Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
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APS/IS-MPMI journals: Xylella fastidiosa Virtual Issue (2012)

APS/IS-MPMI journals: Xylella fastidiosa Virtual Issue (2012) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

In recent years, multipronged research efforts have brought a new level of understanding about this pathogen's complex biology and disease mechanisms, leading to better management strategies. The key papers presented below, published in Phytopathology, Plant Disease, and Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, tell a story of progress. Free access is available to these papers for a limited time.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
A science editor's take on what's new and interesting in the plant kingdom.
Curated by Jennifer Mach
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Boundary Formation through a Direct Threshold-Based Readout of Mobile Small RNA Gradients

Boundary Formation through a Direct Threshold-Based Readout of Mobile Small RNA Gradients | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Highlights
•Mobile small RNAs generate sharply defined domains of target gene expression
•Small RNA-to-target ratio instructs the threshold-based readout of mobility gradients
•Mobile small RNAs present a unique direct mechanism to relay positional information
•Readouts of opposing small RNA gradients specify robust developmental boundaries

Via Loïc Lepiniec, Saclay Plant Sciences
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WillistonPlantPath's comment, November 7, 1:04 PM
Wow beautiful microscopy
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Immunity And Microbial Effectors
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TomExpress, a unified tomato RNA‐Seq platform for visualization of expression data, clustering and correlation networks

TomExpress, a unified tomato RNA‐Seq platform for visualization of expression data, clustering and correlation networks | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The TomExpress platform was developed to provide the tomato research community with a browser and integrated web tools for public RNA‐Seq data visualization and data mining. To avoid major biase

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
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Root hairs enable high transpiration rates in drying soils

Root hairs enable high transpiration rates in drying soils | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Do root hairs help roots take up water from the soil? Despite the well-documented role of root hairs in phosphate uptake, their role in water extraction is controversial. We grew barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Pallas) and its root-hairless mutant brb in a root pressure chamber, whereby the transpiration rate could be varied whilst monitoring the suction in the xylem. The method provides accurate measurements of the dynamic relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction. The relationship between the transpiration rate and xylem suction was linear in wet soils and did not differ between genotypes. When the soil dried, the xylem suction increased rapidly and non-linearly at high transpiration rates. This response was much greater with the brb mutant, implying a reduced capacity to take up water. We conclude that root hairs facilitate the uptake of water by substantially reducing the drop in matric potential at the interface between root and soil in rapidly transpiring plants. The experiments also reinforce earlier observations that there is a marked hysteresis in the suction in the xylem when the transpiration rate is rising compared with when it is falling, and possible reasons for this behavior are discussed.


Via Andres Zurita
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Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis

Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2, SACPD, EAR, and ACPTE, following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2, 3, 5, and 7, consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture

Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency.

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Rice so nice it was domesticated thrice

Rice so nice it was domesticated thrice | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Amazonian variety apparently died off after European colonization
Via Neelima Sinha, Loïc Lepiniec, Saclay Plant Sciences
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Back to the Roots 's curator insight, October 17, 5:37 AM
Really interesting! Three independent domestication events on the same staple, amazing...
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants & Evolution
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The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus) : Nature Genetics : Nature Research

The draft genome of tropical fruit durian (Durio zibethinus) : Nature Genetics : Nature Research | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) were upregulated in fruits concomitantly with their downstream metabolites (VSCs and ethylene), suggesting a potential association between ethylene biosynthesis and methionine regeneration via the Yang cycle. The durian genome provides a resource for tropical fruit biology and agronomy.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant immunity under abiotic stress
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Frontiers | Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk | Plant Science

Frontiers | Enhancing crop resilience to combined abiotic and biotic stress through the dissection of physiological and molecular crosstalk | Plant Science | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants growing in their natural habitats are often challenged simultaneously by multiple stress factors, both abiotic and biotic. Research has so far been limited to responses to individual stresses, and understanding of adaptation to combinatorial stress is limited, but indicative of non-additive interactions. Omics data analysis and functional characterization of individual genes has revealed a convergence of signaling pathways for abiotic and biotic stress adaptation. Taking into account that most data originate from imposition of individual stress factors, this review summarizes these findings in a physiological context, following the pathogenesis timeline and highlighting potential differential interactions occurring between abiotic and biotic stress signaling across the different cellular compartments and at the whole plant level. Potential effects of abiotic stress on resistance components such as extracellular receptor proteins, R-genes and systemic acquired resistance will be elaborated, as well as crosstalk at the levels of hormone, reactive oxygen species, and redox signaling. Breeding targets and strategies are proposed focusing on either manipulation and deployment of individual common regulators such as transcription factors or pyramiding of non- (negatively) interacting components such as R-genes with abiotic stress resistance genes. We propose that dissection of broad spectrum stress tolerance conferred by priming chemicals may provide an insight on stress cross regulation and additional candidate genes for improving crop performance under combined stress. Validation of the proposed strategies in lab and field experiments is a first step toward the goal of achieving tolerance to combinatorial stress in crops.

Via Elsa Ballini
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Host:microbe Interactions
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Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs) as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response (HR) in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme MADP-malic enzyme (ME), inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

Via Jonathan Plett
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Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root–Soil Interaction - ScienceDirect

Shaping an Optimal Soil by Root–Soil Interaction - ScienceDirect | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots–soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields. These root traits affect soil physical and chemical properties and might be utilized to improve the soil for subsequent crops. We argue that optimizing root–soil interactions is a prerequisite for future food security.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Jonathan Plett
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Publications
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BMC Biology: Genome sequencing of the staple food crop white Guinea yam enables the development of a molecular marker for sex determination (2017)

BMC Biology: Genome sequencing of the staple food crop white Guinea yam enables the development of a molecular marker for sex determination (2017) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Background. Root and tuber crops are a major food source in tropical Africa. Among these crops are several species in the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea collectively known as yam, a staple tuber crop that contributes enormously to the subsistence and socio-cultural lives of millions of people, principally in West and Central Africa. Yam cultivation is constrained by several factors, and yam can be considered a neglected “orphan” crop that would benefit from crop improvement efforts. However, the lack of genetic and genomic tools has impeded the improvement of this staple crop.

 

Results. To accelerate marker-assisted breeding of yam, we performed genome analysis of white Guinea yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and assembled a 594-Mb genome, 76.4% of which was distributed among 21 linkage groups. In total, we predicted 26,198 genes. Phylogenetic analyses with 2381 conserved genes revealed that Dioscorea is a unique lineage of monocotyledons distinct from the Poales (rice), Arecales (palm), and Zingiberales (banana). The entire Dioscorea genus is characterized by the occurrence of separate male and female plants (dioecy), a feature that has limited efficient yam breeding. To infer the genetics of sex determination, we performed whole-genome resequencing of bulked segregants (quantitative trait locus sequencing [QTL-seq]) in F1 progeny segregating for male and female plants and identified a genomic region associated with female heterogametic (male = ZZ, female = ZW) sex determination. We further delineated the W locus and used it to develop a molecular marker for sex identification of Guinea yam plants at the seedling stage.

 

Conclusions. Guinea yam belongs to a unique and highly differentiated clade of monocotyledons. The genome analyses and sex-linked marker development performed in this study should greatly accelerate marker-assisted breeding of Guinea yam. In addition, our QTL-seq approach can be utilized in genetic studies of other outcrossing crops and organisms with highly heterozygous genomes. Genomic analysis of orphan crops such as yam promotes efforts to improve food security and the sustainability of tropical agriculture.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant and Seed Biology
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Beyond editing to writing large genomes

Beyond editing to writing large genomes | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Recent exponential advances in genome sequencing and engineering technologies have enabled an unprecedented level of interrogation into the impact of DNA variation (genotype) on cellular function (phenotype). Furthermore, these advances have also prompted realistic discussion of writing and radically re-writing complex genomes. In this Perspective, we detail the motivation for large-scale engineering, discuss the progress made from such projects in bacteria and yeast and describe how various genome-engineering technologies will contribute to this effort. Finally, we describe the features of an ideal platform and provide a roadmap to facilitate the efficient writing of large genomes.

Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Global climatic drivers of leaf size

Global climatic drivers of leaf size | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Why does plant leaf size increase at lower latitudes, as exemplified by the evolutionary success of species with very large leaves in the tropics? Wright et al. analyzed leaf data for 7670 plant species, along with climatic data, from 682 sites worldwide. Their findings reveal consistent patterns and explain why earlier predictions from energy balance theory had only limited success. The authors provide a fully quantitative explanation for the latitudinal gradient in leaf size, with implications for plant ecology and physiology, vegetation modeling, and paleobotany.

Science , this issue p. [917][1]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aal4760
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The effect of artificial selection on phenotypic plasticity in maize

The effect of artificial selection on phenotypic plasticity in maize | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Remarkable productivity has been achieved in crop species through artificial selection and adaptation to modern agronomic practices. Whether intensive selection has changed the ability of improved cultivars to maintain high productivity across variable environments is unknown. Understanding the genetic control of phenotypic plasticity and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction will enhance crop performance predictions across diverse environments. Here we use data generated from the Genomes to Fields (G2F) Maize G × E project to assess the effect of selection on G × E variation and characterize polymorphisms associated with plasticity. Genomic regions putatively selected during modern temperate maize breeding explain less variability for yield G × E than unselected regions, indicating that improvement by breeding may have reduced G × E of modern temperate cultivars. Trends in genomic position of variants associated with stability reveal fewer genic associations and enrichment of variants 0–5000 base pairs upstream of genes, hypothetically due to control of plasticity by short-range regulatory elements.


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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Autophagy as a mediator of life and death in plants

Autophagy as a mediator of life and death in plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Autophagy is a major pathway for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic material, including individual proteins, aggregates, and entire organelles. Autophagic processes serve mainly survival functions in cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation and immune responses but can also have death-promoting activities in different eukaryotic organisms. In plants, the role of autophagy in the regulation of programmed cell death (PCD) remained elusive and a subject of debate. More recent evidence, however, has resulted in the consensus that autophagy can either promote or restrict different forms of PCD. Here, we present latest advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms and functions of plant autophagy and discuss their implications for life and death decisions in the context of developmental and pathogen-induced PCD.

Via Suayib Üstün, Steve Marek
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Lotus japonicus alters in planta fitness of Mesorhizobium loti dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation

Lotus japonicus alters in planta fitness of Mesorhizobium loti dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Rhizobial bacteria are known for their capacity to fix nitrogen for legume hosts. However ineffective rhizobial genotypes exist and can trigger the formation of nodules but fix little if any nitrogen for hosts. Legumes must employ mechanisms to minimize exploitation by the ineffective rhizobial genotypes to limit fitness costs and stabilize the symbiosis. Here we address two key questions about these host mechanisms. What stages of the interaction are controlled by the host, and can hosts detect subtle differences in nitrogen fixation? We provide the first explicit evidence for adaptive host control in the interaction between Lotus japonicus and Mesorhizobium loti. In both single inoculation and co-inoculation experiments, less effective rhizobial strains exhibited reduced in planta fitness relative to the wildtype M. loti. We uncovered evidence of host control during nodule formation and during post-infection proliferation of symbionts within nodules. We found a linear relationship between rhizobial fitness and symbiotic effectiveness. Our results suggest that L. japonicus can adaptively modulate the fitness of symbionts as a continuous response to symbiotic nitrogen fixation.


Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development

Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

How caste has formed in honeybees is an enduring puzzle. The prevailing view is that royal jelly stimulates the differentiation of larvae into queen. Here, we uncover a new mechanism that plant miRNAs in worker bee’s food postpone larval development, thereby inducing sterile worker bees. Thus, the theories about honeybee caste formation need to be re-examined from a new angle besides the traditional focus on royal jelly and its components. Furthermore, since miRNAs are transmitted between species of different kingdoms and can contribute to the phenotype regulation, this new model of horizontal miRNA transfer may open up a new avenue to further study the molecular mechanisms underlying cross-kingdom interaction and co-evolution.

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Not in your usual Top 10: protists that infect plants and algae

Not in your usual Top 10: protists that infect plants and algae | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Fungi, nematodes and oomycetes belong to the most prominent eukaryotic plant pathogenic organisms. Unicellular organisms from other eukaryotic lineages, commonly addressed as protists, also infect plants. This review provides an introduction to plant pathogenic protists, including algae infecting oomycetes, and their current state of research.


Via Steve Marek
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Protists are an integral part of the Arabidopsis thaliana microbiome

Protists are an integral part of the Arabidopsis thaliana microbiome | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Although protists occupy a vast range of habitats and are known to interact with plants among other things via disease suppression, competition or growth stimulation, their contributions to the “phytobiome” are not well described. To contribute to a more comprehensive picture of the plant holobiont, we examined cercozoan and oomycete taxa living in association with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in two different soils. Soil, roots, leaves and wooden toothpicks were analyzed before and after surface sterilization. Cercozoa were identified using 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding, whereas the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) was used to determine oomycetes. Subsequent analyses revealed strong spatial structuring of protist communities between compartments, although oomycetes appeared more specialized than Cercozoa. With regards to oomycetes, only members of the Peronosporales and taxa belonging to the genus Globisporangium were identified as shared members of the A. thaliana microbiome. This also applied to cercozoan taxa belonging to the Glissomonadida and Cercomonadida. We identified a strong influence by edaphic factors on the rhizosphere, but not for the phyllosphere. Distinct differences of Cercozoa found preferably in wood or fresh plant material imply specific niche adaptations. Our results highlight the importance of micro-eukaryotes for the plant holobiont. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Via IPM Lab, Steve Marek
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Fungal inoculants in the field: Is the reward greater than the risk?

Fungal inoculants in the field: Is the reward greater than the risk? | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Biofertilizers are a large part of the global agricultural economy.
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of companies producing fungal inoculants.
Whether these inoculants are useful is not clear; they are difficult to monitor in the field.
The unintended consequences of inoculants in natural systems is not known, but if invasive, they may pose a threat to soil and plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, October 10, 10:55 AM

Interesting perspective...

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Framework for gradual progression of cell ontogeny in the Arabidopsis root meristem

Framework for gradual progression of cell ontogeny in the Arabidopsis root meristem | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

In plants, apical meristems allow continuous growth along the body axis. Within the root apical meristem, a group of slowly dividing quiescent center cells is thought to limit stem cell activity to directly neighboring cells, thus endowing them with unique properties, distinct from displaced daughters. This binary identity of the stem cells stands in apparent contradiction to the more gradual changes in cell division potential and differentiation that occur as cells move further away from the quiescent center. To address this paradox and to infer molecular organization of the root meristem, we used a whole-genome approach to determine dominant transcriptional patterns along root ontogeny zones. We found that the prevalent patterns are expressed in two opposing gradients. One is characterized by genes associated with development, the other enriched in differentiation genes. We confirmed these transcript gradients, and demonstrate that these translate to gradients in protein accumulation and gradual changes in cellular properties. We also show that gradients are genetically controlled through multiple pathways. Based on these findings, we propose that cells in the Arabidopsis root meristem gradually transition from stem cell activity toward differentiation.

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Emerging Insights into the Functions of Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1 - ScienceDirect

Emerging Insights into the Functions of Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1 - ScienceDirect | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are among the most abundantly produced proteins in plants on pathogen attack, and PR-1 gene expression has long been used as a marker for salicylic acid-mediated disease resistance. However, despite considerable interest over several decades, their requirement and role in plant defence remains poorly understood. Recent reports have emerged demonstrating that PR-1 proteins possess sterol-binding activity, harbour an embedded defence signalling peptide, and are targeted by plant pathogens during host infection. These studies have re-energised the field and provided long-awaited insights into a possible PR-1 function. Here we review the current status of PR-1 proteins and discuss how these recent advances shed light on putative roles for these enigmatic proteins.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant hormones and signaling peptides
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Strigolactones and Gibberellins: A New Couple in the Phytohormone World? - ScienceDirect

Strigolactones and Gibberellins: A New Couple in the Phytohormone World? - ScienceDirect | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Strigolactones (SLs) and gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that share some unique aspects of their perception and signalling pathways. Recent discoveries indicate that these two phytohormones may act together in processes of plant development and that SL biosynthesis is regulated by GAs.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Frontiers | Strigolactones Biosynthesis and Their Role in Abiotic Stress Resilience in Plants: A Critical Review | Plant Science

Frontiers | Strigolactones Biosynthesis and Their Role in Abiotic Stress Resilience in Plants: A Critical Review | Plant Science | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Strigolactones (SLs) being new class of plant hormones, play regulatory roles against abiotic stresses in plants. There are multiple hormonal response pathways which are adapted by the plants to overcome these stressful environmental constraints to reduce the negative impact on overall crop plant productivity. Genetic modulation of the SLs could also be applied as a potential approach in this regard. However, endogenous plant hormones play central roles in adaptation to changing environmental conditions, by mediating growth, development, nutrient allocation, and source/sink transitions. In addition, the hormonal interactions can fine-tune the plant response and determine plant architecture in response to environmental stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and canopy shade. Considerable advancements and new insights into SLs biosynthesis, signalling and transport has been unleashed since the initial discovery. In this review we present basic overview of SL biosynthesis and perception with a detailed discussion on our present understanding of SLs and their critical role to tolerate environmental constraints. The SLs and ABA interplay during the abiotic stresses is particularly highlighted.

Via Andres Zurita
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Nat. Genet.: A gene encoding maize caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase confers quantitative resistance to multiple pathogens (2017)

Alleles that confer multiple disease resistance (MDR) are valuable in crop improvement, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their functions remain largely unknown. A quantitative trait locus, qMdr9.02, associated with resistance to three important foliar maize diseases—southern leaf blight, gray leaf spot and northern leaf blight—has been identified on maize chromosome 9. Through fine-mapping, association analysis, expression analysis, insertional mutagenesis and transgenic validation, we demonstrate that ZmCCoAOMT2, which encodes a caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway and lignin production, is the gene within qMdr9.02 conferring quantitative resistance to both southern leaf blight and gray leaf spot. We suggest that resistance might be caused by allelic variation at the level of both gene expression and amino acid sequence, thus resulting in differences in levels of lignin and other metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway and regulation of programmed cell death.

Via Nicolas Denancé, Giannis Stringlis
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Nicolas Denancé's curator insight, September 4, 4:43 AM
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