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How Online Mapmakers Are Helping the Red Cross Save Lives in the Philippines

How Online Mapmakers Are Helping the Red Cross Save Lives in the Philippines | earthquakes | Scoop.it

Volunteers across the world are building the digital infrastructure for the organization's Typhoon Haiyan relief efforts


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Earthquakes and oceans shaped Nevada's peaks, valleys - Las Vegas Review-Journal

Earthquakes and oceans shaped Nevada's peaks, valleys - Las Vegas Review-Journal | earthquakes | Scoop.it
Earthquakes and oceans shaped Nevada's peaks, valleys Las Vegas Review-Journal Geologists know it as the Basin and Range, a series of narrow mountain blocks separated by flat valleys formed as the Earth's crust was stretched and broken by...

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Devastating long-distance impact of earthquakes

Devastating long-distance impact of earthquakes | earthquakes | Scoop.it
In 2006 the island of Java, Indonesia was struck by a devastating earthquake followed by the onset of a mud eruption to the east, flooding villages over several square kilometers and that continues to erupt today.

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Scientists discover 'lubricant' for Earth's tectonic plates: Hidden magma layer could play role in earthquakes

Scientists discover 'lubricant' for Earth's tectonic plates: Hidden magma layer could play role in earthquakes | earthquakes | Scoop.it
Scientists have found a layer of liquefied molten rock in Earth's mantle that may be acting as a lubricant for the sliding motions of the planet's massive tectonic plates.
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Earthquakes Turn Water Into Gold

Earthquakes Turn Water Into Gold | earthquakes | Scoop.it
When the Earth shakes, water vaporizes, salting underground fractures with gold.

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Earthquakes make gold veins -- pressure changes in Earth crust cause precious metals to deposit

Earthquakes make gold veins -- pressure changes in Earth crust cause precious metals to deposit | earthquakes | Scoop.it

Scientists have long known that veins of gold are formed by mineral deposition from hot fluids flowing through cracks deep in Earth’s crust. But a study published today in Nature Geoscience has found that the process can occur almost instantaneously — possibly within a few tenths of a second.

 

The process takes place along 'fault jogs' — sideways zigzag cracks that connect the main fault lines in rock, says first author Dion Weatherley, a seismologist at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.

When an earthquake hits, the sides of the main fault lines slip along the direction of the fault, rubbing against each other. But the fault jogs simply open up. Weatherley and his co-author, geochemist Richard Henley at the Australian National University in Canberra, wondered what happens to fluids circulating through these fault jogs at the time of the earthquake.

 

What their calculations revealed was stunning: a rapid depressurization that sees the normal high-pressure conditions deep within Earth drop to pressures close to those we experience at the surface. For example, a magnitude-4 earthquake at a depth of 11 kilometres would cause the pressure in a suddenly opening fault jog to drop from 290 megapascals (MPa) to 0.2 MPa. (By comparison, air pressure at sea level is 0.1 MPa.) “So you’re looking at a 1,000-fold reduction in pressure,” Weatherley says.

 

Big earthquakes will produce bigger pressure drops, but for gold-vein formation, that seems to be overkill. More interesting, Weatherley and Henley found, is that even small earthquakes produce surprisingly big pressure drops along fault jogs. “We went all the way to magnitude –2,” Weatherley says — an earthquake so small, he adds, that it involves a slip of only about 130 micrometres along a mere 90 centimetres of the fault zone. “You still get a pressure drop of 50%,” he notes.

 

That, Weatherley adds, might be one of the reasons that the rocks in gold-bearing quartz deposits are often marbled with a spider web of tiny gold veins. “You [can] have thousands to hundreds of thousands of small earthquakes per year in a single fault system,” he says. “Over the course of hundreds of thousands of years, you have the potential to precipitate very large quantities of gold. Small bits add up.”

 

Weatherley says that prospectors might be able to use remote sensing techniques to find new gold deposits in deeply buried rocks in which fault jogs are common. “Fault systems with lots of jogs can be places where gold can be distributed,” he explains.

 

But Taka’aki Taira, a seismologist at the University of California, Berkeley, thinks that the finding might have even more scientific value. That’s because, in addition to showing how quartz deposits might form in fault jogs, the study reveals how fluid pressure in the jogs rebounds to its original level — something that could affect how much the ground moves after the initial earthquake.


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Louisiana 25-acre sinkhole brings mini-earthquakes, explosion fears -

Syria explosion fears ” Patrick Courreges Scientists are now saying they will need to monitor for decades an enormous — and growing — Louisiana sinkhole that has forced hundreds to evacuate and has been registering increased seismic activity,...


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Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes › Ask an Expert | ABC Science

Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes › Ask an Expert | ABC Science | earthquakes | Scoop.it

Causes of quakes

Is it possible for anything living to cause an earthquake?
— Megan


Yes, people can cause an earthquake through human activity. The most common way is by building a dam. It's very common to get small earthquakes after filling a dam, firstly because of the extra load due to the weight of the water; and then secondly because water seeping down into faults can cause them to move if they're at breaking point. Liquid acts as a lubricant enabling faults to slide more easily.

 

Another way humans can cause earthquakes is with mining - taking material out of the ground also causes little stresses which can results in earthquakes.

 

Pumping oil out can cause earthquakes by changing the stresses underground or because water pumped down to flush the oil out can have a lubricating effect.

 

Another human-related cause of earthquakes is when water is pumped through hot rocks several kilometres underground in order to harness geothermal energy. This can cause little tremors, up to magnitude 3 on the Richter Scale. Scientists use these small earthquakes to trace what is happening underground - they can follow exactly where the water is by following the little earthquakes.

 

— Clive Colins, seismologist, Geoscience Australia


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Can Animals Sense Earthquakes? | History of Geology, Scientific American Blog Network

Can Animals Sense Earthquakes? | History of Geology, Scientific American Blog Network | earthquakes | Scoop.it

“Highly unlikely, but not outside the realm of extreme possibilities.”
Mulder, F.W. in the “The Jersey Devil” (1993)


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Karley Krzciuk's curator insight, April 6, 2014 9:54 PM

I found this article interesting because some places in the world do not have the technology to detect earth quakes and do not have time to take precautionary measures so since they found out that animals do detect earthquakes, they can use their knowledge to help save peoples lives. It is important to realize that if you know your animals behavior and they start to act suspicious, you should not just play it off like no big deal because it could be the difference between life and death. If they can sense an earth quake coming, maybe in the future they can detect other natural disasters or problems within the Earth. 

Joshua Edwin Behning's comment, April 7, 2014 3:32 PM
I personal would say that when it comes to animals and detecting earthquakes sounds fair off, but i did hear that animals like horses can tell when a tornado is coming their way and I can believe that because animals have better senses than us.
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No link between solar activity and earthquakes

No link between solar activity and earthquakes | earthquakes | Scoop.it
Geophysicists have disproved a long-held belief that changes in solar activity can be linked to increased earthquake activity.

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U.S. seismologist calls for national warning system for earthquakes

U.S. seismologist calls for national warning system for earthquakes | earthquakes | Scoop.it
Berkeley, Calif. (UPI) Oct 3, 2013 -
An eminent U.S. seismologist is urging the installation of a national early warning system to alert people to an impending earthquake.

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Study raises new concern about earthquakes and fracking fluids | Reuters.com

Study raises new concern about earthquakes and fracking fluids | Reuters.com | earthquakes | Scoop.it

Powerful earthquakes thousands of miles (km) away can trigger swarms of minor quakes near wastewater-injection wells like those used in oil and gas recovery, scientists reported on Thursday, sometimes followed months later by quakes big enough to destroy buildings.

 

The discovery, published in the journal Science by one of the world's leading seismology labs, threatens to make hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," which involves injecting fluid deep underground, even more controversial.

 

It comes as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducts a study of the effects of fracking, particularly the disposal of wastewater, which could form the basis of new regulations on oil and gas drilling.

 

Geologists have known for 50 years that injecting fluid underground can increase pressure on seismic faults and make them more likely to slip. The result is an "induced" quake.

 

A recent surge in U.S. oil and gas production - much of it using vast amounts of water to crack open rocks and release natural gas, as in fracking, or to bring up oil and gas from standard wells - has been linked to an increase in small to moderate induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Ohio, Texas and Colorado.

 

Now seismologists at Columbia University say they have identified three quakes - in Oklahoma, Colorado and Texas - that were triggered at injection-well sites by major earthquakes a long distance away.

 

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Natural Phenomena - earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, and more - Pearltrees

Natural Phenomena - earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, and more - Pearltrees | earthquakes | Scoop.it

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Geothermal Power Plants Are Causing Earthquakes Near San Andreas Fault | Heartlander Magazine

Geothermal Power Plants Are Causing Earthquakes Near San Andreas Fault | Heartlander Magazine | earthquakes | Scoop.it
Can #Geothermal energy plants trigger earthquakes? http://t.co/xWbToD33Yj
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Carbon capture and storage may trigger earthquakes

Carbon capture and storage may trigger earthquakes | earthquakes | Scoop.it
A common strategy to combating global warming is getting a second look.

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