroom | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

In our fast-paced, digital world, it can often feel like our students are more disconnected from one another than ever before. Four TED-Ed Innovative Educators share tips for how we can combat that by cultivating empathy in the classroom and building perspective-taking skills among students.

 

Jennifer Hesseltine

Leaning into discomfort: Encourage students to embrace difficult and courageous conversations to build understanding and empathy.

 

Nola-Rae Cronan

Expand collaboration opportunities: Build or modify an activity that asks the students to interact with another student, teacher, parent, or friend outside of their classroom. 

 

Corey Holmer

The world is your classroom: Create a class of global literate students that have greater empathy and understanding.

 

 

By Emily Graham 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathy at Work) Why Training in Empathy is Crucial to Business Success

(Empathy at Work) Why Training in Empathy is Crucial to Business Success | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

 

2. What traits/behaviours distinguish someone as empathetic?
Empathy requires three things: listening, openness and understanding.

Empathetic people listen attentively to what you’re telling them, putting their complete focus on the person in front of them and not getting easily distracted. They spend more time listening than talking because they want to understand the difficulties others face, all of which helps to give those around them the feeling of being heard and recognised.

Empathetic executives and managers realise that the bottom line of any business is only reached through and with people. Therefore, they have an attitude of openness towards and understanding of the feelings and emotions of their team members.

3. What role does empathy play in the workplace? Why does it matter?
When we understand our team, we have a better idea of the challenges ahead of us.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Minneapolis Institute of Art experiment aims to measure whether looking at art boosts empathy

Minneapolis Institute of Art experiment aims to measure whether looking at art boosts empathy | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

Can gazing at art boost your empathy? The Minneapolis Institute of Art is embarking on a five-year, $750,000 experiment to find out.

The museum recently nabbed a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to explore whether spending time in an art center might help you imagine the lives of others, feeling what they feel. As the country wrestles with deep geographic, racial and economic divisions, cultural institutions are arguing that they’re the perfect places to help people see past those lines. “This is a time period where we could all benefit from greater understanding of other people ... who don’t have the same life experiences,” said Kaywin Feldman, institute director.

The results of the project could change how museums across the country feel and function. Researchers will test visitors’ empathy as they enter, and then on their way out — perhaps by having them respond to expressions or emoji on iPads. They’ll measure the effects of an interactive art display versus a static one. They’ll experiment with telling more compelling stories about the artworks, tweaking tours and wall labels.

That center, part of the American Alliance for Museums, recently predicted that “closing the empathy deficit” would become a major trend in the museum world.  Across the country, art centers are experimenting with how they can use “their collections and spaces to help build empathy for people we may not immediately see our connection with,” Merritt said, “people we have put in the category of ‘other.’ ”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathic Design) Design Thinking in Education: Empathy, Challenge, Discovery, and Sharing 

(Empathic Design) Design Thinking in Education: Empathy, Challenge, Discovery, and Sharing  | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

4 Modes for Developing Your Practice
If you're considering how to embrace design thinking in your school culture, I believe you should focus on four critical modes underlying the process:

1. Lead with empathy.
Empathy is, of course, the root of human-centered design. Leading with empathy builds on the classic definition of "walking in someone else's shoes" to get us out of our own heads and into the lived reality of others so that we can understand the implicit needs and root causes of the situations in which we work. Leading with empathy means pushing yourself to get closer to people, and to do so consistently, publicly, and with conviction.

How do you do it? Listen more; talk less. Immerse yourself in how others experience your school or program. Adopt a beginner's mind and use all of your senses to notice what's happening around you. At the d.school, we believe in these practices so much that we're issuing a Shadow a Student challenge from our School Retool project to illuminate the power of leading with empathy. If you want to step into empathy, it will be a great way to get started.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathic Healthcare) Female doctors show more empathy than male doctors

(Empathic Healthcare) Female doctors show more empathy than male doctors | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Our latest research found that female doctors are better at empathy than male doctors, and this probably makes them better doctors.

Previous studies have shown that communicative, caring doctors are more likely than their stand-offish counterparts to reduce their patients’ pain and anxiety. And patients of empathetic doctors are more likely to take their pills as prescribed, and report being satisfied with their doctor.

Empathy is also needed to be a good doctor. Unfriendly doctors are less likely to get enough information from patients to make the right diagnoses, or prescribe the right treatments. One study even showed that unempathetic doctors could cause harm by scaring patients away from medical care when they need it.

 

Jeremy Howick

Director of the Oxford Empathy Programme, University of Oxford

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Why So Little Empathy and Compassion Within American Culture?

Why So Little Empathy and Compassion Within American Culture? | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

In any event, to the extent these ideas are internalized by working people, we police ourselves, thus reducing the elite’s need for visible coercion. And make no mistake, there is nothing more dangerous to ruling class interests than people getting in touch with their inborn, wired sense of empathy and then acting as their sisters’ and brothers’ keeper.

 

To reiterate, ideas do not have an independent existance apart from economics.  As my old friend Mike Parenti once wrote, “...whenever anyone offers a culturistic interpretation of social phenomena we should be skeptical.” Why? Because “cultural explanations are closer to tautologies than explanations.” It’s culture itself that needs to be explained and political analyses that neglect or refuse to account for class will have little explanatory value.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Book review: Alan Alda ‘If I understood you, would I have this look on my face?’

Book review: Alan Alda ‘If I understood you, would I have this look on my face?’ | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

When one hears the name Alan Alda, one can’t help but think of that wisecracking, yet deeply committed doctor, Hawkeye Pierce, from the beloved TV show “M*A*S*H*.” Fewer people,

 

CULTIVATING EMPATHY IS KEY

The core of Alda's book is focused on the tools he has learned through his own theatrical training, namely improvisation. Improv exercises teach much more than comedic timing. At its most basic, improvisation trains someone to listen and to react. Being aware of how someone else is feeling, and how one's own self is feeling, and being in tune with one's surroundings promotes a generally improved empathetic outlook. And empathy, Alda says, is at the heart of communicating.

 

Cultivating empathy is key to a more compassionate and generous spirit, whether it be the sharing of ideas, talent or prosperity. Finding common ground is important in getting anything to resonate, and there is a benefit to all participants when an empathetic approach is used. The acquisition of all knowledge and the education system, in general, should be circular, with a feed-back loop, not one-way or linear. Effective teachers and lecturers, more importantly, need to be good listeners

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

A Former Neo-Nazi Explains Why Hate Drew Him In — And How He Got Out

A Former Neo-Nazi Explains Why Hate Drew Him In — And How He Got Out | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
In fact, I had never in my life engaged in a meaningful dialogue with the people that I thought I hated, and it was these folks who showed me empathy when I least deserved it, and they were the ones that I least deserved it from. I started to recognize that I had more in common with them than the people I had surrounded myself for eight years with — that these people, that I thought I hated, took it upon themselves to see something inside of me that I didn't even see myself, and it was because of that connection that I was able to humanize them and that destroyed the demonization and the prejudice that was happening inside of me. Music brought me in, but in many ways it also brought me out.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

The opposite of a narcissist is called an 'empath'— here are the signs you could be one

The opposite of a narcissist is called an 'empath'— here are the signs you could be one | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
  • People who are very receptive to the emotions of others are known as empaths.
  • They are also very sensitive to noise, smell, and being around people.
  • This means they are overwhelmed in crowds, and get exhausted in social situations.
  • Psychiatrist Judith Orloff, an empath herself, works with others to help them with the challenges.

    Empathy is the ability most humans have to understand the way someone else is feeling. Unless you are a psychopath, narcissist, or sociopath, you will have the ability to feel empathy for others on some level.

    How much empathy we feel is on a scale, and some people feel it more intensely than others. People very high up on the scale are known as empaths, and they take it to the next level.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathy At Work) Why you should embrace empathy in business

(Empathy At Work) Why you should embrace empathy in business | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
The education revolution
Over the past two decades, education systems around the world have introduced programmes in social and emotional learning (SEL). In the UK, students have benefited from a raft of initiatives featuring empathy as a core principle linked to improving emotional intelligence more broadly.

‘For more than 15 years there’s been a massive focus on bullying, for example,’ says education consultant Michele Miller. ‘Couple that with the agenda around sexuality and what is “normal”. Young people now do generally display more empathy – for one thing they are far more accepting of what is different.’

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Teaching Empathy) Why Empathetic HR Leaders Are More Effective

(Teaching Empathy) Why Empathetic HR Leaders Are More Effective | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

Learning to Be More Empathetic
You can learn empathy through patience, practice and persistence.

Patrick Ewers, an executive coach and founder of Mindmaven, a network marketing and relationship management company in San Francisco, offers the following tips:

  • Actively listen more than you speak. "It's so easy to get caught up explaining something [that] you forget to listen," Ewers said. An empathetic person listens first and only speaks after hearing what the other person is saying.
  • Express your perspective. After you've heard what the other person has to say, share how you think you'd feel in the same situation.
    Be vulnerable. Share a story of your own about when you encountered a similar situation or problem. This softens the situation and makes you more relatable.
  • Don't make assumptions. Assumptions interfere with your ability to empathize. To be truly empathetic you have to let go of preconceived notions that are not based on true understanding or experience. "Take time to listen and don't rush to judgment," Ewers said.
  • Use your imagination. It's impossible to have experienced every situation that others share with you. So you need to use your imagination to better understand how the other person is feeling. Fiction books can be a great way to experiment with trying to get into the mind and heart of a character whose experiences are profoundly different from your own. 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

How to be Empathetic Towards Your Employees ?

How to be Empathetic Towards Your Employees ? | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Empathy is one of the essential skills required for effective leadership in the workplace. It simply means the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference. It is really important for employers and managers to cultivate this skill. When employees observe that their manager understands their feelings, it automatically creates a bond of trust between them. If they trust you, they will take more effort to push themselves out of their comfort zone.

The yearly Empathy Index released by 'The Empathy Business', a consultancy based in London, focuses on companies that are successfully creating empathetic cultures. In the 2016 Global Empathy Index, out of total 170 companies, 8 Indian companies were there in the bottom 20 of the list.

 

 

 .Nidhi Singh 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

The Neuroscience of Compassion and Empathy and Their Link to Prosocial Motivation and Behavior 

The Neuroscience of Compassion and Empathy and Their Link to Prosocial Motivation and Behavior  | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Empathy enables us to connect with one another at an emotional level. However, this might not be enough to promote prosociality. For instance, it has often been argued that empathically suffering with others does not necessarily motivate us to help them, neither conceptually nor empirically.

 

To fill this gap, a tradition in psychology has highlighted the role of empathic concern or compassion, and developments in social neuroscience have made this proposal increasingly clear. Indeed, empathy and compassion have been shown to tap on dissociable neurobiological mechanisms, as well as on different affective and motivational states.

 

More specifically, while empathy for pain engages a network of brain areas centered around the anterior insula and anterior midcingulate cortex, areas associated with negative affect, compassionate states have been associated with activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum, and come with feelings of warmth, concern, and positive affect.

 

Most intriguingly, much like any motor ability, it has also been shown that empathy and compassion can be trained; whereby compassion training has been associated with a number of intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits, ranging from increases in psychological well-being and health to increased cooperation, trust, and tolerance.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathy at Work) 'More empathy means more profit': why the business world is getting emotional

(Empathy at Work) 'More empathy means more profit': why the business world is getting emotional | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

When the chief executive of Microsoft writes a book about empathy, it’s no surprise that business leaders around the world pay attention. “It’s a value I have learned to deeply appreciate and is something I talk about a lot,” Satya Nadella said at an event to publicise his book, Hit Refresh. “I think of it as not just a nice-to-have, but core to the innovation agenda in the company.”...

 

The danger with introducing empathy training, Parmar says, is that it can be used as a large sticking plaster that ignores an underlying unempathetic culture. “It’s not the first thing you should do,” she says, adding that businesses also need to make a real assessment of where they are now. “Most people are empathetic … [but] it’s the environment, the culture, the processes, the policies. It’s real change in organisations that actually makes a difference for the people that work there.”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

How to Avoid Empathy Burnout When You are Surrounded by Other People's Pain

How to Avoid Empathy Burnout When You are Surrounded by Other People's Pain | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Understanding how others are feeling is a bonding mechanism that we are finding in an increasing number of animals. In humans, primatologist Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, has suggested that being affected by another’s emotional state was the earliest step in our evolution as a collaborative species.

The very nature of being empathetic, involves looking past one’s own perspective in any given situation and understanding as best as possible the needs and experiences of another person. People who are empathetic tend to be more purpose driven and they intentionally succeed in their academics not because they are looking to make good grades, but in most subjects their goal is to understand the subject material and to utilize the knowledge as one of their ever increasing tools.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

Understanding others' feelings: what is empathy and why do we need it?

Understanding others' feelings: what is empathy and why do we need it? | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
This is the introductory essay in our series on understanding others’ feelings. In it we will examine empathy, including what it is, whether our doctors need more of it, and when too much may not be a good thing.

Empathy is the ability to share and understand the emotions of others. It is a construct of multiple components, each of which is associated with its own brain network. There are three ways of looking at empathy.

First there is affective empathy. This is the ability to share the emotions of others. People who score high on affective empathy are those who, for example, show a strong visceral reaction when watching a scary movie.

They feel scared or feel others’ pain strongly within themselves when seeing others scared or in pain.

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

(Empathy Training) Putting Empathy into Practice: a workshop for healthcare practitioners

(Empathy Training) Putting Empathy into Practice: a workshop for healthcare practitioners | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it

More and more evidence suggests that empathy improves patient outcomes and practitioner well-being, yet the extent to which practitioners express empathy is variable. This workshop will cover the theory and practice of empathy in healthcare, showing how individuals can enhance empathy in own work and in their organisations.

 

Who is this course for?

Practitioners and managers in health and social care who want to further understand and develop empathy based practice.

 

During this workshop you will

  • Review the evidence linking empathy with improved patient, practitioner, and system outcomes.
  • Provide healthcare practitioners with personalised evidence-based empathy techniques they can use in their practice to improve patient outcomes as well as their well-being.
  • Create strategies to form ‘empathy habits’.
  • Develop a personal plan to enhance empathy in your day-to-day work.

 

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Edwin Rutsch
Scoop.it!

A New Study Shows People Feel Less Empathy Towards Women Who Wear “Revealing” Clothes

A New Study Shows People Feel Less Empathy Towards Women Who Wear “Revealing” Clothes | Empathy Magazine | Scoop.it
Now, science has determined that our brains react differently to women depending on their clothing choices, though researchers are not sure exactly why this is the case. People feel less empathy towards women who wear more revealing clothing, according to a new study, but the findings can come as a reminder that everyone can be conscious of this bias and work to check it.

In order to come to this conclusion, the researchers had study participants play a cyber game where they tossed a ball to different actors: "sexualized" women (in a dress, high heels, and heavy makeup), “personalized” women (in jeans, a t-shirt, and light makeup), and themselves. The virtual ball-tossing game was used to elicit negative emotions by excluding the actors from the game at different points, and positive emotions by including them. The results revealed the study participants were far less likely to feel empathy for the sexualized woman when she was excluded from the ball-tossing game, and they felt less intense positive emotions when she was included.
more...
No comment yet.