Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Plant Cell: Organ Evolution in Angiosperms Driven by Correlated Divergences of Gene Sequences and Expression Patterns

Plant Cell: Organ Evolution in Angiosperms Driven by Correlated Divergences of Gene Sequences and Expression Patterns | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

This is a nicely writtten paper that should be accessible to advanced undergraduates, and addresses key evo-devo questions. Be sure to have students read the classic King and Wilson (1975) paper also cited here.


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Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
A science editor's take on what's new and interesting in the plant kingdom.
Curated by Jennifer Mach
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
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Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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nQuire: A Statistical Framework For Ploidy Estimation Using Next Generation Sequencing

nQuire: A Statistical Framework For Ploidy Estimation Using Next Generation Sequencing | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Intraspecific variation in ploidy occurs in a wide range of species including pathogenic and nonpathogenic eukaryotes such as yeasts and oomycetes. Ploidy can be inferred indirectly - without measuring DNA content - from experiments using next-generation sequencing (NGS). We present nQuire, a statistical framework that distinguishes between diploids, triploids and tetraploids using NGS. The command-line tool models the distribution of base frequencies at variable sites using a Gaussian Mixture Model, and uses maximum likelihood to select the most plausible ploidy model. nQuire handles large genomes at high coverage efficiently and uses standard input file formats. We demonstrate the utility of nQuire analyzing individual samples of the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans and the Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using these organisms we show the dependence between reliability of the ploidy assignment and sequencing depth. Additionally, we employ normalized maximized log-likelihoods generated by nQuire to ascertain ploidy level in a population of samples with ploidy heterogeneity. Using these normalized values we cluster samples in three dimensions using multivariate Gaussian mixtures. The cluster assignments retrieved from a S. cerevisiae population recovered the true ploidy level in over 96% of samples. Finally, we show that nQuire can be used regionally to identify chromosomal aneuploidies. nQuire provides a statistical framework to study organisms with intraspecific variation in ploidy. nQuire is likely to be useful in epidemiological studies of pathogens, artificial selection experiments, and for historical or ancient samples where intact nuclei are not preserved. It is implemented as a stand-alone Linux command line tool in the C programming language and is available at github.com/clwgg/nQuire under the MIT license.

Via IPM Lab, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Balancing Immunity and Yield in Crop Plants - ScienceDirect

Balancing Immunity and Yield in Crop Plants - ScienceDirect | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Crop diseases cause enormous yield losses and threaten global food[ED1] security. The use of highly resistant cultivars can effectively control plant diseases, but in crops, genetic immunity to disease often comes with an unintended reduction in growth and yield. Here, we review recent advances in understanding how nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors and cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) proteins function in balancing immunity and yield. We also discuss the role of plant hormones and transcription factors in regulating the trade-offs between plant growth and immunity. Finally, we describe how a novel mechanism of translational control of defense proteins can enhance immunity without the reduction in fitness.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Microbiome and plant immunity
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A plant effector‐triggered immunity signaling sector is inhibited by pattern‐triggered immunity

A plant effector‐triggered immunity signaling sector is inhibited by pattern‐triggered immunity | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant‐induced immunity, pattern‐triggered immunity (PTI) and effector‐triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta. These observations led us to discovery of a network‐buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling. We named this mechanism the ETI‐Mediating and PTI‐Inhibited Sector (EMPIS). The signaling kinetics of EMPIS explain apparently different plant genetic requirements for ETI triggered by different effectors without postulating different signaling machineries. The properties of EMPIS suggest that information about efficacy of the early immune response is fed back to the immune signaling network, modulating its activity and limiting the fitness cost of unnecessary immune responses.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Yogesh Gupta, Steve Marek, Giannis Stringlis
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science
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New Phytol.: Sustaining global agriculture through rapid detection and deployment of genetic resistance to deadly crop diseases

New Phytol.: Sustaining global agriculture through rapid detection and deployment of genetic resistance to deadly crop diseases | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Genetically encoded resistance is a major component of crop disease management. Historically, gene loci conferring resistance to pathogens have been identified through classical genetic methods. In recent years, accelerated gene cloning strategies have become available through advances in sequencing, gene capture and strategies for reducing genome complexity. Here, I describe these approaches with key emphasis on the isolation of resistance genes to the cereal crop diseases that are an ongoing threat to global food security. Rapid gene isolation enables their efficient deployment through marker-assisted selection and transgenic technology. Together with innovations in genome editing and progress in pathogen virulence studies, this creates further opportunities to engineer long-lasting resistance. These approaches will speed progress towards a future of farming using fewer pesticides.

Via Nicolas Denancé
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants & Evolution
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The effect of artificial selection on phenotypic plasticity in maize

The effect of artificial selection on phenotypic plasticity in maize | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Remarkable productivity has been achieved in crop species through artificial selection and adaptation to modern agronomic practices. Whether intensive selection has changed the ability of improved cultivars to maintain high productivity across variable environments is unknown. Understanding the genetic control of phenotypic plasticity and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction will enhance crop performance predictions across diverse environments. Here we use data generated from the Genomes to Fields (G2F) Maize G × E project to assess the effect of selection on G × E variation and characterize polymorphisms associated with plasticity. Genomic regions putatively selected during modern temperate maize breeding explain less variability for yield G × E than unselected regions, indicating that improvement by breeding may have reduced G × E of modern temperate cultivars. Trends in genomic position of variants associated with stability reveal fewer genic associations and enrichment of variants 0–5000 base pairs upstream of genes, hypothetically due to control of plasticity by short-range regulatory elements.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Autophagy as a mediator of life and death in plants

Autophagy as a mediator of life and death in plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Autophagy is a major pathway for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic material, including individual proteins, aggregates, and entire organelles. Autophagic processes serve mainly survival functions in cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation and immune responses but can also have death-promoting activities in different eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the role of autophagy in the regulation of programmed cell death (PCD) remained elusive and a subject of debate. More recent evidence, however, has resulted in the consensus that autophagy can either promote or restrict different forms of PCD. Here, we present latest advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms and functions of plant autophagy and discuss their implications for life and death decisions in the context of developmental and pathogen-induced PCD.

Via Suayib Üstün, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Lotus japonicus alters in planta fitness of Mesorhizobium loti dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation

Lotus japonicus alters in planta fitness of Mesorhizobium loti dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Rhizobial bacteria are known for their capacity to fix nitrogen for legume hosts. However ineffective rhizobial genotypes exist and can trigger the formation of nodules but fix little if any nitrogen for hosts. Legumes must employ mechanisms to minimize exploitation by the ineffective rhizobial genotypes to limit fitness costs and stabilize the symbiosis. Here we address two key questions about these host mechanisms. What stages of the interaction are controlled by the host, and can hosts detect subtle differences in nitrogen fixation? We provide the first explicit evidence for adaptive host control in the interaction between Lotus japonicus and Mesorhizobium loti. In both single inoculation and co-inoculation experiments, less effective rhizobial strains exhibited reduced in planta fitness relative to the wildtype M. loti. We uncovered evidence of host control during nodule formation and during post-infection proliferation of symbionts within nodules. We found a linear relationship between rhizobial fitness and symbiotic effectiveness. Our results suggest that L. japonicus can adaptively modulate the fitness of symbionts as a continuous response to symbiotic nitrogen fixation.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development

Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

How caste has formed in honeybees is an enduring puzzle. The prevailing view is that royal jelly stimulates the differentiation of larvae into queen. Here, we uncover a new mechanism that plant miRNAs in worker bee’s food postpone larval development, thereby inducing sterile worker bees. Thus, the theories about honeybee caste formation need to be re-examined from a new angle besides the traditional focus on royal jelly and its components. Furthermore, since miRNAs are transmitted between species of different kingdoms and can contribute to the phenotype regulation, this new model of horizontal miRNA transfer may open up a new avenue to further study the molecular mechanisms underlying cross-kingdom interaction and co-evolution.

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Not in your usual Top 10: protists that infect plants and algae

Not in your usual Top 10: protists that infect plants and algae | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Fungi, nematodes and oomycetes belong to the most prominent eukaryotic plant pathogenic organisms. Unicellular organisms from other eukaryotic lineages, commonly addressed as protists, also infect plants. This review provides an introduction to plant pathogenic protists, including algae infecting oomycetes, and their current state of research.


Via Steve Marek
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Protists are an integral part of the Arabidopsis thaliana microbiome

Protists are an integral part of the Arabidopsis thaliana microbiome | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Although protists occupy a vast range of habitats and are known to interact with plants among other things via disease suppression, competition or growth stimulation, their contributions to the “phytobiome” are not well described. To contribute to a more comprehensive picture of the plant holobiont, we examined cercozoan and oomycete taxa living in association with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in two different soils. Soil, roots, leaves and wooden toothpicks were analyzed before and after surface sterilization. Cercozoa were identified using 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding, whereas the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) was used to determine oomycetes. Subsequent analyses revealed strong spatial structuring of protist communities between compartments, although oomycetes appeared more specialized than Cercozoa. With regards to oomycetes, only members of the Peronosporales and taxa belonging to the genus Globisporangium were identified as shared members of the A. thaliana microbiome. This also applied to cercozoan taxa belonging to the Glissomonadida and Cercomonadida. We identified a strong influence by edaphic factors on the rhizosphere, but not for the phyllosphere. Distinct differences of Cercozoa found preferably in wood or fresh plant material imply specific niche adaptations. Our results highlight the importance of micro-eukaryotes for the plant holobiont. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Via IPM Lab, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Fungal inoculants in the field: Is the reward greater than the risk?

Fungal inoculants in the field: Is the reward greater than the risk? | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Biofertilizers are a large part of the global agricultural economy.
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of companies producing fungal inoculants.
Whether these inoculants are useful is not clear; they are difficult to monitor in the field.
The unintended consequences of inoculants in natural systems is not known, but if invasive, they may pose a threat to soil and plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, October 10, 10:55 AM

Interesting perspective...

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Framework for gradual progression of cell ontogeny in the Arabidopsis root meristem

Framework for gradual progression of cell ontogeny in the Arabidopsis root meristem | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

In plants, apical meristems allow continuous growth along the body axis. Within the root apical meristem, a group of slowly dividing quiescent center cells is thought to limit stem cell activity to directly neighboring cells, thus endowing them with unique properties, distinct from displaced daughters. This binary identity of the stem cells stands in apparent contradiction to the more gradual changes in cell division potential and differentiation that occur as cells move further away from the quiescent center. To address this paradox and to infer molecular organization of the root meristem, we used a whole-genome approach to determine dominant transcriptional patterns along root ontogeny zones. We found that the prevalent patterns are expressed in two opposing gradients. One is characterized by genes associated with development, the other enriched in differentiation genes. We confirmed these transcript gradients, and demonstrate that these translate to gradients in protein accumulation and gradual changes in cellular properties. We also show that gradients are genetically controlled through multiple pathways. Based on these findings, we propose that cells in the Arabidopsis root meristem gradually transition from stem cell activity toward differentiation.

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Sharing resources for mutual benefit: crosstalk between disciplines deepens the understanding of mycorrhizal symbioses across scales

Sharing resources for mutual benefit: crosstalk between disciplines deepens the understanding of mycorrhizal symbioses across scales | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Mycorrhizal scientists from 53 countries gathered in the city of Prague from 30 July until 4 August 2017 for the 9th International Conference on Mycorrhiza (ICOM9). They came to discuss an ancient symbiosis based on the exchange of resources between plant and fungal partners, with many impacts on plant health (van der Heijden et al., 2015). Much like this mutualistic interaction, delegates from disparate disciplines united with a strong focus on integration and sharing of resources for mutual benefit. By exchanging knowledge among researchers from the fields of molecular biology, physiology and ecology, the participants of ICOM9 made a leap forward in our understanding of symbiotic structure and function at multiple scales (Fig. 1).


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Bob Reeves's curator insight, December 14, 2:49 PM
Would have loved to have been a fly on the wall at this conference. So may great insights become possible when the various science disciplines mingle and share their findings. Symbiosis?
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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The P. patens chromosome‐scale assembly reveals moss genome structure and evolution

The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2,000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene- and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes. However, the chromosomes are mono-centric with peaks of a class of Copia elements potentially coinciding with centromeres. Gene body methylation is evident in 5.7% of the protein-coding genes, typically coinciding with low GC and low expression. Some giant virus insertions are transcriptionally active and might protect gametes from viral infection via siRNA mediated silencing. Structure-based detection methods show that the genome evolved via two rounds of whole genome duplications (WGDs), apparently common in mosses but not in liverworts and hornworts. Several hundred genes are present in colinear regions conserved since the last common ancestor of plants. These syntenic regions are enriched for functions related to plant-specific cell growth and tissue organization. The P. patens genome lacks the TE-rich pericentromeric and gene-rich distal regions typical for most flowering plant genomes. More non-seed plant genomes are needed to unravel how plant genomes evolve, and to understand whether the P. patens genome structure is typical for mosses or bryophytes.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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The Structural Basis of Ligand Perception and Signal Activation by Receptor Kinases | Annual Review of Plant Biology

The Structural Basis of Ligand Perception and Signal Activation by Receptor Kinases | Annual Review of Plant Biology | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants have evolved a family of unique membrane receptor kinases to orchestrate the growth and development of their cells, tissues, and organs. Receptor kinases also form the first line of defense of the plant immune system and allow plants to engage in symbiotic interactions. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding, at the molecular level, how receptor kinases with lysin-motif or leucine-rich-repeat ectodomains have evolved to sense a broad spectrum of ligands. We summarize and compare the established receptor activation mechanisms for plant receptor kinases and dissect how ligand binding at the cell surface leads to activation of cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Our review highlights that one family of plant membrane receptors has diversified structurally to fulfill very different signaling tasks.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants & Evolution
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Divergence of regulatory networks governed by the orthologous transcription factors FLC and PEP1 in Brassicaceae species

Genome-wide landscapes of transcription factor (TF) binding sites (BSs) diverge during evolution, conferring species-specific transcriptional patterns. The rate of divergence varies in different metazoan lineages but has not been widely studied in plants. We identified the BSs and assessed the effects on transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and PERPETUAL FLOWERING 1 (PEP1), two orthologous MADS-box TFs that repress flowering and confer vernalization requirement in the Brassicaceae species Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabis alpina, respectively. We found that only 14% of their BSs were conserved in both species and that these contained a CArG-box that is recognized by MADS-box TFs. The CArG-box consensus at conserved BSs was extended compared with the core motif. By contrast, species-specific BSs usually lacked the CArG-box in the other species. Flowering-time genes were highly overrepresented among conserved targets, and their CArG-boxes were widely conserved among Brassicaceae species. Cold-regulated (COR) genes were also overrepresented among targets, but the cognate BSs and the identity of the regulated genes were usually different in each species. In cold, COR gene transcript levels were increased in flc and pep1-1 mutants compared with WT, and this correlated with reduced growth in pep1-1. Therefore, FLC orthologs regulate a set of conserved target genes mainly involved in reproductive development and were later independently recruited to modulate stress responses in different Brassicaceae lineages. Analysis of TF BSs in these lineages thus distinguishes widely conserved targets representing the core function of the TF from those that were recruited later in evolution.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Sciences
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Boundary Formation through a Direct Threshold-Based Readout of Mobile Small RNA Gradients

Boundary Formation through a Direct Threshold-Based Readout of Mobile Small RNA Gradients | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Highlights
•Mobile small RNAs generate sharply defined domains of target gene expression
•Small RNA-to-target ratio instructs the threshold-based readout of mobility gradients
•Mobile small RNAs present a unique direct mechanism to relay positional information
•Readouts of opposing small RNA gradients specify robust developmental boundaries

Via Loïc Lepiniec, Saclay Plant Sciences
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WillistonPlantPath's comment, November 7, 1:04 PM
Wow beautiful microscopy
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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TomExpress, a unified tomato RNA‐Seq platform for visualization of expression data, clustering and correlation networks

TomExpress, a unified tomato RNA‐Seq platform for visualization of expression data, clustering and correlation networks | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The TomExpress platform was developed to provide the tomato research community with a browser and integrated web tools for public RNA‐Seq data visualization and data mining. To avoid major biase

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
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Root hairs enable high transpiration rates in drying soils

Root hairs enable high transpiration rates in drying soils | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Do root hairs help roots take up water from the soil? Despite the well-documented role of root hairs in phosphate uptake, their role in water extraction is controversial. We grew barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Pallas) and its root-hairless mutant brb in a root pressure chamber, whereby the transpiration rate could be varied whilst monitoring the suction in the xylem. The method provides accurate measurements of the dynamic relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction. The relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction was linear in wet soils and did not differ between genotypes. When the soil dried, the xylem suction increased rapidly and non-linearly at high transpiration rates. This response was much greater with the brb mutant, implying a reduced capacity to take up water. We conclude that root hairs facilitate the uptake of water by substantially reducing the drop in matric potential at the interface between root and soil in rapidly transpiring plants. The experiments also reinforce earlier observations that there is a marked hysteresis in the suction in the xylem when the transpiration rate is rising compared with when it is falling, and possible reasons for this behavior are discussed.


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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants & Evolution
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Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis

Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2, SACPD, EAR, and ACPTE, following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2, 3, 5, and 7, consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture

Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency.

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Rice so nice it was domesticated thrice

Rice so nice it was domesticated thrice | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Amazonian variety apparently died off after European colonization
Via Neelima Sinha, Loïc Lepiniec, Saclay Plant Sciences
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Back to the Roots 's curator insight, October 17, 5:37 AM
Really interesting! Three independent domestication events on the same staple, amazing...
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants & Evolution
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The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus) : Nature Genetics : Nature Research

The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus) : Nature Genetics : Nature Research | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) were upregulated in fruits concomitantly with their downstream metabolites (VSCs and ethylene), suggesting a potential association between ethylene biosynthesis and methionine regeneration via the Yang cycle. The durian genome provides a resource for tropical fruit biology and agronomy.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Frontiers | Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk | Plant Science

Frontiers | Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk | Plant Science | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signaling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, reactive oxygen species, and redox signaling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step toward the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops.

Via Elsa Ballini
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