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Instructional Rounds

School Improvement through a theory of action.

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Formative Assessment Works

by Mel Riddile


Formative assessment or assessment for learning is a proven strategy to improve student achievement.


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LET Team's curator insight, March 19, 2016 10:44 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.


• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.


• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.


• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn 


 


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


 


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


 


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


 


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


 


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


 


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.


• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.


• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words


• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).


• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).


• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


 


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


 


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned


• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved


• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool


• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model


• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


Andy Fetchik's curator insight, March 21, 2016 3:34 PM

“Formative assessment is a planned process in which teachers or students use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they're currently doing.

• Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.

• Because formative assessment has been shown to improve students' in-class learning, many educators have adopted it in the hope that it will also raise their students' performances on accountability tests.

• The expanded use of formative assessment is supported not only by instructional logic but also by the conclusions of a well-conceived and skillfully implemented meta-analysis by Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.” (Popham, 2008)After synthesizing over 250 publications, Black and Wiliam, concluded that formative assessment is perhaps the most effective educational practice when it comes to improving academic achievement. In addition, formative assessment has a disproportionately beneficial impact on low‐achieving students. http://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdfIn ;


In 2009, John Hattie published a meta-meta-analysis of education research called Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. In that study, Hattie found that formative assessment, when done correctly, had the highest effect size on student learning compared with other classroom strategies.


In recent years, neuroscientists have reported that retrieval practice—recalling and applying previously learning—had a huge impact (as much as 50%) on student retention of learned content. Combining retrieval practice and formative assessment can significantly reduce forgetting and increase retention of lesson content.


Each school’s instructional framework provides teachers with numerous opportunities to use formative assessments in the beginning and ending of a lesson as well as when engaging students and during student practice in the body of the lesson. Teachers use formative assessment to see if the students have mastered the content of the lesson—did they get it?


Note that mastery means that the students can demonstrate both that they ‘know’ the content and that they can apply what they learned to future or past learning.


Formative Assessment in the Beginning and Ending of the Lesson


• Purposeful Learning – The expectation that all activities be purposeful means that teachers always have something to check on or assess for understanding.

• Focusing (Beginning) – Ask students to demonstrate mastery of the previous lesson through bell ringer, do now, or warm up.

• Knowing the Lesson’s Purpose (Beginning) – Ask students to repeat the learning target or essential question in their own words

• Ask students to predict (“prediction effect”) the “why” of the learning target/essential question (Beginning).

• Use a closure activity or ‘exit ticket’ that asks more than comprehension level, regurgitation questions. Ask students to both recall (retrieval practice) and apply what they learned to future or past learning (Ending).

• Purposeful reading, writing, and discussion - Reflection of some kind that addresses learning using evidence from the lesson that connects the learning to something else (Ending).


Formative Assessment in the Body of the Lesson (Practicing and Engagement)


• Connection activities that ask students to link new learning to older learning• Visualization activities where students draw some concept that has been learned

• Question design - ask kids to write their own questions with different levels of Bloom's involved

• Game play where appropriate can be a great tool as well• Blog writing as a reflective or questioning tool

• Mentor activities that ask the student to create something original using the learning as a model

• Problem solving activities where students apply skills to arrive at a solutionIf students can complete any or all of the above, then we know they have demonstrated proficiency on some level. As we seek to move kids to mastery, we need to be acutely aware of their progress.


K.I.R.M. God is Business " From Day One"'s curator insight, April 24, 2017 11:20 AM

Lord God bless these words and their messengers allow it to be understood by man in the manner that is benefitual and for the good purpose of those that read it and bless them even the more that has is or will share it. Lord God have mercy reveal all those things that need be in Jesus name. Amen


 

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Scaffolded Math and Science: High School Math Word Wall Ideas

Scaffolded Math and Science: High School Math Word Wall Ideas | Education at NC | Scoop.it
OK, he was right: When in Boston, I taught next to a Geometry teacher who would later go on to become Teacher of the Year. Lining the walls of his high school Geometry classroom, from floor to ceiling, were vocabulary words with drawings and examples. At the time I thought it was a bit extreme. I mean, aren't these kids in high school?
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Excellent iPad Tips,Tricks, and Resources for Teachers ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

Excellent iPad Tips,Tricks, and Resources for Teachers ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Education at NC | Scoop.it

"I received a couple of requests over the last few days to feature a post about tips for managing iPad classrooms. I know several of you, if not at the start of the school year then at least at some point during this school year will probably be drawing on iPad as a teaching resource to scaffold students learning. To this end, I went ahead and compiled this list hoping you will find it helpful. Enjoy."


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Bill Randall's curator insight, August 24, 2014 3:20 PM

Growing your teaching.

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Follow this Topic - iGeneration - 21st Century Education

Follow this Topic - iGeneration - 21st Century Education | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Teaching and learning in the 21st Century - meeting the challenges of digital learning and the iGeneration

Via Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa)
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Selin Gelinci's curator insight, October 27, 2013 10:09 AM

This scoop it profile by @Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa)  includes many useful blogs and articles that aim to teach in the 21st century. This includes learning with the use of technology. What he refers to as the 'iGeneration' includes many useful updates that can be used for both the students and teachers in the classroom. A few i came across that sparked my interest were a description on how to set up a blog with wordpress for teachers, this can be very useful to me as a student now and also in the future. I enjoy D'Amico's profile as he scoops quite interesting topics.

Jane Weston's curator insight, February 17, 2014 4:58 AM

When curriculum resources are limitless due to the access we have to on-line materials, then the question we ask about those materials become more important. Values Education helps us all to ask the right questions! See some innovative whole school projects at:

http://valueseducation.edu.au/verve/_resources/VASP_FINAL_REPORT_2010.pdf

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3 Things I Learned At Tech Camp - Pass The Tech

3 Things I Learned At Tech Camp - Pass The Tech | Education at NC | Scoop.it

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Great Teacher-Approved Educational Games for iPad ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning

Great Teacher-Approved Educational Games for iPad ~ Educational Technology and Mobile Learning | Education at NC | Scoop.it

"For those of us in the Northern Hemisphere, summer is fast approaching. That means school will be out and summer learning loss will become a worry. One way to curb those concerns is with engaging and educational games, like this set of teacher-approved iOS apps."


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Ryan McDonough's curator insight, July 7, 2014 1:13 PM

A few iPad apps for the less engaging subjects elementary teachers may teach-- math and english.In my experience, math games were the only way I could make math interesting for my learners. Giving them a "Fun Friday" was an effective way to reward students for completing their work on time. Of course, they loved the games even though they were educationally oriented. To them, any game is better than no game at all. Thinking back to when I was a kid, I can relate to that line of thinking.

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Classroom Video Collaboration

Clips of 4th graders using various technologies to communicate with other classrooms.
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Evernote for Dummies: The App to Finally Organize Yourself!

Evernote for Dummies: The App to Finally Organize Yourself! | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Evernote makes it easy to remember things big and small from your everyday life using your computer, phone, tablet and the web. -Evernote.com (Try out ONE MONTH of the Premium version of Evernote f...

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Maine schools experimenting with Web-based math homework - Bangor Daily News

Maine schools experimenting with Web-based math homework - Bangor Daily News | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Maine schools experimenting with Web-based math homework Bangor Daily News She said ASSISTments is a prime example of “formative assessment,” which allows teachers to observe student performance and adjust their teaching plan or techniques to help...
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Educational Technology and Mobile Learning: Top Web Tools for Teachers in 2012

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45+ Teacher Recommended Educational Apps : Teacher Reboot Camp

45+ Teacher Recommended Educational Apps : Teacher Reboot Camp | Education at NC | Scoop.it

Educators are beginning to see the potential of using mobile devices and apps for ongoing professional development as well as to improve literacy and cognitive development for learners.


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Dallas Budden's curator insight, December 14, 2012 7:56 PM

Contains some great app and many are the ones I use everyday.

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Available now: a guide to using Twitter in university research, teaching, and impact activities

Available now: a guide to using Twitter in university research, teaching, and impact activities | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Following on from the lists of academic tweeters published earlier this month, we have put together a short guide to using Twitter in university research, teaching, and impact activities, available...

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Nevermore Sithole's curator insight, September 17, 2014 2:24 PM

Available now: a guide to using Twitter in university research, teaching, and impact activities

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Educational Leadership:Coaching: The New Leadership Skill:Learning from Instructional Rounds

Educational Leadership:Coaching: The New Leadership Skill:Learning from Instructional Rounds | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Founded in 1943, ASCD (formerly the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) is an educational leadership organization dedicated to advancing best practices and policies for the success of each learner.

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A school leader's back-to-school letter to teachers is also brilliant parenting advice

A school leader's back-to-school letter to teachers is also brilliant parenting advice | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Use positive language

Kids push boundaries. It’s a critical part of how they grow up. As a result, parenting can sometimes feel like a never-ending exercise in 100 ways to say no. A simple, firm “no” easily escalates into “how many times and ways do I have to say NO?!”
Rogers suggests using “positive language.” (As any parent knows, that’s harder than it sounds.) Instead of saying “stop interrupting your sister,” you say something positive: “I’d like you to listen to what she has to say before speaking.” Instead of “stop complaining about dinner,” you try, “I’d love to see some gratitude about the food that is cooked for you.”
Human beings do not respond well to criticism, and kids are no different. In the workplace, we are very intentional about channeling positive feedback. We don’t start a performance review with a harsh critique, hammering on about a person’s negative qualities or damning personality traits. We start positive, and move, hopefully, toward constructive. We can do this with kids too.

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What Are You Doing With the Last 5?

What Are You Doing With the Last 5? | Education at NC | Scoop.it
This is the perfect time to help make decisions about tomorrow’s instruction. Here are three ways you can better utilize the last five minutes of class.

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Why recommend the iPad for schools? - IPAD 4 SCHOOLS

Why recommend the iPad for schools? - IPAD 4 SCHOOLS | Education at NC | Scoop.it

"This blog is nearly 2 years oldand I thought it was time to revisit the reason for its existence. I am still teaching 11 to 18 year-olds everyday in BYOD classrooms (not iPad only) and can claim a significant experience in the various pros and cons of all types and brands of devices. When I’m considering which students are supported the most in their learning by their device, I still conclude the iPad and its eco-system is my recommendation for handling the full breadth of activities and opportunities undertaken in 21st century schools."


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Bill Randall's curator insight, August 24, 2014 3:20 PM

Why? Here are some reasons.

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10 Powerful iPad Apps For English And History

10 Powerful iPad Apps For English And History | Education at NC | Scoop.it
When I first started teaching English with 1:1 iPads, I was really jealous of the science and fine arts teachers. They had all of the most engaging apps, and I was left with a lowly word processor and an instant thesaurus. Fortunately, so much has changed. I now have the flexibility to duck in and …

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Putting the World In Their Hands: Augmented Reality in the Classroom - Mind/Shift

Putting the World In Their Hands: Augmented Reality in the Classroom - Mind/Shift | Education at NC | Scoop.it
These days, students can walk into a classroom and use their tablet or smartphone as the AR device to trigger to original content made on movie-making software and posted to YouTube, leading to an immediate and immersive learning experience.

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mrsjgarcia's curator insight, July 5, 2014 2:48 PM

I would be interested in hearing how other educators use AR in their daily teaching and learning with students.

Alison Hewett's curator insight, July 6, 2014 8:07 PM

Great for PYP exhibition

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Formative Assessment That Truly Informs Instruction

Formative Assessment That Truly Informs Instruction | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Formative Assessment That Truly Informs Instruction, NCTE October 2013 (Formative Assessment That Truly Informs Instruction http://t.co/VsdivrEmBI via @ncte #engchat #ELAchat #edchat #pedagogy)...

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3 Lessons Kentucky Can Teach the Rest of the U.S. About the Common Core

3 Lessons Kentucky Can Teach the Rest of the U.S. About the Common Core | Education at NC | Scoop.it

Kentucky’s experience over the past three school years suggests it will be

a slow and potentially frustrating road ahead for the other states that are using the Common Core.Test scores are still dismal, and state officials have expressed concern that the pace of improvement is not fast enough.Districts have also seen varying success in changing how teachers teach, something that was supposed to change under the new standards.
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21st Century Skills and the Common Core | Andrew K. Miller

21st Century Skills and the Common Core | Andrew K. Miller | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Unpacking the Common Core State Standards allows us to see the need to teach and assess 21st century skills to our students.
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Educational Technology and Mobile Learning: The 33 Digital Skills Every 21st Century Teacher should Have | Techie Teacher Tips

Educational Technology and Mobile Learning: The 33 Digital Skills Every 21st Century Teacher should Have | Techie Teacher Tips | Education at NC | Scoop.it
Rose Garofano's insight: professional learning map for teachers and 21st century skills (Educational Technology and Mobile Learning: The 33 Digital Skills Every 21st Century Teacher should Have | @scoopit http://t.co/PSTynrW4)...
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Using iPads to Reach Unreachable Students

Using iPads to Reach Unreachable Students | Education at NC | Scoop.it
The iPad made a transformation in John's learning demeanor. Where once his attitude blared, "I dare you to teach me!" now it screams, " Teach me more!
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Katherine Page Burdick's comment, December 19, 2012 3:03 AM
This article points out what hundreds of teachers and parents are finding out and what is in part leading to the wide adoption of mobile learning. Mobile devices capture the disengaged learner.
Rachelle Wooten's comment, December 31, 2012 10:40 PM
I agree! When teachers begin to adapt and integrate/incorporate more technology effectively in their classroom students will be more engaged and more open to learn!
Rachelle Wooten's curator insight, December 31, 2012 10:40 PM

Technology is what get's them excited!  Now we just need to leverage for learning. 

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Educational Technology and Mobile Learning: The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teachers Using Technology

Educational Technology and Mobile Learning: The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teachers Using Technology | Education at NC | Scoop.it

I really like how these habits are sequenced and I found them to be the habits of every successful teacher and not only those using technology.


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Erin Ryan's curator insight, October 11, 2015 10:50 PM

 Highly effective teachers think about technology use ahead of time- they plan and choose technology not because it's fun or jazzy, but for it's support in building strong student outcomes.