Education, Curiosity, and Happiness
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Education, Curiosity, and Happiness
What roles can curiosity and happiness play in learning?
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Brain Imaging Reveals ADHD as a Collection of Different Disorders

Brain Imaging Reveals ADHD as a Collection of Different Disorders | Education, Curiosity, and Happiness | Scoop.it
Source: Elsevier.

Researchers have found that patients with different types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impairments in unique brain systems, indicating that there may not be a one-size-fits-all explanation for the cause of the disorder. Based on performance on behavioral tests, adolescents with ADHD fit into one of three subgroups, where each group demonstrated distinct impairments in the brain with no common abnormalities between them.

The study, published in Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, has the potential to radically reframe how researchers think about ADHD. “This study found evidence that clearly supports the idea that ADHD-diagnosed adolescents are not all the same neurobiologically,” said first author Dr. Michael Stevens, of the Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford, CT, and Yale University. Rather than a single disorder with small variations, the findings suggest that the diagnosis instead encompasses a “constellation” of different types of ADHD in which the brain functions in completely different ways.

Via iPamba
Ivon Prefontaine, PhD's insight:
It makes sense.
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Study: Rates of ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment continue to increase substantially

Study: Rates of ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment continue to increase substantially | Education, Curiosity, and Happiness | Scoop.it
Beginning in about 1990, substantial increases in the rates of ADHD diagnosis and medical treatment were found in several nationally representative samples of US physician office visits. For example, between 1995-96 and 2007-08, the number of office visits at which an ADHD diagnosis was made increased by over 400% in adults – from 3.1 per 1000 visits to 14.5 per 1000 visits. And, the percent of adult office visits including both ADHD diagnosis and medication increased from 1.9 to 11.4 per 1000 visits.

Among children aged 5 to 18, between 1991-92 and 2008-09, rates of ADHD diagnosis increased nearly 4-fold among boys – from 39.5 to 144.6 per 1000 – and nearly 6-fold for girls – from 12.3 and 68.5 per 1000 visits. During this time, the rate of visits that also involved medication treatment increased by similar rates.

These substantial increases in ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment raise the question of whether these trends have continued. Several recent developments in the field suggest this may be the case. First, the introduction of new ADHD medications and associated may contribute to increases in medication treatment simply because additional options are available. Second, changes in ADHD diagnostic criteria in DSM-V, i.e., required age of onset of symptoms increasing from 6 to 12 and reducing the number of symptoms required in teens and adults from 6 to 5, could contribute to an increase in individuals meeting a somewhat broader set of diagnostic criteria.

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Ivon Prefontaine, PhD's insight:
We should ask what is happening. Is the warehousing of children in standardized schools part of the issue?
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Creativity and the Brain: What We Can Learn From Jazz Musicians

Creativity and the Brain: What We Can Learn From Jazz Musicians | Education, Curiosity, and Happiness | Scoop.it

sLuckily, creativity isn’t an unknowable, mystical quality. It can be developed. “You have to cultivate these behaviors by introducing them to children and recognizing that the more you do it, the bettier you are at doing it,” Limb said. The problem is a lot of kids don’t get much unstructured time either in school or out of it. School is often based on right or wrong answers, leaving little room for students to come up with ideas that haven’t been taught to them before.

“It doesn’t have to be so directed all the time,” Limb said. “We’ve taken a lot of the joy out of things that used to be joyful.” Even a lot of music lessons have become about the discipline of learning to play well, not the joy of creating the music. Children should have part of every lesson reserved for improvisation and free form play, Limb said. The same could be said for free play on the playground and experimentation with new ideas in the classroom. Unprogrammed time is necessary for students to practice using their creativity.


Via Jim Lerman
Ivon Prefontaine, PhD's insight:
Improvising makes a difference to a person's brain. Play is another form of jazz. Watching a child play I notice they improvise and solve problems as they encounter them. They puzzle and wonder over their play.

An essential idea in the article is to allow children (and adults) free form play.
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