In week five, you will create several circuits using the operation amplifiers you studied earlier. An op-amp can be configured to perform special applications found in everyday electronic equipment. These include comparators, level detectors, summing amplifiers and digital to analog converters.
Describe the operation of a level detector.
Determine the output of a level detector for a given reference voltage. Simulate a level detector and verify that the simulated voltages agree with the calculated values
Prototype a level detector and compare the measured results with the calculated and simulated values. See pictures at the end of the iLab
Explain the operation of a summing amplifier and how the output voltage is calculated based on the input values
Calculate the output voltage of a three input summing amplifier
Simulate a summing amplifier with three inputs, measure the results and compare them to the calculated values
Prototype the three input summing amplifier and compare the measured results with the calculated and simulated values
Part B-More Op Amps
Given the following circuit, calculate the reference voltage. Based on the input, describe the operation of the LED
The following circuit is malfunctioning. Calculate the expected value and use the results to explain the cause of the problem
Given an audio amplifier application that uses an integrated amplifier, examine the overall amplifier’s performance and verify the operation by using suitable input and output circuits
Use an Internet search utility, such as Google, find an audio amplifier such as a LM386 download the specification sheet and determine its general characteristics such as its general description, the package type and pin configuration.
Use the specification sheet to determine its electrical characteristics and operating values
Using information from the data sheet or other sources and an application such as Multisim, Visio, or a CAD program draw the schematic and verify the component values of an audio amplifier application using the device
Construct the audio amplifier on your breadboard with various gains (20 and 200). Using a frequency generator as an input, verify the amplification of the audio amplifier. Use 10mV peak as the input signal and keeping all the component connecting wired as short as possible. Also keep all the components close together on the breadboard
Determine and plot the audio amplifier’s frequency response. Determine mid band gain, 3-dB bandwidth, critical frequencies and roll-off rate. Compare the results to the data sheet
Connect an input circuit such as a frequency generator and a microphone and a load such as a speaker verify the operation and troubleshoot any problems
Given an application requiring a single-stage common emitter BJT amplifier and a common source JFET amplifier with voltage-divider biasing use the device’s data sheet to establish the operating conditions calculate, simulate, and measure the input and output parameters
Analyze the data sheets of a BJT and determine items such as the schematic symbol, pin designation, maximum ratings, on and off electrical characteristics
Develop a voltage-divider bias circuit for a BJT transistor and show the calculations needed to determine a load line and establish the DC operating point
Simulate a BJT voltage-divider bias circuit; record the DC parameters of the simulation.
Briefly describe the characteristics of a Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and its operation and explain the difference between a p-channel and an n-channel JFET
Build a BJT amplifier simulate and measure the DC and AC operating values and compare the results
In a short report not to exceed one page, summarize the component functions and operation of a BJT amplifier. Include both dc and ac concepts
Part B-Transistor Circuits Troubleshooting
The BJT bias circuit below (Multisim file ECT246_Week_2_BJT_trouble) is not working correctly. You must troubleshoot the circuit using the DMM and determine the cause of the problem. The circuit can be found in Doc Sharing, week 2.
Given an application requiring an AC to DC regulated power supply discuss the block diagram of the supply, and how its internal subsystems are related, using the appropriate data sheets, determine the device’s operating parameters, calculate, simulate and measure the power supply’s electrical parameters.
A. Draw and discuss the subsystems of an ac to dc regulated power supply.
B. Use a bridge rectifier’s data sheet to determine its operating parameters.
C. Given a full-wave bridge rectifier schematic, calculate the RMS and peak-to-peak output voltage of the transformer’s secondary. Draw and label the time domain output waveform of the transformer’s secondary side. Use the schematic to simulate the circuit. Record the transformer’s primary, secondary voltages and the dc load voltage. Record the input and output waveforms of the bridge. Compare the simulated results to the calculated values.
D. Explain ripple voltage and how a passive capacitor circuit is used to reduce the effect. Given a full-wave bridge rectifier schematic, calculate the ripple voltage. Simulate the circuit and record the unfiltered and filtered response of the bridge. Compare the results to the calculated values.
E. Discuss the operation of a voltage regulator IC. Identify the operating parameters from the data sheet.
F. Simulate a full-wave bridge regulated power supply. Measure, and record the output voltages of the transformer, bridge rectifiers and regulator.
G. Explain the operation of a full-wave bridge rectifier
H. Use the Internet to find a different bridge rectifier package not discussed in class. Paste a picture of the package below. Specify the following about the rectifier.
I. The following circuit has the outputs indicated. How would you reduce the ripple voltage to approximately 500 mV? Show the calculations and explain your answer.
Chapter 22: Practice Problems 32 through 42, 44 and 46 (even #’s)
32. The circuit shown if figure 22.65 has a measured fc of 100kHz. What is the value of funity for the op-amp?
34. Determine the value of Vref for the comparator shown in figure 22.67.
36. Determine the value of Vref for the comparator shown in figure 22.69
38. Determine the output for the summing amplifier shown in figure 22.70a
40. The feedback resistor in figure 22.71 is changed to 24kΩ. Determine its new output voltage
42. A four-input summing amplifier has values of R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = 20kΩ. What value of feedback resistor is required to produce an averaging amplifier
44. Refer back to figure 22.44 (pg 771). Assume that the values of R3 and R4 in the figure have been changed to 75kΩ. Also assume that the circuit has inputs of V1 – 1V and V2 =3V. Determine the value of the circuit output
46. Using table 2.1, calculate the resistance of a 1500 ft. length of 18 gauge wire. [Chapter 2].
Given an operational amplifier (op-amp) circuit schematic, calculate, simulate and measure the input and output voltages, impedance, and signal gain for a inverting, non-inverting, and voltage follower op-amp configurations.
Define the basic concepts of an op-amp including its symbol, input modes such as differential inputs, common mode rejection ratio, input and output impedance, slew rate and negative feedbac
Examine a common op-amp’s data sheet such as a LM741C to determine the device’s, electrical characteristics, and standard applications.
Using inverting, non-inverting, and voltage follower closed-loop configurations and its equations to calculate gain, input and output impedance.
Simulate the operations of a closed-loop op-amp circuit with a variable feedback resistance; record its voltages and gains for various feedback values.
Build a closed-loop op-amp circuit with a variable feedback resistance, calculate and measure its voltages and gains for various feedback values, compare and contrast the calculated results to the simulated and measured ones.
(TCO 1) What is the frequency of the ripple voltage for a full-wave rectifier with an input of 20 Vrms, 60 Hz?
(TCO 1) As the AC voltage at the transformer primary decreases, the peak voltage out of the diode bridge will:
(TCO 1) If a diode on the diode bridge opens, what is the result?
(TCO 2) Coupling capacitors are used in ______.
(TCO 2) If the BJT is saturated, ______.
(TCO 2) For the waveforms given below, Ch A is on top and Ch B is on bottom. Calculate the gain and phase difference
(TCO 1) Find the following for an input of 120 VAC(RMS), 60 hertz, given a 10:1 stepdown transformer. The secondary is less voltage than the primary. Rload is 100 ohms. Round off to the nearest whole number. 1a: Primary or input peak voltage = 1b: Secondary peak voltage = 1c: Secondary peak current =
(TCO 1) For the block diagram below, find the following if Vsecondary = 18Vrms, 60 Hz, Rload = 150 ohms. Round off to the tenths place. The transformer ratio is 6.67:1.
(TCO 2) Given the resistance of the servo motor is 500 ohms, and beta is 200, find the following: Maximum and minimum collector currents, Vout and Ib when Vin is 5 volts.
(TCO 2) For the circuit below with Vcc = 10V and Beta = 200, find Ic and Vce
Chapter 19: Practice Problems 18, 20, 38, and 40Chapter 20: Practice Problems 2, 6, and 8Chapter 21: Practice Problems 24 and 26Chapter 20: Practice Problem 30
18. For each circuit shown in Figure 19.47, identify the type of transistor, and indicate the direction of the terminal currents
20. The circuit shown in Figure 19.48 has values of Vcc= 24V and Rc=9.1k ohms. Plot the dc load line for the circuit
38. Determine the values of Icq, Vceq and Ib for the circuit shown in Figure 19.50b
40. Determine the values of Icq, Vceq and Ib for the circuit shown in Figure 19.50d
Chapter 20
2. Complete the following table: Av = Vout/Vin
6. Calculate the value of Vl for the circuit shown in Figure 20.35a
8. Calculate the effective voltage gain of the amplifier shown in Figure 20.35a
24. Determine the ranges of Id and Vds for the circuit shown in Figure 21.58
26. Determine the ranges of Id and Vds for the circuit shown in Figure 21.60
30. Determine the values of Icq and Vceq for the circuit shown in Figure 20.42
Chapter 17: Practice Problems 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, 26, and 40Chapter 18: Practice Problems 2, 14, and 22Chapter 18: Practice Problem 26 (show all work)
6. Determine the ideal voltage drop across each of the diodes shown in Figure 17.44
10. Determine the values of Vd1, Vr1, Vr2 and It for circuit shown in Figure 17.44c
12. Determine the values of Vd1, Vd2, Vr1, and It for circuit shown in Figure 17.45b
13. Determine the values of Vd1, Vd2, Vr1, Vr2 and It for the circuit shown in Figure 17.45c.
14. What is the minimum required peak reverse voltage rating for the diode shown in Figure 17.46a?
16. What is the minimum acceptable average forward current rating for the diode shown in Figure 17.47?
26. Refer to the spec sheet shown in Figure 17.48. What is the surge current rating for the IN5400?
40. An LED is rated at Vf=1.5V to 1.8V at If = 18mA. What value of series resistance is needed to limit LED current to 18mA when it is connected to a 20Vpk source?
2. Determine the peak load voltage for the circuit shown in Figure 18.50
14. Determine the values of Vl(pk), Vave and Iave for the circuit shown in Figure 18.53.
22. A bridge rectifier with a 1.2k ohms load is driven by a 48Vac transformer. Draw the schematic diagram for the circuit, and calculate the dc load voltage and current values. Also, determine the PIV for each diode in the circuit.
26. The circuit shown in Figure 18.57 has the following values: Vs=24Vac rated, C=1200uF, and Rl=200 ohms. Determine Vr, Vdc, and Il for the circuit.
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Part A-Comparators and Summing Amps
In week five, you will create several circuits using the operation amplifiers you studied earlier. An op-amp can be configured to perform special applications found in everyday electronic equipment. These include comparators, level detectors, summing amplifiers and digital to analog converters.
Describe the operation of a level detector.
Determine the output of a level detector for a given reference voltage. Simulate a level detector and verify that the simulated voltages agree with the calculated values
Prototype a level detector and compare the measured results with the calculated and simulated values. See pictures at the end of the iLab
Explain the operation of a summing amplifier and how the output voltage is calculated based on the input values
Calculate the output voltage of a three input summing amplifier
Simulate a summing amplifier with three inputs, measure the results and compare them to the calculated values
Prototype the three input summing amplifier and compare the measured results with the calculated and simulated values
Part B-More Op Amps
Given the following circuit, calculate the reference voltage. Based on the input, describe the operation of the LED
The following circuit is malfunctioning. Calculate the expected value and use the results to explain the cause of the problem