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Why Gentrification Is So Hard to Stop

Why Gentrification Is  So Hard to Stop | Displacement | Scoop.it
Gentrification isn't new -- it's actually baked into the economic forces that have been driving urban development since the 1950s.
Displacement Project's insight:

This is a fascinating article to learn about the engrained history of gentrification. This article defines what consumers, Americans, now want in a city as a result of "neo-liberalism" that has been engrained since the 50s. I love that gentrification has roots, because I believe in the history being the solution, but this history so clearly leads into the present, and does make it "so hard to stop"

-Ella

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Gentrification spelled out: Fish in the ’Hood renamed Fish in the Neighborhood

Gentrification spelled out: Fish in the ’Hood renamed Fish in the Neighborhood | Displacement | Scoop.it
Even as upscale, high-rise condos went up around it and a string of hipster bars opened nearby, the beloved storefront restaurant Fish in the ’Hood remained an iconic institution on its gritty but ev...
Displacement Project's insight:

This article talks about gentrification in Washington D.C. through the context of a restaurant called "Fish in the Hood". The owner recently changed the day to "Fish in the Neighborhood" partly in response to the way the community is changing. By downplaying the consequent implication of "the area" as "ghetto, or less safe" (quotes from the article), he hopes to make the restaurant more accessible to the white and new groups of color that have moved in. Since his rent is increasing and businesses around the city are being bought up by corporations and replaced with condos and Starbucks, he hopes that he can increase business in the next few years. 

 

While reading this article I felt really sad and my mind automatically went to the topic of displacement. Where do people go when they are pushed out of their neighborhoods? Does gentrification signal a whitewashing of American culture? What does the trend of gentrification say about the world white people of the 21st century want to see? 

 

Idk I feel freaked out. 

 

- Mabel 

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A Good School Makes the Neighborhood - NYTimes.com

A Good School Makes the Neighborhood - NYTimes.com | Displacement | Scoop.it
Quality public education is the critical driver for repopulating a neighborhood. Parents want to know that their children's futures matter. By Christopher Shea.
Displacement Project's insight:

This article is another one in conversation with the one i just posted. I like it because the author offers ways to creatively repurpose the "displacement" of a lot of people in order to build up the neighborhood:

"Look at these as opportunities. We can rebuild these communities without displacement by giving new generations of working families good reasons to stake their futures here, while encouraging long-time residents to remain. There is room for both."


He argues that the center of these rebuilding community projects must be schools. I completely agree that quality education can solve a lot of problems, and I like that he's hasn't lost hope for these areas.


--Katie Wilson

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Gentrification transforming face of Oakland

Gentrification transforming face of Oakland | Displacement | Scoop.it
Oakland lost almost half of its African American population from 1990 to 2011, and fewer African Americans own homes, says the report from Causa Justa, an Oakland housing advocacy group, and the Alameda County Public Health Department. [...] Oakland had some of the country's highest rents and rent increases in 2013, real estate data show. Scope of the reportThe 112-page report examined census figures on home sales and rents, as well as residents' income, race and education level over a 20-year period in San Francisco and Oakland. [...] last year he was forced out of there, as well, when his rent for a two-bedroom apartment jumped from $1,100 to $1,800, despite the neighborhood's high crime rate. Rising home prices and community investment have played a role in lowering crime, improving schools and bringing more amenities like grocery stores and banks, said Councilman Larry Reid, who represents East Oakland. Kate Phillips, a real estate agent who specializes in Maxwell Park, an East Oakland neighborhood near Mills College, said open houses these days are packed with 100 people or more, and most homes receive multiple offers. Keeping people in placeThe Causa Justa report emphasized that government and the public need to do more to keep low-income people in their homes so they can enjoy the benefits of gentrification without being displaced. Stricter rent control and antiforeclosure laws, more affordable housing and greater public input in planning decisions would help, the report said.
Displacement Project's insight:

really interesting article full of good statistics. "Oakland lost almost half of its African American population from 1990 to 2011"--which is insane!! 

 

-Katie Wilson

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What the Media Gets Wrong About San Francisco’s Gentrification Battles

What the Media Gets Wrong About San Francisco’s Gentrification Battles | Displacement | Scoop.it
San Francisco is in the midst of a war, but it’s not about culture.
Displacement Project's insight:

This article bring a piece of gentrification that we haven't really talked about yet—the media. It argues that the media focuses on the cruel google buses that are starting San Francisco's "culture war," but it refuses to look at the economic benefits of gentrification. This shows the classic cultural vs. economic issue that is coming up again and again in this issue. This article didn't really give any evidence, and mainly focused on the cultural part that their argument about the tech boost wasn't that believable, but I'm glad it mentioned the role of the media. 

 

-Alana

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Class War In SF? Apple Bus Blockaded In Protest Against Tech Owners, Property Speculators &Evictions - YouTube

Thousands of San Francisco residents are being evicted as a result of a massive increase in housing costs caused in part by the bussing in of thousands of te...
Displacement Project's insight:

This is a really cool video that I recommend everyone watches because it shows the first-hand experience of anti-gentrification protesters. One woman makes a really interesting argument that filled a big whole in my mind. She connected the cultural aspect of gentrification to the economic, which was something I've had a hard time connecting. She gives a powerful speech about putting pressure on politicians to stop bulldozing on the people of the city. 

 

-Alana

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Gentrification and Displacement: Not the Relationship You Might Have Thought

Gentrification and Displacement: Not the Relationship You Might Have Thought | Displacement | Scoop.it
The prevailing wisdom is that as a neighborhood gentrifies, long-time, low income residents are forced to move out because of rising rents, i.e. displacement. Two studies from Columbia University and the Federal Reserve draw different conclusions. NPR News investigative correspondent Laura Sullivan "has cast a light on some of the country's most disadvantaged people." In this piece, which you can
Displacement Project's insight:

A short, interesting article that gives an unbiased update to the gentrification dilemma. It actually encapsulates the two sides pretty well and in a pretty concise manner. It backs up its argument with real data, which was refreshing. The gentrification debate is very personal, emotional, and anecdotal. This article shows both sides with facts and testimonials. Worth the read for the links that show some data. 

 

-Alana

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Meet the monarch of the Mission who's fighting gentrification

Meet the monarch of the Mission who's fighting gentrification | Displacement | Scoop.it

 not The guero's impatience became increasingly apparent with each blare of the horn. But it didn't faze Roberto Hernandez.
"Doesn't he know lowriders are supposed to go slow?" Hernandez said as he inched his white 1964 convertible Chevrolet Impala down Valencia Street. He waved the blond in the sport utility vehicle to go around, and the driver sped past Hernandez's lowrider with a furious rev of the engine.
Leaning back in the driver's seat and cruising with the top down on a sunny afternoon, Hernandez looks every bit the monarch of the Mission District. He's wearing his white fedora, his matching button-down shirt and his orgullo - pride.
The Mission native has spent most of his 57 years "fighting, fighting, fighting.

Displacement Project's insight:

This article brings a really cool perspective to the issue. When he talked about being anti-gun, ant-violence and promoting a better neighboorhood, all I could think of would be a gentrified one. Interesting that that's the first I think of when I think of a "better" neighborhood. I think the language we use when talking about gentrification and displacement is really interesting and obviously subject to interpretation. Often, in neighborhoods like the Mission violence and "roughness" come a long with old culture and affordable housing. I'm curious what a solution would be to keep the culture, affordable housing, but not jump straight to the gentrified notion of a "good" neighborhood. 

 

-Alana

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Watch San Francisco's Rapid Gentrification Unfold on Google Street View

These days, it's rare to find a piece of San Francisco news that doesn't at least make a passing reference to the city's rapid-fire gentrification. And while numbers like the 115 percent increase in evictions over the past year are certainly astounding, nothing drives the point home quite like seeing the city evolve right before your very eyes.
Displacement Project's insight:

This is so cool! 

- Mabel 

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Displacement Project's comment, June 12, 2014 11:58 PM
I love this. I think this map is fascinating because it shows the city looking cleaner and newer as a result of new condos etc. I think this is a similar phenomenon as when people think that gentrification makes crime rates go down. So the city looks like its improving because of the growing wealth, but it is really displacement taking place. -E;;a
Displacement Project's comment, June 12, 2014 11:58 PM
^^-Ella
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Racial Wealth Gap Widened During Recession

Racial Wealth Gap Widened During Recession | Displacement | Scoop.it
The wealth gap might still be growing, experts said, further dimming the prospects for economic advancement for current and future generations of nonwhite Americans.
Displacement Project's insight:

This is a little old and it doesn't directly relate to displacement/gentrification, but I think this is a super relevant topic. This article from the new york times has some good info about the widening wealth gap, something that it is important to have straight data about. 

 

I think the most interesting part of this article is who it relates to the recession. Everyone in the country lost money during the recession, but the amount that people suffered directly correlates to their race. Hispanic and black families have fared much worse than white people. 

 

Here is a really significant quote. The difference between between wealth and earnings is really well explained here too. 

 

"As of 2010, white families, on average, earned about $2 for every $1 that black and Hispanic families earned, a ratio that has remained roughly constant for the last 30 years. But when it comes to wealth — as measured by assets, like cash savings, homes and retirement accounts, minus debts, like mortgages and credit card balances — white families have far outpaced black and Hispanic ones."


- Mabel 

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Displacement Project's comment, June 10, 2014 5:38 PM
Woah this is really crazy and really awful. Personally, I've had kindof a hard time deciding when to say gentrification is more of a race issue and when it's more of a class issue. I definitely think it's a mixture of both, but it's really important to use politically correct language when talking about this issue.
Displacement Project's comment, June 10, 2014 5:39 PM
-Alana
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These Photos Capture New York Artists Taking a Bold Stand Against Gentrification

These Photos Capture New York Artists Taking a Bold Stand Against Gentrification | Displacement | Scoop.it
Protest art at its best.
Displacement Project's insight:

There is a lot of controversy over whether or not artists are to blame for gentrification of parts of NYC and San Francisco, because a lot of artists have been known to move into neighborhoods with lower economic backgrounds. However, New York artists in response to the destruction of an old building show the gentrification taking place in their neighborhood. 

These artists turn gentrification into a political and systemic issue because they use official looking yellow caution type tape to wrap the building in protest. 

-Ella

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Education's comment, June 10, 2014 2:00 AM
I think it's really fascinating that one of the biggest arguments I heart against gentrification is, even more than the economic and social problems it causes for the former inhabitants of a newly-gentrified neighborhood, the loss of the original culture in favor of a more bourgeoisie, whiter culture, because for a large part, it is artists who are doing the gentrifying ... and I feel like artists tend to be some of the most culturally-competent types of people. They are usually really well-equipped to be generous and hospitable to other cultures not their own because it can lend itself to their artwork. So it's great to see these artists giving back, in a way, to the communities that their kind of have gentrified.
Displacement Project's comment, June 10, 2014 5:55 PM
Yeah I agree. I have my own problem with the cultural argument because I generally do think that culture is subject to change, but what interests me is that these artists are making a statement about the political and economic issues at play in gentrification. The displacement that is usually a result of gentrification is the biggest problem, and that often occurs more because of economic issues rather than cultural.
-Alana
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Thinksquad • http://elitedaily.com/news/world/controversial-anti...

Thinksquad • http://elitedaily.com/news/world/controversial-anti... | Displacement | Scoop.it
http://elitedaily.com/news/world/controversial-anti-homeless-spikes-prevent-homeless-sleeping-doorways/624292/



http://www.travelandpositiveliving.com/2014/04/whats-purpose-of-concrete-spikes-under.html



http://www.ministryoftofu.com/2012/07/photos-guangzhou-sets-concrete-spikes-under-bridges-to-drive-away-homeless-people/



http://stsnext20.org/vignettes/2014/03/26/when-parisian-benches-have-politics-street-furniture-and-the-strategies-of-spatial-exclusion/



http://rue89.nouvelobs.com/photo-rue/2009/11/26/empecher-les-sdf-de-sasseoir-la-ville-ne-manque-pas-didees



http://www.morbleu.com/le-tiers-exclu-iv-des-dispositifs-architecturaux-anti-sdf/1547124430_1854ccee23_o/



http://fictioninternational.sdsu.edu/wordpress/catalog/issue-43-walls/do-not-remain/



Art installation of a SPIKE BENCH CALLED, Pay & Sit - the Private Bench | Installation, 2008
http://www.fabianbrunsing.de/
http://www.bogoboo.com/bizarre-park-bench-spikes/
http://www.geekosystem.com/spike-bench/
http://velegno.net/fabian-brunsing/
Displacement Project's insight:

I stumbled upon this post on tumblr. It's a compilation of some pictures of "homeless spikes" in cities, in order to keep homeless people from sleeping in those places. I understand if someone is a business owner, they would not want homeless people sleeping on their stoop, but this is just ridiculously degrading. It's pretty much the same thing as pigeon spikes. The bench picture is crazy too. It's shocking that someone would want to keep homeless people off a bench SO badly that they are willing to install a coin slot and spikes. 

 

-Joe

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Maps / Mapas

Maps / Mapas | Displacement | Scoop.it
Eviction, San Francisco, Bay Area, Ellis Act, Displacement
Displacement Project's insight:

This is the link that was sent to us by Noah. It shows an interesting map displaying the locations of the different types of evictions in San Francisco. It is part of the Anti Displacement Project.

 

-Seth

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Education's comment, June 10, 2014 2:07 AM
Oh my God! This was the thing that was outside of my house because, yes, when we moved into our house we evicted one of the FIVE (only one of the 5) families who lived in the apartments adjoining our building. I'm conflicted because on the one hand I so appreciate their cause and the anti-displacement project but on the other hand I think taking action in this way could definitely be taken as disrespectful. Their website, great. Spray-painting the front of people's houses with defamations? Eh.
Education's comment, June 10, 2014 11:05 AM
(that was from Celeste)
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Restoration Of Presidio’s Oldest Building Includes Event Centers, ‘Destination’ Restaurant - CBS San Francisco

Restoration Of Presidio’s Oldest Building Includes Event Centers, ‘Destination’ Restaurant - CBS San Francisco | Displacement | Scoop.it
Restoration is underway at the oldest building in San Francisco’s historic Presidio. The major transformation at the Presidio Officers’ Club includes plans to turn it into a cultural and events center for the masses.
Displacement Project's insight:

Hannah in SF Studies did a project on building restoration of San Francisco's oldest and most loved buildings. Here is an article that is an example of just that – restoration of history that protects the hearts of sentimentalists all over the bay. This is a victory for the culture of San Francisco that has nothing to do with the displacement aspect of gentrification, but merely the cultural aspects that San Francisco government is clearly seeking to maintain. This is complicated because this building is in the Presidio, and not in a lowering income neighborhood, so it asks me to question what is important to San Francisco in terms of class. 

-Ella

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Race, Jobs, and Gentrification - Pacific Standard

Race, Jobs, and Gentrification - Pacific Standard | Displacement | Scoop.it
Race, Jobs, and Gentrification
Pacific Standard
That's why developers have begun building upscale townhomes here. It's central-city living, with an easy commute downtown.
Displacement Project's insight:

This article looks at gentrification from a more economic perspective, and the correlations between race and class.

 

"… “You displace people by price,” Coleman said, “because their incomes are historically lower, if you’re African-American.”"


I think it's an important point that isn't made (surprisingly) in a lot of these articles.


--Katie Wilson

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New Yorkers Need to Take Back Their City - NYTimes.com

New Yorkers Need to Take Back Their City - NYTimes.com | Displacement | Scoop.it
Redirect tax breaks to mom-and-pops, pass an ordinance to control chain store sprawl, and strengthen residential rent regulation. By Jeremiah Moss.
Displacement Project's insight:

Really interesting perspective that advocates that the gentrification we see today is "hypergentrification":

"Unlike gentrification, in which the agents of change were middle-class settlers moving into working-class and poor neighborhoods, in hyper-gentrification the change comes from city government in collaboration with large corporations. Widespread transformation is intentional, massive and swift, resulting in a completely sanitized city filled with brand-name mega-developments built for the luxury class. The poor, working and middle classes are pushed out, along with artists, and the city goes stale."


I usually think of gentrification in conjunction with artists, that artists can also take advantage of low-income neighborhoods in an exploitative way. But this article argues that gentrification has gone more institutional--more governmental, so it "sanitizes" and strips the areas of ALL types of diversity. 


--Katie Wilson

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Displacement Project's comment, June 13, 2014 12:00 AM
This is fascinating. I, like Katie, thought of gentrification more as individuals (Artists) taking advantage of culture of a given neighborhood. However, this article argues a more systemic, institutionalized gentrification, that I think completely aligns with what is happening with all the "isms" in this country. -ella
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Do the Right Thing (1989)

Do the Right Thing (1989) | Displacement | Scoop.it
Directed by Spike Lee. With Danny Aiello, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Richard Edson. On the hottest day of the year on a street in the Bedford-Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn, everyone's hate and bigotry smolders and builds until it explodes into violence.
Displacement Project's insight:

we watched this movie in Modern American Lit today. it has a really interesting perspective on gentrification and integrates the topic into a story about race relations really well. It was especially interesting because we heard that Spike Lee rant about gentrification and this is a Spike Lee movie!

 

--Katie

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Amy Argenal's comment, June 12, 2014 12:56 PM
What a great movie!
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How private buses became a symbol of San Francisco's divide - YouTube

Every weekday morning, dozens of sleek buses roll through the heart of San Francisco, picking up a cargo of workers commuting south to companies like Google,...
Displacement Project's insight:

Sorry I keep posting all these videos, but I'm on a youtube roll!!

 

Talks about class inclusion and displacement. It focuses on the high-tech boom in San Francisco and the effects of that. Someone went in to a bar with google glasses on and got attacked for "ruining the city." In the video, Scott Wiener, a member of the SF board of supervisors, representing District 8, argues that most cities would love for a new, large, booming industry to enter their city, but this video talks about the cultural divides rather than the economic. This video bridges the gap between the economic and the culture, saying that many people feel culturally oppressed because they are economically excluded. 

 

-Alana

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Dregs One presents "The Wake Up Report" Ep. 1: Gentrification - YouTube

Bay Area hip hop artist Dregs One explores the issue of gentrification within San Francisco communities through interviews, neighborhood profiles, and the fa...
Displacement Project's insight:

This video starts off by talking about the movement from San Francisco natives vs. people moving from outside of SF into SF. Cool because we've been talking about people moving to neighborhoods in SF to other, low-income neighborhoods in SF. It moves on to talk about the DotCom bubble, artists, hipsters, wealthy populations and the origins of gentrification. One interview talks about many resourses being sucked out of the communities, and nothing being given. It then asks people what they knew about the Mission district and San Francisco before the moved here, and most of them knew nothing. This video is really awesome because it gives a practical and thoughtful solution to gentrification. If people were more culturally aware of the neighborhoods they lived in, and wanted to give back to their communities rather than suck up what they have to offer, gentrification wouldn't be a problem.

 

-Alana

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Inside Fifteen Fifteen, the Mission's Newest Condo Development

Inside Fifteen Fifteen, the Mission's Newest Condo Development | Displacement | Scoop.it

OYou've seen the floor plans and renderings, now it's time for the real deal. As Fifteen Fifteen gears up for its big opening...

Displacement Project's insight:

Ok this isn't that intellectual, but just an interesting development in gentrification in the mission. The apartment is super nice and it's 5 stories. It's not characteristic of the Mission because it's pretty blank and lacks any character.

 

-Alana

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Watch San Francisco's Rapid Gentrification Unfold on Google Street View

These days, it's rare to find a piece of San Francisco news that doesn't at least make a passing reference to the city's rapid-fire gentrification. And while numbers like the 115 percent increase in evictions over the past year are certainly astounding, nothing drives the point home quite like seeing the city evolve right before your very eyes.
Displacement Project's insight:

I found this on Facebook, and it is especially significant to me because this the first set of photos is actually MY building that I live in. This is the neighborhood which everybody has been telling me is "on the rise" ever since I moved in. Really weird to see an article showing the construction of the building that I live in, and how the neighborhood has changed. 

 

-Joe

 

EDIT: sorry, I just noticed I'm the third person to post this. I really should check these things before posting.

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Watch San Francisco's Rapid Gentrification Unfold on Google Street View

TThThese days, it's rare to find a piece of San Francisco news that doesn't at least make a passing reference to the city's rapid-fire gentrification. And while numbers like the 115 percent increase in evictions over the past year are certainly astounding, nothing drives the point home quite like seeing the city evolve right before your very eyes.

Displacement Project's insight:

This is awesome. The title of the article is pretty self explanatory.

 

-Seth

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Manhattanization revisited

Manhattanization revisited | Displacement | Scoop.it
There were people sitting all over the terrace, on cushions and benches, basking like cats in the spring sunshine in the heart of the city. There were hard-hat workers on the terraces eating their lunch; there were young women from the offices, chatting away. There was a man taking a nap, his suit coat folded under his head, like a pillow. The California Street cable cars went by, red cars with blue trim, not packed with tourists like the Powell Street cables, dignified as elderly bankers. Down one end of California Street is the Southern Pacific Building, nearly 100 years old and once headquarters of the largest railroad in the West. On Market Street, just a block or so away, the stolid, old-line Matson and PG&E buildings. Careful planning has produced open spaces, like breathing rooms in the city. Manhattanization? "I would say it's a good thing," Rubin said. [...] he said, the younger people like tall buildings.
Displacement Project's insight:

This article borders on sentimentality, I mean that's what it is – nostalgia for the old San Francisco  "Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Jack Kerouac first saw, when they were young and the world was new - a city of white towers, rising on the hills. It looks Mediterranean.

The newer skyline? Manhattan by the Bay."

San Francisco still is San Francisco, but its skyline now mimics Manhattan. It is now a city in more modern times, to compete with young people that like the taller buildings, as the article says. 

Personally, this article makes me disappointed because I love the San Francisco Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Jack Kerouac loved, though I know that the real problems with this taking place is that San Francisco is changing for these "young people" with means, and not for the San Franciscans who have been here. 

-Ella

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Displacement Project's comment, June 12, 2014 2:06 PM
I feel really conflicted about this too, because I think what defines San Francisco now is not at all what did like, even 20 years ago. Now I think it has similar associations like those that are given to Portland--a hipster, white people, artisanal food city (which I am definitely a part of), but San Francisco's roots and beauty are NOT in that scene, so it's really disappointing that the Asian, Latino, LGBT, even Beatnik cultural associations are being washed away by the "younger generation"
Displacement Project's comment, June 12, 2014 2:06 PM
I feel really conflicted about this too, because I think what defines San Francisco now is not at all what did like, even 20 years ago. Now I think it has similar associations like those that are given to Portland--a hipster, white people, artisanal food city (which I am definitely a part of), but San Francisco's roots and beauty are NOT in that scene, so it's really disappointing that the Asian, Latino, LGBT, even Beatnik cultural associations are being washed away by the "younger generation"
Displacement Project's comment, June 12, 2014 2:06 PM
--Katie Wilson
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Gentrification’s Effect on Crime Rates « Urban Economics

Gentrification’s Effect on Crime Rates « Urban Economics | Displacement | Scoop.it
Displacement Project's insight:

This is a strong analysis of the economic effects of gentrification on a neighborhood or even a city as a whole. There is a common misconception that as a neighborhood is gentrified, crime rates go down. A good quote from the essay is: "Taylor (1989) defines gentrification as “the migration of younger, middle-, and perhaps upper-income households into centrally located urban neighborhoods and the accompanying upgrading of the worn-out housing stock that previously had “filtered down” to lower-income occupants.”" because it explains why people think crime rates would go down as a neighborhood is gentrified, and that is because wealthier people are moving into poorer neighborhoods. 

This is an analysis of numbers, and so it is a helpful resource to back up emotional and personal responses to gentrification. 

-Ella 

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Displacement Project's comment, June 10, 2014 5:52 PM
Wooohhoo finally come legit statistics and records! I think it's cool that they say "Rational expectations about gentrification’s effect on crime can be made in either direction." To me, this is a realllyyy interesting statistic. It suggests that while wealthier people generally attract less criminals, the tension in the area between the super wealthy and low-income families who have lived there forever might inspire some theft. Bringing money into an area that generally has less money inspires more crime. Interesting
-Alana
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Anti-Eviction Mapping Project

Anti-Eviction Mapping Project | Displacement | Scoop.it
The Anti-Eviction Mapping Project is a data visualization, data analysis, and story-telling collective. Through participatory action research, we make visable what gentrification invisibilizes.
Displacement Project's insight:

Really interesting and educational set of maps that focus on eviction, both geographically, over time, and well as how they relate to specific laws. For example, I learned about the Ellis Act, and it was interesting to see how it affected eviction over time, as well as which neighborhoods it most strongly affected. Also interesting to see how they show a correlation between the tech industry and evictions by showing geographically where the tech buses go. 

 

-Joe

 

EDIT: sorry, I just noticed that Seth already posted this. Still super cool though. 

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