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Human Emotions Explained In 60 Short Interviews | NPR

Experts in Emotion Article on NPR by Tania Lombrozo 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/13.7/2013/07/15/202193063/human-emotions-explained-in-60-short-interviews

 
Experts in Emotion Series on Youtube - June Gruber - Yale University

"The Experts in Emotion Series provides a unique opportunity to explore the mysteries of human emotion guided by some of the world's foremost experts on the subject, ranging from distinguished academics to leading figures behind social media services like Facebook. In addition to tackling central questions such as what emotions are, why we have them, and how our understanding of them can lead to happier and healthier lives. You'll also hear first-hand about what first led these key players to study emotion and what they see as the most exciting frontiers ahead." 
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLh9mgdi4rNew731mjIZn43G_Y5otqKzJA 

 

 

 

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Educational Psychology & Technology
This curated collection includes news, resources, and research related to Educational Psychology and/or Technology. The page also serves as a research tool to organize online content. The grey funnel shaped icon at the top allows for searching by keyword. For research more specific to tech and screen time, please see: http://bit.ly/screen_time, to learn about the next wave of privatization involving technology intersections with "Social Impact Bonds", see http://bit.ly/sibgamble, and for additional Educator Resources, please visit http://EduResearcher.com [Links to an external site].
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Health and Safety Research Gaps in Policies and Practices Integrating Emerging Technologies for Young Children 

Links are as follows in order of the slides: 

http://www.commercialfreechildhood.org/action/tell-fisher-price-no-ipad-bouncy-seats-infants 

 

The Silicon Valley Billionaires Remaking America's Schools 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/06/technology/tech-billionaires-education-zuckerberg-facebook-hastings.html 

 

Dr. Catherine Steiner-Adair
Clinical Psychologist and Research Associate at Harvard Medical School https://childmind.org/bio/catherine-steiner-adair/ 

 

Video link may be viewed at: https://youtu.be/pjnFPo_mk6s 

 

Carter B, Rees P, Hale L, Bhattacharjee D, Paradkar MS. Association Between Portable Screen-Based Media Device Access or Use and Sleep Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Oct 31. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.2341. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27802500?dopt=Abstract 

 

Screen Time Hurts More Than Kids' Eyes

http://www.healthline.com/health-news/screen-time-hurts-more-than-kids-eyes-101215 

 

New Media Consortium / Consortium for School Networking Horizon Report 
http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2016-nmc-cosn-horizon-report-k12-EN.pdf 

 

"American Revolution 2.0: How Education Innovation is Going to Revitalize America and Transform the U.S. Economy"  http://sco.lt/5JnF7B 

 

"Preschool is Good For Children But It's Expensive So Utah Is Offering It Online" https://www.washingtonpost.co m/local/education/preschool-is- good-for-poor-kids-but-its- expensive-so-utah-is-offering-it- online/2015/10/09/27665e52- 5e1d-11e5-b38e- 06883aacba64_story.html  

 

Philanthropy Roundtable's: "Blended Learning: Wise Givers Guide to Supporting Tech-Assisted Learning"

http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/file_uploads/Blended_Learning_Guidebook.pdf (Formerly chaired by B. DeVos)  

 

CyberCharters Have Overwhelming Negative Impact 

 

Ma, J., van den Heuvel, M., Maguire, J., Parkin, P., Birken, C. (2017). Is handheld screen time use associated with language delay in infants? Presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting, San Francisco, CA. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170504083141.htm  

 

Jonathan Rochelle’s GSV/ASU PRIMETIME Keynote Speech pitching Google Cardboard for children in schools as proxy for actual field trips: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNqYMI89umE 

 

Scientists Urge Google to Stop Untested Microwave Radiation of Children's Eyes and Brains with Virtual Reality Devices in Schools  http://sco.lt/8ZY5Zp // https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B12B4w0bwyQ_bzRTSUtfb2lORXM/view  Asus product manual

http://dlcdnet.asus.com/pub/ASUS/ZenFone/ZE550ML/e10509_ze550ml_ze551ml_em_0601.pdf 

 

Telecom Industry Liability and Insurance Information 

http://sco.lt/6MrkcT 

 

National Association for Children and Safe Technology - iPad Information 

 

For infant/pregnancy related safety precautions, please visit http://BabySafeProject.org 

 

194 Signatories (physicians, scientists, educators) on Joint Statement on Pregnancy and Wireless Radiation http://sco.lt/7C2N3B 

 

Article screenshot from France: "Portables. L'embrouille des ondes electromagnetiques  

http://sco.lt/68rtCb

 

Wireless Phone Radiation Risks and Public Policy

http://bit.ly/wirelessradiationUCLA102215 

 

"Show The Fine Print" 
http://ShowTheFinePrint.org 

 

Scientist petition calls for greater protective measures for children and pregnant women, cites need for precautionary health warnings, stronger regulation of electromagnetic fields, creation of EMF free zones, and media disclosures of experts’ financial relationships with industry when citing their opinions regarding the safety of EMF-emitting technologies. Published in European Journal of Oncology http://sco.lt/8SDDd3 

 

International Agency for Research on Cancer Classifies Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields as Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans (2011)

 

For more on source of funding research, see: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1797826/ and http://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/jco.2008.21.6366 

 

Maryland State Children’s Environmental Health and Protection Advisory Council // Public Testimony https://youtu.be/8sCV1l7IfDY?t=7m15s

 

"Until now, radiation from cell towers has not been considered a risk to children, but a recent study raises new questions about possible long-term, harmful effects."  http://sco.lt/5tm5dx 

 

For further reading, please see Captured Agency report published by Harvard’s Center for Ethics http://sco.lt/4qwS2r  or https://ethics.harvard.edu/files/center-for-ethics/files/capturedagency_alster.pdf 

 

Updates/posts/safety information on Virtual Reality:

http://www.scoop.it/t/emf-wireless-radiation?q=virtual 

 

Environmental Health Trust Virtual Reality Radiation Absorption Slides 

https://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/Virtual-reality-Slides-1.pdf 

 

Healthy Kids in a Digital World:

http://commercialfreechildhood.org/healthykidsdigitalworld 

 

National Association for Children and Safe Technology http://nacst.org 

 

Doctors’ Letters on Wifi in Schools// 154 page compilation

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8Oub2Nx5eSLNEthQmNlb3ZGcTQ/view 

 

Insurance and Liability Disclaimers/Information from Telecom Companies https://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/Telecom-10-K-Liability-and-Insurance-Companies-Slides-EHT-6-2016.pdf 

  

Most of the documents and articles embedded within the presentation above are searchable/accessible on the following page: http://bit.ly/screen_time
_______________________________

Document above is a pdf with live links. They are provided above for easier access. To download the original file, please click on title or arrow above. It is a large file so may take several minutes.  

 
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The Structural Consequences of Big Data-Driven Education // Elana Zeide 

The Structural Consequences of Big Data-Driven Education // Elana Zeide  | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

Abstract
Educators and commenters who evaluate big data-driven learning environments focus on specific questions: whether automated education platforms improve learning outcomes, invade student privacy, and promote equality. This article puts aside separate unresolved—and perhaps unresolvable—issues regarding the concrete effects of specific technologies. It instead examines how big data-driven tools alter the structure of schools’ pedagogical decision-making, and, in doing so, change fundamental aspects of America’s education enterprise. Technological mediation and data-driven decision-making have a particularly significant impact in learning environments because the education process primarily consists of dynamic information exchange. In this overview, I highlight three significant structural shifts that accompany school reliance on data-driven instructional platforms that perform core school functions: teaching, assessment, and credentialing.

First, virtual learning environments create information technology infrastructures featuring constant data collection, continuous algorithmic assessment, and possibly infinite record retention. This undermines the traditional intellectual privacy and safety of classrooms. Second, these systems displace pedagogical decision-making from educators serving public interests to private, often for-profit, technology providers. They constrain teachers’ academic autonomy, obscure student evaluation, and reduce parents’ and students’ ability to participate or challenge education decision-making. Third, big data-driven tools define what ‘counts’ as education by mapping the concepts, creating the content, determining the metrics, and setting desired learning outcomes of instruction. These shifts cede important decision-making to private entities without public scrutiny or pedagogical examination. In contrast to the public and heated debates that accompany textbook choices, schools often adopt education technologies ad hoc. Given education’s crucial impact on individual and collective success, educators and policymakers must consider the implications of data-driven education proactively and explicitly.

 

Keywords: big data; personalized learning; competency-based education; smart tutors; learning analytics; MOOCs

Suggested Citation:

Zeide, Elana, The Structural Consequences of Big Data-Driven Education (June 23, 2017). Big Data, Vol 5, No. 2 (2017): 164-172. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2991794"

 

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2991794 

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Absorption of Wireless Radiation In The Child Versus Adult Brain and Eye From Cell Phone Radiation or Virtual Reality // Environmental Research 

Wireless radiation absorption in child vs adult brain & eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality // Fernandez C, de Salles AA, Sears ME, Morris RD, Davis DL. Absorption of wireless radiation in the child versus adult brain and eye from cell phone conversation or virtual reality. Environmental Research. Jun 5, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.013

Highlights
• More cell phone radiation is absorbed by children's inner brain tissues than adults’.
• Children's radio-frequency radiation exposure should be reduced.
• Further research to evaluate the risks to the eye from use of VR is urgently needed.
• It is biologically relevant and feasible to reduce the standards’ averaging volume.
• Current methods to determine wireless device compliance should be revised.

Abstract
Children's brains are more susceptible to hazardous exposures, and are thought to absorb higher doses of radiation from cell phones in some regions of the brain. Globally the numbers and applications of wireless devices are increasing rapidly, but since 1997 safety testing has relied on a large, homogenous, adult male head phantom to simulate exposures; the “Standard Anthropomorphic Mannequin” (SAM) is used to estimate only whether tissue temperature will be increased by more than 1 Celsius degree in the periphery. The present work employs anatomically based modeling currently used to set standards for surgical and medical devices, that incorporates heterogeneous characteristics of age and anatomy. Modeling of a cell phone held to the ear, or of virtual reality devices in front of the eyes, reveals that young eyes and brains absorb substantially higher local radiation doses than adults’. Age-specific simulations indicate the need to apply refined methods for regulatory compliance testing; and for public education regarding manufacturers' advice to keep phones off the body, and prudent use to limit exposures, particularly to protect the young.
 
[Excerpts]
 
"In summary, compared with adult models, children experience two- to three-fold higher RF doses to: 1) localized areas of the brain when a cell phone is positioned next to the ear; and 2) the eyes and frontal lobe when a cell phone is used to view virtual reality. These findings raise serious questions about the current approach to certify cell phones; particularly the use of the SAM. "
 
"Our modeling demonstrates clearly that localized psSAR varies significantly for critical components of the brain. Younger models absorb proportionally more radiation in the eyes and brain – grey matter, cerebellum and hippocampus—and the local dose rate varies inversely with age. This reflects the fact that the head is not homogeneous. Indeed, localized heating up to 5 Centigrade degrees has been detected as a result of mobile phone radiation studied ex vivo in cow brain using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance thermometry (Gultekin and Moeller, 2013)." 
 
"Our findings support reexamination of methods to determine regulatory compliance for wireless devices, and highlight the importance of precautionary advice such as that of American Academy of Pediatrics (2016). The Academy recommends that younger children should not use cell phones, and that prudent measures should be taken to eliminate exposure (e.g. using devices for amusement or education only when all wireless features are turned off – in “airplane mode”) or to minimize exposure (e.g. texting or using speakerphone), and that cell phones should not be kept next to the body. Use of wires/cables in schools and homes circumvents needless exposures of children to radiation from both devices and Wi-Fi routers. There is also an urgent need for research to evaluate the risks to the eye from use of cell phones in virtual reality applications." 
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The Mailicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation // Future of Humanity Institute, Univ. of Oxford, EFF, OpenAI, et al.

The Mailicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation // Future of Humanity Institute, Univ. of Oxford, EFF, OpenAI, et al. | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it
 

 "Artificial intelligence and machine learning capabilities are growing at an unprecedented rate. These technologies have many widely beneficial applications, ranging from machine translation to medical image analysis. Countless more such applications are being developed and can be expected over the long ter. Less attention has historically been paid to the ways in which artificial intelligence can be used maliciously. This report surveys the landscape of potential security threats from malicious uses of artificial intelligence technologies and proposes ways to better forecast, prevent and mitigate these threats. We analyze, but do not conclusively resolve, the question of what the long-term equilibrium between attackers and defenders will be. We focus instead on what sorts of attacks we are likely to see soon if adequate defenses are not developed."...

 

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1802/1802.07228.pdf

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Transparency and the Marketplace for Student Data // Fordham Center on Law and Information Policy

Transparency and the Marketplace for Student Data // Fordham Center on Law and Information Policy | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

"Student lists are commercially available for purchase on the basis of ethnicity, affluence, religion, lifestyle, awkwardness, and even a perceived or predicted need for family planning services.  This study seeks to provide an understanding of the commercial marketplace for student data and the interaction with privacy law. Over several years, Fordham CLIP reviewed publicly-available sources, made public records requests to educational institutions, and collected marketing materials received by high school students. The study uncovered and documents an overall lack of transparency in the student information commercial marketplace and an absence of law to protect student information.

 

The study first describes the legal framework for data brokers selling student information and shows that existing privacy laws do not encompass these activities. Next, the study shows what this commercial ecosystem looks like. Specifically, the study maps the types of commercial solicitations students receive, the identities of data brokers confirmed to advertise the sale of student information, sources of student data in the commercial marketplace, the types of student data offered for sale, and the ways in which data brokers package it.

 

Based upon on the research and the large gap in law and regulation of the commercial marketplace for student data, the study offers a set of recommendations"...

 

Download the full report.
Read the press release.

 

For original post, see:  

https://www.fordham.edu/info/23830/research/10517/transparency_and_the_marketplace_for_student_data/1 

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State of Data 2018: Report for Policy Makers With A View to GDPR 

State of Data 2018: Report for Policy Makers With A View to GDPR  | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

http://defenddigitalme.com/2018/05/state-data-2018-lessons-for-policy-makers-with-view-to-gdpr-in-education/ 

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Amazon, Google Must Come Clean About Privacy Intrusions // SF Chronicle Editorial Staff

Amazon, Google Must Come Clean About Privacy Intrusions // SF Chronicle Editorial Staff | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

SF Chronicle Staff

"Technology giants, including Amazon and Google, are accustomed to maintaining a certain level of secrecy. But that’s not going to work when it comes to the growing amount of work they do for and with public agencies. Amazon’s facial recognition system, called Rekognition, became very public this week.

 

Amazon has been providing the technology, along with consulting services, to law enforcement agencies in Florida and Oregon, according to documents obtained by the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California under a Freedom of Information Act request.

 

“In the past, Amazon has opposed secret government surveillance,” wrote the ACLU in a letter to Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s chief executive. “But Amazon’s Rekognition product runs counter to those values. ... Amazon Rekognition is primed for abuse in the hands of governments.”

Facial recognition technology is not new. The U.S. military and intelligence agencies have used it for years in overseas conflicts; many of the technology companies who provide it are security contractors.

 

But Amazon is one of the first big technology companies to offer the service. The company’s scale — and the fact that it’s encouraging domestic law enforcement agencies to use the technology — certainly merits an increased level of scrutiny.

There are also problems with the technology itself. Many facial recognition systems have notoriously high error rates for women and people of color.

 

These failures can translate directly into more stops, arrests and other law enforcement contacts for people who are already marginalized in society.

 

Through a spokesperson, Amazon said in a statement: “Amazon requires that customers comply with the law and be responsible when they use AWS (Amazon Web Services) ... Our quality of life would be much worse today if we outlawed new technology because some people could choose to abuse the technology.

 

The public deserves a better response than this.

 

 

Meanwhile, Google’s own employees are confronting the company over its participation in Project Maven, a drone surveillance project with the U.S. Department of Defense.

 

More than 4,000 Google employees have signed a letter asking the company to stop assisting the Defense Department in developing a drone program based on artificial intelligence. “We believe that Google should not be in the business of war,” the letter reads.

Google has stood by its participation in Project Maven, even as more than a dozen employees reportedly quit over the matter.

 

The internet is the product of DARPA, an agency within the Department of Defense, and Silicon Valley’s history is deeply connected to origins within the military and the idea of enforcing law.

But Amazon and Google aren’t military experiments anymore. They’re public companies, and they must answer to the public when it comes to creating products with the potential to cause harm."

 

For original post, see:
https://www.sfchronicle.com/opinion/editorials/article/Editorial-Amazon-Google-must-come-clean-about-12942049.php 

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Letter to Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos from Congressmen Ellison and Cleaver, May 25, 2018 [Partial screenshot provided. To download, click title here or link below]

Letter to Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos from Congressmen Ellison and Cleaver, May 25, 2018 [Partial screenshot provided. To download, click title here or link below] | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

To read and download the full letter, see:

https://ellison.house.gov/sites/ellison.house.gov/files/Ellison-Cleaver%20Letter%20to%20Jeff%20Bezos%20on%20Rekognition%20Technology.pdf 

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Sharing Of School Pupils' Data Put On Hold // BBC

Sharing Of School Pupils' Data Put On Hold // BBC | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

By Chris Baraniuk

The government has halted researchers and others from accessing personal information about UK schoolchildren, it has emerged.

 

The Department for Education said the step was a temporary move to modify the national pupil database's approval process.

It told the BBC that the step was required to be compliant with a shake-up of EU data privacy rules.

 

The law gives children and others new rights and comes into force on 25 May. "The department takes the use of personal information and the implications of the General Data Protection Regulation very seriously," the DfE said in a statement.

 

"We've temporarily paused applications for data from the national pupil Database ahead of the implementation of the GDPR."

The national pupil database is designed to help experts study the effect of different educational strategies over time.

 

Access was "paused" on 1 May, and the DfE has said it expects to provide further information in June. Campaigners have raised concerns that many parents are unaware that data on millions of English schoolchildren can be shared with academics and businesses.

 

Applicants can request different levels of access, with the highest level including individual children's names, addresses, ethnicities and disabilities, among other factors.

 

A recent survey by the data privacy campaign Defend Digital Me suggested most parents (69%) did not know about the data-sharing.

 

Currently, parents and children are not allowed access to their data. Gender, ethnicity, exam performance and reasons for absence can all be accessed by third parties under certain rules.

Defend Digital Me is calling for a change in how the data is managed.

 

Prof Ross Anderson - a leading cyber-security expert at the University of Cambridge - has also raised concerns, despite the fact that other researchers at the institution have made use of the data.

 

"The government is forcing schools to collect data that are then sold or given to firms that exploit it, with no meaningful consent," he blogged on Monday. "There is not even the normal right to request subject access so you can check whether the information about you is right and have it corrected if it's wrong. "Our elected representatives make a lot of noise about protecting children; time to call them on it."...

 

For full post, see: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/amp/technology-44109978 

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Where Are Amazon's Data Centers? // The Atlantic

Where Are Amazon's Data Centers? // The Atlantic | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/amazon-web-services-data-center/423147/ 

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Huge New Facebook Data Leak Exposed Intimate Details of 3 Million Users // New Scientist

Huge New Facebook Data Leak Exposed Intimate Details of 3 Million Users // New Scientist | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

By Phee Waterfield and Timothy Revell

 

"Data from millions of Facebook users who used a popular personality app, including their answers to intimate questionnaires, was left exposed online for anyone to access, a New Scientist investigation has found.

 

Academics at the University of Cambridge distributed the data from the personality quiz app myPersonality to hundreds of researchers via a website with insufficient security provisions, which led to it being left vulnerable to access for four years. Gaining access illicitly was relatively easy.

 

The data was highly sensitive, revealing personal details of Facebook users, such as the results of psychological tests. It was meant to be stored and shared anonymously, however such poor precautions were taken that deanonymising would not be hard.

 

“This type of data is very powerful and there is real potential for misuse,” says Chris Sumner at the Online Privacy Foundation. The UK’s data watchdog, the Information Commissioner’s Office, has told New Scientist that it is investigating.

 

The data sets were controlled by David Stillwell and Michal Kosinski at the University of Cambridge’s The Psychometrics Centre. Alexandr Kogan, at the centre of the Cambridge Analytica allegations, was previously part of the project.

 

Facebook suspended myPersonality from its platform on 7 April saying the app may have violated its policies due to the language used in the app and on its website to describe how data is shared.

 

More than 6 million people completed the tests on the myPersonality app and nearly half agreed to share data from their Facebook profiles with the project. All of this data was then scooped up and the names removed before it was put on a website to share with other researchers. The terms allow the myPersonality team to use and distribute the data “in an anonymous manner such that the information cannot be traced back to the individual user”.

 

To get access to the full data set people had to register as a collaborator to the project. More than 280 people from nearly 150 institutions did this, including researchers at universities and at companies like Facebook, Google, Microsoft and Yahoo.

Easy Backdoor

 

However, for those who were not entitled to access the data set because they didn’t have a permanent academic contract, for example, there was an easy workaround. For the last four years, a working username and password has been available online that could be found from a single web search. Anyone who wanted access to the data set could have found the key to download it in less than a minute.

 

myPersonality wasn’t merely an academic project; researchers from commercial companies were also entitled to access the data so long as they agreed to abide by strict data protection procedures and didn’t directly earn money from it.

 

Stillwell and Kosinski were both part of a spin-out company called Cambridge Personality Research, which sold access to a tool for targeting adverts based on personality types, built on the back of the myPersonality data sets. The firm’s website described it as the tool that “mind-reads audiences”.

 

Facebook started investigating myPersonality as part of a wider investigation into apps using the platform. This was started by the allegations surrounding how Cambridge Analytica accessed data from an app called This Is Your Digital Life developed by Kogan.

 

Today it announced it has suspended around 200 apps as part of its investigation into apps that had access to large amounts of information on users."....

 
 

For full post, see: 

https://www.newscientist.com/article/2168713-huge-new-facebook-data-leak-exposed-intimate-details-of-3m-users/ 

 
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Juan Carlos Moreno Angulo's curator insight, May 20, 4:56 PM
Data is more than simple information stored in the web. For many it means their entire life and for others it means a way of manipulating, controlling and even extorting people. Lately, researchers via a website have insufficient security provisions, which lead to vulnerability for others to access your personal life. The worst part is that the access to your privacy is becoming easier every time. The passage Talks about the leak exposed intimate details of 3m users of Facebook. Even though data was meant to be stored privately, one bad side of nowadays technology is that it allows hackers to slide and reveal personal details of Facebook users and even extort them. Why? Because we left the door, open. For those who were not entitled to access the data set because they did not have a permanent academic contract, for example, there was an easy workaround. For the last four years, a working username and password has been available online that could be found from a single web search. Anyone who wanted access to the data set could have found the key to download it in less than a minute Poor precautions in some website has left not to be much hard for other to see all about you.
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Hacked: 92 Million Account Details for DNA Testing Service MyHeritage

Hacked: 92 Million Account Details for DNA Testing Service MyHeritage | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

"On Monday MyHeritage announced a security researcher had uncovered tens of millions of account details for recent customers, including email addresses and hashed passwords."...

 

For full post, see:

 

https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/vbqyvx/myheritage-hacked-data-breach-92-million 

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EU: Data-Harvesting Tech Firms Are 'Sweatshops of Connected World' // Technology, The Guardian

EU: Data-Harvesting Tech Firms Are 'Sweatshops of Connected World' // Technology, The Guardian | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/may/02/eu-tech-firms-privacy-emails-gdpr-data-protection-supervisor 

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Scientists Seek Genetic Data to Personalize Education // Ben Williamson

Scientists Seek Genetic Data to Personalize Education // Ben Williamson | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

"Researchers have begun to propose using genetic data from students to personalize education. Bringing genetics into education is highly controversial. It raises significant concerns about biological discrimination and rekindles long debates about eugenics and the genetic inheritance of intelligence.

 

Current proposals to personalize learning by enabling “educational organisations to create tailor-made curriculum programmes based on a pupil’s DNA profile” demand very close and critical attention. The potential of “the new geneism” to reproduce “dangerous ideas about the genetic heritability of intelligence” has already raised concerns. Scientists may be seeking new technologies to personalize teaching and learning according to students’ genetic data, but we need an informed debate about the implications for educational policy and practice of the emerging era of genetic forecasting.

 

Educational Genomics

Performing an adequate critique of genetics in education first requires a better engagement with its scientific basis. These ideas are only possible now owing to the sequencing of the human genome a decade ago. The human genome is the entire genetic structure of human DNA, and consequently studies in human genomics have flourished.

 

As a research field, educational genomics seeks to unpack the genetic factors involved in individual differences in learning ability, behavior, motivation, and achievement. A contentious aspect of educational genomics is identifying links between genetic factors and intelligence. Recent genomics advances have found statistically strong connections between intelligence test scores and specific genes, with over 500 genes identified as having clear-cut influence on intelligence test scores. Cheap DNA kits for IQ testing in schools may not be far away.

 

Importantly, however, researchers of educational genomics do not assume either that there is any single genetic factor that determines learning ability, or that genetic factors entirely explain the complexity of learning. Identifying an individual’s genotype — the full heritable genetic identity of a person — and its relationship to learning, intelligence or educational outcomes remains complex. The concept of the phenotype captures how genotypes and environments jointly contribute to a person’s physical, behavioral and mental characteristics.

 

Instead, educational genomics looks for patterns in huge numbers of genetic factors that might explain behaviors and achievements in individuals. It also focuses on the ways that individuals’ genotypes and environments interact, or how other “epigenetic” factors impact on whether and how genes become active. Researchers of “behavioral genetics” study the interaction of genetic and environmental influences on phenotypical behaviours.

 

Precision Education

Bolstered by these scientific advances, supporters of educational genomics and behavioural genetics increasingly argue that genetic data should be used to individualize teaching and learning.

 

The concept of “precision education” has begun to circulate among scientists who engage with psychology, neuroscience and genomics to understand learning processes. Precision education is both an interdisciplinary “science of learning” and an idealized model of teaching and learning informed by the sciences of the human mind, brain and genome.

 

According to one advocate: “We are currently a long way off from having the kinds of information needed to realise precision” but “the groundwork has started” to build the knowledge required for “evidence-based individualized learning.” It would require extensive data gathering from learners and complex analysis to identify patterns across psychological, neural and genetic datasets.

 

The aspiration behind precision education is to build scientific consensus for an interdisciplinary science of learning that might contribute to new evidence-based policies and practices in education.

 

For full post, please see: https://dmlcentral.net/scientists-seek-genetic-data-to-personalize-education/ 

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Don't Buy The Arizona State Report On Digital Learning // Forbes 

Don't Buy The Arizona State Report On Digital Learning // Forbes  | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

By Derek Newton
"Arizona State University has the third largest online enrollment among public schools with some 30,000 students taking at least one ASU class online. And according to an ASU business plan presented to the Arizona Board of Regents, revenue from online programs is expected to reach $230 million this year and grow to nearly half a billion dollars by 2025. The ASU website says they offer “more than 150 highly respected degree programs available 100% online.”

 

Considering their leading role in online learning, ASU, to their credit, established the Action Lab. In an introductory video, ASU President Michael Crow describes the ASU Lab as something that will, “research the outcomes of the new learning models…” and describes Action Lab as, “our own internal research and development group making assessments about quality, about efficacy, and about outcomes…” regarding online and digital learning.

 

In April, the Action Lab, along with Boston Consulting Group, and with funding from the Gates Foundation, released a new study of online learning titled, “Making Digital Learning Work.”

 

To describe the ASU report as sloppy is generous.  Dishonest is more accurate.

 

For example, in the section titled, “What the Research Base Says About Digital Learning,” the report authors wrote, “…a study published in 2015 concluded that, ‘students in online courses will receive a grade point average that is .39 points (almost 40% of a letter grade) higher than a student taking a face-to-face course.’”

 

The footnote links to this study from Wright State University and, in literally the very paragraph after the reference to the .39 grade bump, the Wright State report says, “…the majority of this variation was a product of other academic and demographic parameters rather than course delivery mode.” In other words, the higher grades in online courses were not the result of those classes being online, even though ASU flatly said they were.

 

The Wright State report found, in fact, that grades in online and on-campus classes, “translated into a negligible difference of less than 0.07 GPA points on a 4-point scale” and cited other research showing that online students get lower grades than in-person students do.

And there’s more.

 

The ASU publication says, “… some studies have shown that institutions that have implemented digital learning have improved their financial outlook” and cites this 2009 study of remedial math classes. Here, the ASU conflates “digital learning” with online learning, when, ironically, the classes in the cited study required in-person attendance. “At participating colleges, attendance counted between five and 10% of the final grade, which provided sufficient motivation for students to attend class during which they were required to work on their course,” the 2009 report says.

In the cited 2009 study, “digital learning” largely meant replacing lectures or textbooks with course materials presented in a computer lab and overseen by a teaching assistant instead of a professor. Throughout the report, ASU highlights the cost savings of hiring less expensive teachers.

In another example, the ASU report dismisses as “a myth” that “digital learning fails to produce outcomes that are equal to or better than … face-to-face only instruction and that it widens the achievement gap,” The ASU publication blames ignorant faculty for thinking so, “faculty who have never taught a blended or online course … have bolstered this myth.”

 

But a 2014 study by the Public Policy Institute of California which examined California’s Community Colleges – the largest provider of online classes in the country – found that, “ … online learning does nothing to overcome achievement gaps across racial/ethnic groups—in fact, these gaps are even larger in online classes.”...

 

For full post, see: 

 

https://www.forbes.com/sites/dereknewton/2018/06/13/dont-buy-the-arizona-state-report-on-digital-learning/#207c47796758 

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Predicting Learners’ Emotions in Mobile MOOC Learning via a Multimodal Intelligent Tutor

Predicting Learners’ Emotions in Mobile MOOC Learning via a Multimodal Intelligent Tutor | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

Abstract
"Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a promising approach for scalable knowledge dissemination. However, they also face major challenges such as low engagement, low retention rate, and lack of personalization. We propose AttentiveLearner2, a multimodal intelligent tutor running on unmodified smartphones, to supplement today’s clickstream-based learning analytics for MOOCs. AttentiveLearner2 uses both the front and back cameras of a smartphone as two complementary and fine-grained feedback channels in real time: the back camera monitors learners’ photoplethysmography (PPG) signals and the front camera tracks their facial expressions during MOOC learning. AttentiveLearner2 implicitly infers learners’ affective and cognitive states during learning from their PPG signals and facial expressions. Through a 26-participant user study, we found that: (1) AttentiveLearner2 can detect 6 emotions in mobile MOOC learning reliably with high accuracy (average accuracy = 84.4%); (2) the detected emotions can predict learning outcomes (best R2 = 50.6%); and (3) it is feasible to track both PPG signals and facial expressions in real time in a scalable manner on today’s unmodified smartphones."

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-91464-0_15 

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Assessing the social impact of Emotional AI (Artificial Intelligence) // Professor Andrew McStay

Assessing the social impact of Emotional AI (Artificial Intelligence) // Professor Andrew McStay | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

https://emotionalai.org/ 

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"Privacy, Mass Intrusion and the Modern Data Breach" by Jon L. Mills and Kelsey Harclerode // Florida Law Review

"Privacy, Mass Intrusion and the Modern Data Breach" by Jon L. Mills and Kelsey Harclerode // Florida Law Review | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

"Massive data breaches have practically become a daily occurrence. These breaches reveal intrusive private information about individuals, as well as priceless corporate secrets. Ashley Madison’s breach ruined lives and resulted in suicides. The HSBC breach, accomplished by one of their own, revealed valuable commercial information about the bank and personal information about HSBC customers. The employee responsible for the breach has since been convicted of aggravated personal espionage, while third-party news outlets have been free to republish the hacked information.

 

Some information disclosed in data breaches can serve a public purpose. The Snowden disclosures, for example, revealed sensitive government information and were also crucial to public policy debate, a significant amount of disclosed information is destructive to individuals and companies alike, and often has little, if any, public value.

 

The conflict between publicly important disclosures and disturbing private intrusions creates a direct confrontation between freedom of expression and privacy. A full analysis of this confrontation requires assessment of the specific circumstances of breach—from the vulnerabilities present beforehand to the aftermath when the media, companies, and individuals all must cope with the information exposed. This analysis begins by evaluating the importance of information in modern society. Big data is now an inescapable part of our culture.

 

A data breach may contain intimate details about medical conditions or national security secrets. The disclosure of either has its own kind of devastating effect. Examples of the impact of a mass data breach include the hacking of Target Corporation, Yahoo! Inc., Home Depot, Inc., Sony Corporation, Anthem Inc., HSBC Private Bank (Suisse), SA, and AshleyMadison.com. A dissection of these breaches reveals a common theme—the ineffectual legal system, which provides little protection or remedy for any party involved. Several factors—including the anonymity of hackers, outdated legal remedies, and free speech protections for third-party publishers—together create an uncertain and uncharted legal landscape. After evaluating the available statutory and common law remedies, this Article posits that reinvigorated private causes of action can be a starting point for developing stronger legal remedies for those damaged in a breach. The right facts and legal arguments can create new remedies out of existing legal doctrines. Further, public values on protecting privacy are in flux. More protective policies in the European Union demonstrate that privacy and free expression can coexist. Some EU policies may provide examples of legislative options. Corporate entities and individuals are at risk and are suffering real harm in a world with daily data breaches and ineffective laws. The need for new perspectives is urgent." 

To view and download, see: https://scholarship.law.ufl.edu/flr/vol69/iss3/3 

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The Theranos Story and Education Technology // Inside Higher Ed 

The Theranos Story and Education Technology // Inside Higher Ed  | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

By John Warner 

"Normally it’s Joshua Kim’s IHE blogger beat to read a book and go looking for the education parallels, but after tearing through Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley Startup by Wall St. Journal reporter John Carreyrou, I can’t resist infringing on his territory.

 

Bad Blood is the story of Theranos, a blood testing company which once promised to be able to run hundreds of tests on its proprietary device using only a pinprick of blood, rather than relying on the far more voluminous (and scary to so many) venous draw.

 

The public face of Theranos, founder and CEO Elizabeth Holmes in her Steve Jobs-emulating black turtleneck was a charismatic public presence, wooing support from eminences such as George Schultz, Henry Kissinger, Rupert Murdoch, Betsy DeVos, Bill, Hillary, and Chelsea Clinton, Barack Obama, and current defense secretary James Mattis, who declared of Holmes, “She has probably one of the most mature and well-honed sense of ethics  — personal ethics, managerial ethics, business ethics, medical ethics that I’ve ever heard articulated.”[1]

 

Holmes was feted in Fortune and Wired, and Walgreens and Safeway invested tens and hundreds of millions of dollars in Theranos.

 

But Carreyrou reveals Holmes as a fraud. Through a combination of secrecy, lies, flattery, and intimidation, she maintained a fiction about having developed a truly revolutionary piece of technology which sounded like science-fiction, a desktop device that could diagnose disease. Even as Carreyrou was amassing a crushing amount of evidence which would expose the deceptions, Holmes used prominent attorney David Boies and his firm Boies Schiller to threaten Carreyrou and his sources with lawsuits and professional ruin.[2]

 

The Theranos “Edison” was “vaporware.” It never existed as anything beyond a theoretical prototype. When Theranos did manage to deliver accurate test results, it used devices produced by other companies. Elizabeth Holmes was claiming to investors her device was saving lives on the battlefield of Afghanistan even as they couldn’t get it to accurately measure Vitamin D levels in the lab.[3]..."

 

[concluding section]:

 

"Ultimately it was people inside of Theranos who took the “first do no harm” message of the Hippocratic Oath seriously who helped blow the whistle on Holmes’ fraud.

 

I’m thinking we should have a similar "first do no harm" threshold for introducing technology into the classroom.

How much ed tech would pass that muster?"...

 

For full post, see: 

https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/just-visiting/theranos-story-and-education-technology 

 

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Is Amazon's Facial "Rekognition" Technology Being Used In Your City? //  ACLU

"The video above is from the ACLU channel under the title "Amazon Sells Facial Recognition Tech To Police." Posts with additional concerns about facial recognition surveillance technologies may be found here and here. For more, see:  Amazon Needs To Come Clean About Racial Bias In Its Algorithms


The video makes reference to the City of Orlando as a "Smart City" that is already using the technology. It states that Orlando

"...also already has surveillance cameras all over the city on everything from light posts to police officers. Activating a citywide facial recognition system, could be as easy as flipping a switch. Body cams were designed to keep police officers accountable to the public, but facial recognition turns these devices into surveillance machines. This could mean round-the-clock surveillance whenever cops are present. Imagine what that would mean for minority communities that are already over-policed."...

For a letter from Congressmen Ellison and Cleaver to Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, see the following link: http://bit.ly/congress_amazon

For a post documenting "Smart Cities" concerns in San Jose, see: https://eduresearcher.com/2018/05/02/smartcity/ 

Original video caption:
"At a time when public protest is at an all-time high and the federal government is attacking immigrants and labeling activists as criminals, Amazon has released a dangerous face surveillance system primed for abuse. See how it works."  https://youtu.be/OcN92FxtV7o 

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Tech Firms Want To Detect Your Emotions and Expressions, But People Don’t Like It // LSE Media Policy Project 

Tech Firms Want To Detect Your Emotions and Expressions, But People Don’t Like It // LSE Media Policy Project  | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/mediapolicyproject/2017/07/11/tech-firms-want-to-detect-your-emotions-and-expressions-but-people-dont-like-it/ 

 

 

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Amazon Confirms That Echo Device Secretly Shared User’s Private Audio [Updated] // ArsTechnica

Amazon Confirms That Echo Device Secretly Shared User’s Private Audio [Updated] // ArsTechnica | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2018/05/amazon-confirms-that-echo-device-secretly-shared-users-private-audio/ 

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What is Data Exploitation? // Privacy International

To view video on YouTube, see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CKJtfLV6HU

 

For questions related to the potential for Data Exploitation with "Smart Cities" projects, see: http://bit.ly/SmartSanJose 

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Amazon Pushes Facial Recognition to Police. Critics See Surveillance Risk. // The New York Times

Amazon Pushes Facial Recognition to Police. Critics See Surveillance Risk. // The New York Times | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/technology/amazon-facial-recognition.html

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Amazon Needs To Come Clean About Racial Bias In Its Algorithms // The Verge

Amazon Needs To Come Clean About Racial Bias In Its Algorithms // The Verge | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

By Russell Brandom

"Yesterday, Amazon’s quiet Rekognition program became very public, as new documents obtained by the ACLU of Northern California showed the system partnering with the city of Orlando and police camera vendors like Motorola Solutions for an aggressive new real-time facial recognition service. Amazon insists that the service is a simple object-recognition tool and will only be used for legal purposes. But even if we take the company at its word, the project raises serious concerns, particularly around racial bias.

 

Facial recognition systems have long struggled with higher error rates for women and people of color — error rates that can translate directly into more stops and arrests for marginalized groups. And while some companies have responded with public bias testing, Amazon hasn’t shared any data on the issue, if it’s collected data at all. At the same time, it’s already deploying its software in cities across the US, its growth driven by one of the largest cloud infrastructures in the world. For anyone worried about algorithmic bias, that’s a scary thought.

 

 

For the ACLU-NC’s Matt Cagle, who worked on yesterday’s report, the possibility for bias is one of the system’s biggest problems. “We have been shocked at Amazon’s apparent failure to understand the implications of its own product on real people,” Cagle says. “ Face recognition is a biased technology. It doesn’t make communities safer. It just powers even greater discriminatory surveillance and policing.”

 

The most concrete concern is false identifications. Police typically use facial recognition to look for specific suspects, comparing suspect photos against camera feeds or photo arrays. But white subjects are consistently less likely to generate false matches than black subjects, a bias that’s been found across a number of algorithms. In the most basic terms, that means facial recognition systems pose an added threat of wrongful accusation and arrest for non-white people. The bias seems to come from the data used to train the algorithm, which often skews white and male. It’s possible to solve that problem, but there’s no public evidence that Amazon is working on the issue."...

 

https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/23/17384632/amazon-rekognition-facial-recognition-racial-bias-audit-data 

 

 

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Predatory Behavior Runs Rampant in Facebook’s Addiction Support Groups // The Verge

Predatory Behavior Runs Rampant in Facebook’s Addiction Support Groups // The Verge | Educational Psychology & Technology | Scoop.it

By Cat Ferguson 

"When Laurie Couch first joined the Affected by Addiction Support Group, a closed Facebook group with 70,000 members, she felt a sense of belonging. Here were people who understood her struggle to care for a son addicted to drugs, and they were there to support her, any time of the day or night. She began regularly responding to people who were dealing with cravings and comforting parents devastated by their children’s addictions.

 

Private addiction support groups are abundant on Facebook, and Affected by Addiction is one of the most high-profile. Last June, the group’s owner Matt Mendoza spoke at the Facebook Communities Summit, where Mark Zuckerberg unveiled his plan to get a total of 1 billion people into “meaningful groups.” In July, Zuckerberg posted a glowing review of the support group on his Facebook page. The group was profiled by Good Morning America in February, sparking a flood of new members. In the segment, Mendoza told the hosts that “there have been hundreds, if not thousands, of people that have gotten treatment as a result of this community.” He didn’t expand on the process.

 

In March, Couch’s son almost overdosed. They live together in rural Kansas, where she doesn’t have access to much in-person support, which is part of what made Affected by Addiction attractive to begin with. In the wake of his near-overdose, she reached out to the group for comfort and encouragement while she panicked and figured out what to do.

 

Shortly after that, a stranger named Garrett Hall sent Couch a Facebook message.

 

“Hey Lauri [sic], I saw your name on the Affected By Addiction support group, and I had this weird/strong impulse to just reach out,” Hall wrote to Couch. “[A]re you doing ok?”

 

“ARE YOU DOING OK?”

Though there’s no indication of it on his Facebook page, and he never mentioned it to Couch, Hall had a professional connection to Affected by Addiction. Between 2015 and 2016, he’d worked for Mendoza’s blog company, Addiction Unscripted, which owns Affected by Addiction.

Hall never disclosed to Couch that he had professional ties to Affected by Addiction. He simply offered to put her in touch with “someone who I have come to love over the last 12 months.”

 

“She is the woman who helped me get sober and my life back on track and she has helped so many people and families,” he continued. “I honestly believe she is a miracle worker. She is my hero.”

Couch soon got a call from Meghan Calvert, a paid marketer for a treatment center called Pillars Recovery. It’s owned by Darren Orloff, who is part of Affected by Addiction’s volunteer leadership team. Couch, who has a background in sales, knew a sales pitch when she heard it. She told Calvert off for taking advantage of desperate people."....

For full post, see: 

https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/21/17370066/facebook-addiction-support-groups-rehab-patient-brokering 

 

 

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