Education Reinvented
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7 Ways Games Reward the Brain - ElectronicBrains

7 Ways Games Reward the Brain - ElectronicBrains | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ In this TED Talk video entitled, 7 ways games reward the brain, Tom Chatfield talks about the characteristics of video games which have the “ power to motivate and compel us and transfix us like nothing else.” Statistics show that the game industry was worth 10 billion dollars in 1990. That number has significantly increased to 50 billion dollars globally today. In addition, today people spend about 8 billion dollars buying virtual items that only exist inside video games. Tom Chatfield’s discussion explores why this is occurring, and what we can learn about learning from games. Rewards, particularly the emotional rewards play a large part in the motivation to succeed in games. The simple psychology behind it is that people want to succeed, but they also derive pleasure from success. Games are made engaging by a combination of probability and rewards, and reward schedules are visible for players in order to hook them further into the game they are playing.”
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Madison Totushek's curator insight, October 13, 2015 4:47 PM

These days, video games are everywhere. Many teenagers, especially, are playing them globally. Some involve blood, gore and extreme violence; some do not. Either way, they greatly influence how people think and perceive the world. In this article, the author describes the psychology behind playing these video games: people want to succeed and they get this sensational pleasure from succeeding in a video game. These certain types of games are so addicting because they involve a combination of probability and rewards. Once the gamers achieve this award, they are lured into playing further into the game to achieve more success. 

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Critical Thinking Exercises That Will Blow Your Students’ Minds

Critical Thinking Exercises That Will Blow Your Students’ Minds | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
Want to blow your students' minds with some hard-hitting critical thinking exercises? Try out the ones we've got for you here.

 

"Critical thinking sometimes involves the formation of ethical codes. These kinds of critical thinking exercises were handed down to me from my own elementary school teachers. They challenged my ethical programming and have stuck with me as central tenets in my moral code."


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Top STEAM tools for Online and Offline Learning: Part 2 - Daily Genius

Top STEAM tools for Online and Offline Learning: Part 2 - Daily Genius | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
Last week, we looked at some of the top STEAM tools for online and offline learning by exploring web-based platforms and unplugged lessons and board games. With President Obama’s recent initiative to bring computer science to K-12 education and make computer programming a basic skill for all students, many of you will be on the …

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Creating a Problem Rich Focused Classroom for Mathematics - Common Core


Promoting Student Struggle When Teaching Mathematics - The following teacher reflection video (length 1:40 minutes) is only a segment of the full video, which includes the teacher's reflections regarding student struggle.

Provided by Teach N' Kids Learn. For more information www.TeachnKidLearn.com



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How we learn to be helpless—and unlearn it

How we learn to be helpless—and unlearn it | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it

In the late 1960s, psychologist Martin Seligman was a graduate student working on an unexplored aspect of behaviorism.

Psychology had already tapped into the power of rewards and punishments to shape behavior, and conditioning as a whole was coming into sharp focus, but Seligman and his colleagues wondered if learning in this way could be sped up through preparation.

You’ve likely seen this idea portrayed in movies. In the Karate Kid, for instance, our hero spends weeks sanding the floors and waxing the car of his sensei thinking it is all some kind of endurance and frustration test to see if is willing to stick around and learn sweet martial arts moves. When Mr. Miyagi finally started teaching him how to block punches and kicks, Daniel-san was able to learn those techniques rapidly because all that boring, repetitive busywork had prepared his body to make similar motions.

This episode is brought to you by The Great Courses. Get 80 percent off Behavioral Economics: When Psychology and Economics Collide taught by Professor Scott Huettel along with many other fantastic lecture series by visiting this link and ordering today!

This episode is also brought to you by QuickBooks Self-Employed. It helps separate your business and personal expenses, so you can quickly track what you spent for work, and what you spent on yourself. Try QuickBooks Self-Employed and receive fifty percent off at TrySelfEmployed.com/sosmart.
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Seligman wondered if an animal could be prepared to learn something before it actually experienced the learning process. The hypothesis was that if you prepared an animal ahead of time, it would learn faster than if you had not. To explore this, his team did a sort of Pavlovian exercise in which they played a tone and then shocked dogs with electricity so that those animals would learn to connect the tone to the experience. The idea was that in the future those dogs could be conditioned more easily than dogs that had never been taught to fear electric shocks after hearing a sound. This is, of course, not something that would happen in a modern lab. Psychology is a lot less cruel and creepy now. But be warned, the next stage was even more more cruel and more creepy.

The scientists then set up an enclosure called a shuttle box. The floor on both sides of a shuttle box can become electrified independently, and between the two sides there is a short wall. Normally, when a trainer plays a sound or turns on a light or shouts a command and then turns on the floor underneath an animal, that animal quickly figures out it can jump over the wall to the safe side of the box. Then the trainer produces another signal, shocks the other side, and the animal jumps back over. After just a few of these trials, most animals catch on and can be taught to jump over the wall on command without the shocks.

Seligman and his colleagues figured that dogs who had learned to expect an electric shock would learn at a faster pace than what they called “naive” dogs who had received no preparation, but that’s not what happened.

When his team put control dogs in the box, the ones that had never been trained or prepared in any way, they scrambled around frantically once the floor was turned on, and they eventually discovered that the other side of the room was always the place to go, and those dogs, after a few trials, easily learned to jump the wall. In fact, those dogs learned to wait patiently at the edge of the wall and immediately leap over the second they heard the signal. The other dogs, the ones that had already been conditioned by receiving electric shocks after a tone, didn’t learn faster as predicted – in fact, they didn’t learn at all. They didn’t even try to jump the wall. They just lay down, curled up on the floor, whined and took it. After hundreds of trials, 95 percent of the naive control dogs learned to jump the wall compared to just a quarter of the prepared ones.

Seligman and his team coined the term learned helplessness to explain what was happening; the prepared dogs couldn’t learn to escape a bad situation because there was previous knowledge in their heads blocking their brain’s path to that epiphany – they had learned to be helpless.

To be sure, Seligman’s team then designed a second set of experiments just to explore this newly discovered behavioral phenomenon. In the new experiment they prepared three groups of dogs. One group was placed in a harness for a little while, and then allowed to go free. That was the control group. The second group was placed in a harness in front of a lever. Those dogs then received electric shocks but eventually learned they could press the lever with their noses to end them. And the third group was placed in harness in front a lever, but the lever didn’t do anything at all. Instead, they were wired up to the second group of dogs, so whenever the second group got shocked, so did the third group. The third group had no control over when the shocks ended. Instead, they had to wait on the second group to figure it out. They not only learned the shocks came and went at random, but that the lever was a waste of time.

When Seligman put those three groups in the room with the electric floors and wall, groups one and two quickly learned to jump over the wall when the tone alerted them to incoming shocks. The third group did not. Instead, they curled up on the floor and whimpered. The previous experiment had taught them there was no point in trying to figure out a pattern. It was as if they thought bad things just happen sometimes, and there’s nothing you can do about it. Even though they could have escaped the pain, they didn’t even try.

In this episode of the You Are Not So Smart Podcast, we explore the implications of Seligman’s work when it comes to human behavior and the insights gained by psychology concerning learned helplessness in the decades since. Stuck in a bad situation, even when the prison doors are left wide open, we sometimes refuse to attempt escape. The evidence suggests that learned helplessness in people is connected to the pessimistic attributional style. In this episode, you’ll learn how it keeps people in bad jobs, poor health, terrible relationships, and awful circumstances despite how easy it might be to escape any one of those scenarios.

Best of all, you’ll learn how to defeat this psychological trap with advice from psychologists Jennifer Welbourne, who studies attributional styles in the workplace, and Kym Bennett who studies the effects of pessimism on health.


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WeAreTeachers: 20 Fun Ways to Start the School Day Using Your Document Camera

WeAreTeachers: 20 Fun Ways to Start the School Day Using Your Document Camera | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
Get 20 bell-ringer or warm-up activities that teachers can use to start their school day using a document camera.

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Using riddles to develop student's vocabulary skills

Using riddles to develop student's vocabulary skills | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ The riddle is a misleading or puzzling question that people pose as a problem to be solved. In past cultures the riddle was often used as a guessing game from folklore. Folklore incorporated riddles to boost creative thinking and logic. In addition riddles that are well written help with vocabulary development and understanding. Students become more aware of how to solve riddles by reading the clues that are written describing people, animals, places, or objects. Methods / Teaching Strategies · Modeled Practice · Questioning · Individual Task Assessment of Learning · Riddles Worksheet (provided) · Demonstrated an understanding of writing clues to describe people, animals, places, or objects by writing a riddle Click here to download the free five page lesson plan”
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Don’t use technology.… Do use technology.… - Mark Anderson's Blog

Don’t use technology.… Do use technology.… - Mark Anderson's Blog | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ education, learning & technology”
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john dimitriou's curator insight, March 26, 2014 7:30 AM

At a recent conference Eric Mazur asked the audience  "What's in a name?" It seems the answer is everything. We're being asked to consider using the term 'Learning Space' rather than 'Classroom' as it changes any of our pre-conceived ideas as to how they could be set up or used. Why then don't we consider using the term 'Enhanced Learning' rather than 'ICT or Technology'.

I would like to change the focus and make the 'importance of using technology' more invisible and 'enhanced learning evidenced by technology' more visible.  

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Does Teaching Kids To Get 'Gritty' Help Them Get Ahead?

“ Education circles are abuzz with a new concept: that resilience and persistence are just as important as intelligence to predicting student success and achievement. But can "grit" actually be taught?”
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5 steps for creating a custom makerspace | eSchool News | eSchool News

5 steps for creating a custom makerspace | eSchool News | eSchool News | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ I believe that every child has the right to invent, tinker, create, innovate, make, and do. The maker movement has created opportunities for all educators to give students authentic learning opportunities that go beyond the typical classroom experiences and to rethink traditional learning environments to include those that nurture the kinds of creativity and innovation that will benefit our students both in school and beyond. We know children learn by exploring and playing and doing and making and that these kinds of things lead to deeper engagement. The maker movement embodies opportunities for experimentation and innovation to occur across all grade levels and all content areas. Physical makerspaces have allowed us the opportunity to pull some of this excitement of the maker movement into our schools. Makerspaces can help set the stage for meaningful student learning, as well as help cultivate a culture of innovation within a school. My makerspace inspires innovation, passion, and personal motivation and interests, and has encouraged students to pursue STEM subjects and careers.”
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john dimitriou's curator insight, April 20, 2015 6:20 AM

Authentic learning - Makerspaces are important for students to build, assemble, create and test.

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Favorite Tech Tools For Social Studies Classes

Favorite Tech Tools For Social Studies Classes | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
How can educators decide which tech to use in the classroom? There are specialists who can help with that.
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Empowering Students Through Multimedia Storytelling - Edutopia

Empowering Students Through Multimedia Storytelling - Edutopia | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ Perceptions of people and events are very much dependent upon who you are and what your experience has been. Events in Ferguson and Baltimore, among others, highlight our misunderstandings of each other, and how the same facts can be interpreted entirely differently. What's worse, people of color and underrepresented groups are defined by journalists covering these events, who themselves don't reflect the ethnic composition of our country as a whole. Recent studies have proven that stories can change perceptions and even make people more tolerant. Rather than wait to be defined by others, it's important that students learn to create understanding by sharing their story, their worldview, their concerns, and their triumphs with others. Groups like Youth Radio and Cause Beautiful are empowering teens in poor and minority-majority neighborhoods to become multimedia journalists. Kids in these programs learn how to tell and share their own stories with a local or national audience. No matter your class demographics or grade level, ELA and social studies teachers should integrate similar projects in their own classrooms, because every student will benefit from learning to craft a compelling visual story backed by persuasive facts and ideas.”
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A Brilliant Resource For Students Who Think They Hate Writing - TeachThought

A Brilliant Resource For Students Who Think They Hate Writing - TeachThought | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ As teachers and parents bemoan – and studies affirm – more technology has not necessarily translated into improved writing skills for most students. In fact, the negative effects of excess screen time and shorter attention spans due to social media are corroborated by recent studies that show only a quarter of American high school students are proficient in writing assessments, and one out of five have “below basic” writing skills. But teachers must stick to the curriculum, and with all that they have on their plates to address the ever-evolving standards of learning, there is very little extra time in the school day to devote to improving students’ writing. As a former teacher, assistant principal and writing program director, I know firsthand that helping students improve their writing skills requires a solution that’s engaging, easy to use and academically effective. That’s why I left the classroom to help develop a solution: BoomWriter, a free, interactive, web-based platform for group writing that engages students in writing projects for all subject areas to help them improve their vocabulary and develop their nonfiction writing and storytelling skills. Teachers are realizing the benefits of BoomWriter in more than 25,000 classrooms in 60 countries, along with the poetic justice of using technology to undo some of the negative effects of technology on their students.”
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8 Things to Look For in Today's Classroom - @georgecouros

8 Things to Look For in Today's Classroom  - @georgecouros | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it

"As I think that leaders should be able to describe what they are looking for in schools I have thought of eight things that I really want to see in today’s classroom. I really believe that classrooms need to be learner focused. This is not simply that students are creating but that they are also having opportunities to follow their interests and explore passions. The teacher should embody learning as well."


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StacyLada's curator insight, September 27, 2015 3:16 AM

Really good points for education and nice sketchnote from Sylvia.

Greg Hill's curator insight, September 28, 2015 12:16 PM
Professional Dev
Ron Wolford's curator insight, October 19, 2015 11:17 AM

@georgecouros

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Middle School Maker Journey: Recapping the Capstones

Middle School Maker Journey: Recapping the Capstones | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
Why is it that sometimes we only see the extremes in our work? Picture your strongest lessons, activities, and projects juxtaposed against ones that just didn't work, and that's how it's been so far with our Digital Shop capstone projects. Some experiences make me want to high-five the entire class all at once. Others deserve an epic facepalm. As of this writing, we still have a month of school left. How will the remaining capstones go? What have we learned in the process? Can we "fail up" and finish strong, sending kids into summer vacation with school-year memories that will last forever?

As I explained in my April post, I wanted the capstone projects to:

Be genuine design thinking experiences.
Allow kids to showcase the skills and dispositions they worked to acquire all year.
Be based on and help people from the community and the world.
The results have been mixed, as this post will illustrate.

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Maker Book Review: Invent to Learn Guide to Fun

Maker Book Review: Invent to Learn Guide to Fun | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
If you’ve visited my Makerspace Resources page, you’ll already know that I suggest this The Invent to Learn Guide to Fun as one of the must have Maker books to get you started in your maker education journey. However, I’ve found myself with TWO copies of this fabulous book, so I wanted to share why I love this book, and …. well, you’ll have to read the whole post for all the details.

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5 of The Best Digital Storytelling Apps for Kids ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

5 of The Best Digital Storytelling Apps for Kids ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it

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Lee Hall's curator insight, June 20, 2016 2:48 PM
Students will enjoy using these apps. They won't even realize they are learning.
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The Effort Effect--Carol Dweck

The Effort Effect--Carol Dweck | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it

The Effort Effect

According to a Stanford psychologist, you’ll reach new heights if you learn to embrace the occasional tumble.

James Yang

 

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By Marina Krakovsky

 

One day last November, psychology professor Carol Dweck welcomed a pair of visitors from the Blackburn Rovers, a soccer team in the United Kingdom’s Premier League. The Rovers’ training academy is ranked in England’s top three, yet performance director Tony Faulkner had long suspected that many promising players weren’t reaching their potential. Ignoring the team’s century-old motto—arte et labore, or “skill and hard work”—the most talented individuals disdained serious training.

On some level, Faulkner knew the source of the trouble: British soccer culture held that star players are born, not made. If you buy into that view, and are told you’ve got immense talent, what’s the point of practice? If anything, training hard would tell you and others that you’re merely good, not great. Faulkner had identified the problem; but to fix it, he needed Dweck’s help.

A 60-year-old academic psychologist might seem an unlikely sports motivation guru. But Dweck’s expertise—and her recent book, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success—bear directly on the sort of problem facing the Rovers. Through more than three decades of systematic research, she has been figuring out answers to why some people achieve their potential while equally talented others don’t—why some become Muhammad Ali and others Mike Tyson. The key, she found, isn’t ability; it’s whether you look at ability as something inherent that needs to be demonstrated or as something that can be developed.

What’s more, Dweck has shown that people can learn to adopt the latter belief and make dramatic strides in performance. These days, she’s sought out wherever motivation and achievement matter, from education and parenting to business management and personal development.

As a graduate student at Yale, Dweck started off studying animal motivation. In the late 1960s, a hot topic in animal research was “learned helplessness”: lab animals sometimes didn’t do what they were capable of because they’d given up from repeat failures. Dweck wondered how humans coped with that. “I asked, ‘What makes a really capable child give up in the face of failure, where other children may be motivated by the failure?’” she recalls.

At the time, the suggested cure for learned helplessness was a long string of successes. Dweck posited that the difference between the helpless response and its opposite—the determination to master new things and surmount challenges—lay in people’s beliefs about why they had failed. People who attributed their failures to lack of ability, Dweck thought, would become discouraged even in areas where they were capable. Those who thought they simply hadn’t tried hard enough, on the other hand, would be fueled by setbacks. This became the topic of her PhD dissertation.

Dweck and her assistants ran an experiment on elementary school children whom school personnel had identified as helpless. These kids fit the definition perfectly: if they came across a few math problems they couldn’t solve, for example, they no longer could do problems they had solved before—and some didn’t recover that ability for days.

Through a series of exercises, the experimenters trained half the students to chalk up their errors to insufficient effort, and encouraged them to keep going. Those children learned to persist in the face of failure—and to succeed. The control group showed no improvement at all, continuing to fall apart quickly and to recover slowly. These findings, says Dweck, “really supported the idea that the attributions were a key ingredient driving the helpless and mastery-oriented patterns.” Her 1975 article on the topic has become one of the most widely cited in contemporary psychology.

Attribution theory, concerned with people’s judgments about the causes of events and behavior, already was an active area of psychological research. But the focus at the time was on how we make attributions, explains Stanford psychology professor Lee Ross, who coined the term “fundamental attribution error” for our tendency to explain other people’s actions by their character traits, overlooking the power of circumstances. Dweck, he says, helped “shift the emphasis from attributional errors and biases to the consequences of attributions—why it matters what attributions people make.” Dweck had put attribution theory to practical use.

She continued to do so as an assistant professor at the University of Illinois, collaborating with then-graduate student Carol Diener to have children “think out loud” as they faced problem-solving tasks, some too difficult for them. The big surprise: some of the children who put forth lots of effort didn’t make attributions at all. These children didn’t think they were failing. Diener puts it this way: “Failure is information—we label it failure, but it’s more like, ‘This didn’t work, I’m a problem solver, and I’ll try something else.’” During one unforgettable moment, one boy—something of a poster child for the mastery-oriented type—faced his first stumper by pulling up his chair, rubbing his hands together, smacking his lips and announcing, “I love a challenge.”

Such zest for challenge helped explain why other capable students thought they lacked ability just because they’d hit a setback. Common sense suggests that ability inspires self-confidence. And it does for a while—so long as the going is easy. But setbacks change everything. Dweck realized—and, with colleague Elaine Elliott soon demonstrated—that the difference lay in the kids’ goals. “The mastery-oriented children are really hell-bent on learning something,” Dweck says, and “learning goals” inspire a different chain of thoughts and behaviors than “performance goals.”

Students for whom performance is paramount want to look smart even if it means not learning a thing in the process. For them, each task is a challenge to their self-image, and each setback becomes a personal threat. So they pursue only activities at which they’re sure to shine—and avoid the sorts of experiences necessary to grow and flourish in any endeavor. Students with learning goals, on the other hand, take necessary risks and don’t worry about failure because each mistake becomes a chance to learn. Dweck’s insight launched a new field of educational psychology—achievement goal theory.

Dweck’s next question: what makes students focus on different goals in the first place? During a sabbatical at Harvard, she was discussing this with doctoral student Mary Bandura (daughter of legendary Stanford psychologist Albert Bandura), and the answer hit them: if some students want to show off their ability, while others want to increase their ability, “ability” means different things to the two groups. “If you want to demonstrate something over and over, it feels like something static that lives inside of you—whereas if you want to increase your ability, it feels dynamic and malleable,” Dweck explains. People with performance goals, she reasoned, think intelligence is fixed from birth. People with learning goals have a growth mind-set about intelligence, believing it can be developed. (Among themselves, psychologists call the growth mind-set an “incremental theory,” and use the term “entity theory” for the fixed mind-set.) The model was nearly complete (see diagram).

Growing up in Brooklyn in the ’50s, Dweck did well in elementary school, earning a spot in a sixth-grade class of other high achievers. Not just any spot, it turned out. Their teacher, Mrs. Wilson, seated the students in IQ order and even used IQ scores to dole out classroom responsibilities. Whether Mrs. Wilson meant to or not, she was conveying her belief in fixed intelligence. Dweck, who was in row 1, seat 1, believes Mrs. Wilson’s intentions were good. The experience didn’t scar her—Dweck says she already had some of the growth mind-set—but she has shown that many students pegged as bright, especially girls, don’t fare as well.

Tests, Dweck notes, are notoriously poor at measuring potential. Take a group of adults and ask them to draw a self-portrait. Most Americans think of drawing as a gift they don’t have, and their portraits look no better than a child’s scribbles. But put them in a well-designed class—as Betty Edwards, the author ofDrawing on the Right Side of the Brain, has—and the resulting portraits look so skilled it’s hard to believe they’re the work of the same “talentless” individuals. The belief that you can’t improve stunts achievement.

Culture can play a large role in shaping our beliefs, Dweck says. A college physics teacher recently wrote to Dweck that in India, where she was educated, there was no notion that you had to be a genius or even particularly smart to learn physics. “The assumption was that everyone could do it, and, for the most part, they did.” But what if you’re raised with a fixed mind-set about physics—or foreign languages or music? Not to worry: Dweck has shown that you can change the mind-set itself.

The most dramatic proof comes from a recent study by Dweck and Lisa Sorich Blackwell of low-achieving seventh graders. All students participated in sessions on study skills, the brain and the like; in addition, one group attended a neutral session on memory while the other learned that intelligence, like a muscle, grows stronger through exercise. Training students to adopt a growth mind-set about intelligence had a catalytic effect on motivation and math grades; students in the control group showed no improvement despite all the other interventions.

“Study skills and learning skills are inert until they’re powered by an active ingredient,” Dweck explains. Students may know how to study, but won’t want to if they believe their efforts are futile. “If you target that belief, you can see more benefit than you have any reason to hope for.”

The classroom workshop isn’t feasible on a large scale; for one thing, it’s too costly. So Dweck and Blackwell have designed a computer-based training module to simulate the live intervention. Their hip multimedia software, called Brainology, is still in development, but thanks to early buzz from a Time magazine article and Dweck’s recent book, teachers have begun clamoring for it, one even asking to become a distributor.

Unlike much that passes for wisdom about education and performance, Dweck’s conclusions are grounded in solid research. She’s no rah-rah motivational coach proclaiming the sky’s the limit and attitude is everything; that’s too facile. But the evidence shows that if we hold a fixed mind-set, we’re bound not to reach as high as we might.

Although much of Dweck’s research on mind-sets has taken place in school settings, it’s applicable to sports, business, interpersonal relationships and so on. “Lots and lots of people are interested in her work; it touches on so many different areas of psychology and areas outside of psychology,” says Stanford psychology professor Mark Lepper, ’66, who as department chair in 2004 lured Dweck away from Columbia, where she’d been for 15 years. “The social psychologists like to say she’s a social psychologist; the personality psychologists say she’s a personality psychologist; and the developmental psychologists say she’s a developmental psychologist,” Lepper adds.

By all rights, her appeal should transcend academia, says New Yorker writer Malcolm Gladwell, who is well known for making psychological research accessible to the general public. “One of the most popular pieces I ever did relied very heavily on work done by Carol Dweck,” he said in a December interview in theJournal of Management Inquiry. “Carol Dweck deserves a big audience. It is criminal if she does not get that audience.” Perhaps Mindset will help; it was written for lay readers.

It certainly cemented Tony Faulkner’s belief that Dweck could help the Blackburn Rovers soccer team. Unlike the disadvantaged kids in Dweck’s middle-school study, the Rovers didn’t think they lacked what it took to succeed. Quite the opposite: they thought their talent should take them all the way. Yet both groups’ fixed mind-set about ability explains their aversion to effort.

But aren’t there plenty of people who believe in innate ability and in the notion that nothing comes without effort? Logically, the two ideas are compatible. But psychologically, explains Dweck, many people who believe in fixed intelligence also think you shouldn’t need hard work to do well. This belief isn’t entirely irrational, she says. A student who finishes a problem set in 10 minutes is indeed better at math than someone who takes four hours to solve the problems. And a soccer player who scores effortlessly probably is more talented than someone who’s always practicing. “The fallacy comes when people generalize it to the belief that effort on any task, even very hard ones, implies low ability,” Dweck says.

Her advice for the Rovers rings true for anyone stuck in a fixed mind-set. “Changing mind-sets is not like surgery,” she says. “You can’t simply remove the fixed mind-set and replace it with the growth mind-set.” The Rovers are starting their workshops with recent recruits—their youngest, most malleable players. (Faulkner realizes that players who’ve already earned millions from being “naturals” have little incentive to reshape their brains.) The team’s talent scouts will be asking about new players’ views on talent and training—not to screen out those with a fixed mind-set, but to target them for special training.

In his 2002 essay that relied on Dweck’s work, Gladwell cited one of her best-known experiments to argue that Enron may have collapsed precisely because of the company’s talent-obsessed culture, not despite it. Dweck’s study showed that praising children for intelligence, rather than for effort, sapped their motivation (see sidebar). But more disturbingly, 40 percent of those whose intelligence was praised overstated their scores to peers. “We took ordinary children and made them into liars,” Dweck says. Similarly, Enron executives who’d been celebrated for their innate talent would sooner lie than fess up to problems and work to fix them.

Business School professor Jeffrey Pfeffer says Dweck’s research has implications for the more workaday problem of performance management. He faults businesses for spending too much time in rank-and-yank mode, grading and evaluating people instead of developing their skills. “It’s like the Santa Claus theory of management: who’s naughty and who’s nice.”

Leaders, too, can benefit from Dweck’s work, says Robert Sternberg, PhD ’75, Tufts University’s dean of the School of Arts and Sciences. Sternberg, a past president of the American Psychological Association, says that excessive concern with looking smart keeps you from making bold, visionary moves. “If you’re afraid of making mistakes, you’ll never learn on the job, and your whole approach becomes defensive: ‘I have to make sure I don’t screw up.’”

Social psychologist Peter Salovey, ’80, MA ’80, dean of Yale College and a pioneer in the field of emotional intelligence, says Dweck’s ideas have helped him think through a controversy in his field. Echoing an older debate about the malleability of general intelligence, some scholars say emotional intelligence is largely inborn, while others, like Salovey, see it as a set of skills that can be taught and learned. “People say to me all the time, ‘I’m not a people person,’ or ‘I’m not good at managing my emotions,’” unaware that they’re expressing a fixed mind-set, Salovey says.

Stanford psychology professor James Gross has begun extending Dweck’s work to emotions. In a recent study, Gross and his colleagues followed a group of Stanford undergrads as they made the transition to college life. Those with a fixed mind-set about emotions were less able to manage theirs, and by the end of freshman year, they’d shown poorer social and emotional adjustment than their growth-minded counterparts.

As she approaches the end of her third year at Stanford, Dweck has embraced the challenge of cross-country culture shock in a manner consistent with the growth mind-set. Nearby San Francisco provides her with the benefits of a great city, she says, including a dining scene that rivals New York’s; and the University supplies a more cozy sense of community. She’s also brought a bit of the New York theater scene with her in the form of her husband, critic and director David Goldman. He founded and directs the National Center for New Plays at Stanford.

At the Association for Psychological Science convention in May, Dweck will give the keynote address. The topic: “Can Personality Be Changed?” Her short answer, of course, is yes. Moreover, holding a growth mind-set bodes well for one’s relationships. In a recent study, Dweck found that people who believe personality can change were more likely than others to bring up concerns and deal with problems in a constructive way. Dweck thinks a fixed mind-set fosters a categorical, all-or-nothing view of people’s qualities; this view tends to make you ignore festering problems or, at the other extreme, give up on a relationship at the first sign of trouble. (The growth mind-set, though, can be taken too far if someone stays in an abusive relationship hoping her partner will change; as always, the person has to want to change.)

These days, Dweck is applying her model to kids’ moral development. Young children may not always have beliefs about ability, but they do have ideas about goodness. Many kids believe they’re invariably good or bad; other kids think they can get better at being good. Dweck has already found that preschoolers with this growth mind-set feel okay about themselves after they’ve messed up and are less judgmental of others; they’re also more likely than kids with a fixed view of goodness to try to set things right and to learn from their mistakes. They understand that spilling juice or throwing toys, for example, doesn’t damn a kid as bad, so long as the child cleans up and resolves to do better next time. Now Dweck and graduate student Allison Master are running experiments at Bing Nursery School to see if teaching kids the growth mind-set improves their coping skills. They’ve designed a storybook with the message that preschoolers can go from “bad” one year to better the next. Can hearing such stories help a 4-year-old handle a sandbox setback?

Dweck’s students from over the years describe her as a generous, nurturing mentor. She’d surely attribute these traits not to an innate gift, but to a highly developed mind-set. “Just being aware of the growth mind-set, and studying it and writing about it, I feel compelled to live it and to benefit from it,” says Dweck, who took up piano as an adult and learned to speak Italian in her 50s. “These are things that adults are not supposed to be good at learning.”


Via Lynnette Van Dyke, Julie LaPlante, Sharrock, diane gusa, Mark E. Deschaine, PhD
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Andrew Blanco's curator insight, February 5, 2015 11:06 AM

effort is everything

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Google Drive for Teachers with 'How-to' video links

Google Drive for Teachers with 'How-to' video links | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ Google has tripled free storage space, across Gmail, Google+ and Drive, bringing the total to 15GB. This is a serious move by Google as it places the company at the forefront of cloud based solutio...”
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Mau Ro's curator insight, May 17, 2017 8:48 PM
Through these series of videos teachers will explore the advantages of using Google Drive and implementing this tool in learning and teaching events. Sharing books and creating folders with data will facilite our job.
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Teach your students about the four different types of bullying

Teach your students about the four different types of bullying | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ Bullying has become a very popular word amongst school age children. However, this word is often misunderstood. Bullying is action(s) repeated over and over again by an individual or group of people with the intent to harm either physically, verbally, socially (emotionally), or through cyber sources. This lesson will discuss and explore the different types of bullying and provide students with the opportunity to identify the various types. Click here to download the free 5 page lesson plan.”
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30 Trends In Education Technology For 2015

30 Trends In Education Technology For 2015 | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ 30 Trends In Education Technology For The 2015 School Year by Terry Heick What's trending up for 2015 school year in terms of education technology?…”
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john dimitriou's curator insight, July 15, 2014 7:52 AM

Definitely something to consider much more closely.

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Our World, Our Numbers | Primary students sharing their mathematical lives

Our World, Our Numbers | Primary students sharing their mathematical lives | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it

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Making Room for Making

Making Room for Making | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
To bring maker education to your school, find a space, purchase equipment and supplies carefully, budget and partner creatively, and encourage ongoing student involvement.
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Free Technology for Teachers: Resources for Teaching and Learning About the Sights and Sounds of Autumn

Free Technology for Teachers: Resources for Teaching and Learning About the Sights and Sounds of Autumn | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ The air is getting cooler, the leaves are starting to change color, and the days are getting shorter. In just a few days the autumnal equinox will be here in the northern hemisphere. Here are some resources for teaching and learning about the sights and sounds of autumn.”
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abinaya's curator insight, September 21, 2015 7:12 AM

Sorry I have been missing for a few weeks, tons of things going on here that have kept me away from blogging. I'll write more about that another time though.http://goo.gl/xjVn1b

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Sometimes Misbehavior Is Not What It Seems - Edutopia

Sometimes Misbehavior Is Not What It Seems - Edutopia | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it
“ When Sigmund Freud reportedly said, "Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar," the key word was "sometimes," because sometimes a cigar is more than a cigar. So it is with understanding misbehavior. Sometimes the reason for misbehavior is very different than the obvious and requires a totally different intervention than the usual consequences. It is never easy to determine why children do the things they do. The following are examples of seeing misbehavior from a new perspective. In each of these cases, diagnosis is very difficult -- as are the remedies. For chronic misbehaving students, pay close attention to their home situations, the type of misbehavior, when it occurs, and whether they behave differently with other adults. Be advised that the best responses to these situations sound easier than they are to put into practice.”
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abinaya's curator insight, September 25, 2015 2:42 AM

Sometimes Misbehavior Is Not What It Seems ... When Sigmund Freud reportedly said, "Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar," the key word was "sometimes," ...http://goo.gl/NSq6Ui

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Creating the Classroom Conditions for the Best Day Ever - User Generated Education

Creating the Classroom Conditions for the Best Day Ever - User Generated Education | Education Reinvented | Scoop.it

#Lately, I have become a little obsessed with idea of the best day ever. It is undeniable obvious when you see someone have or experience for yourself a peak experience: succeeding with a difficult, seemingly impossible task; getting a unexpected, amazing gift; finishing or winning a competitive event (depending on your goal); being given accolades for a personal accomplishment. I personally perceive it as a coming together or congruence of the mind, heart, body, and spirit where all of them are present in the moment and fulfilled. It translates into experiencing a flow state. So this has led to me thinking how educators can create the conditions for learners to have and exclaim, “This is the best day ever!” Whoever said or made up the rules that school should be serious, boring, or painful? The institutions and places where learning takes place should be joyful and exciting places.


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