Disability and Social Bias
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Perception and misperception of bias in human judgement

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This academic article may help us understand bias and social misperception by understanding different factors of the human mind. The article focuses on the various biases we hold as humans and our inability to recognize how they affect our decisions. 

Many concepts that are important to recognize are 

Self-enhancement bias- this is a persons inclination to see themselves in a positive way even if the evidence show otherwise  (Pronin 37)

Self-interest bias- persons inclinations towards benefiting themselves

Prejudice- stereotypic beliefs of a group or its affiliates (Pronin 38)

Bias blind spot- inability to recognize personal biases due to self-enhancement (Pronin 38)

This inability to recognize our own personal biases may intact be a large contributor in discrimination. Often times due to self-enhancement bias we are unable to recognize personal prejudice but when asked to recognize those actions in another we easily do so. We rarely perceive things exactly as they are, we see them through different lenses that are warped by our personal bias based off of experience (Lilienfeld 11). This inability to see our own bias clearly may be what causes discrimination, the lack of the ability to see our personal bias towards a subject demonstrating our bias blind spot. 

The academic article uses very strong information for it's basis. There were several studies done to demonstrate how this bias affects our decisions. The author is completely reasonable in concluding that our self-enhancement bias can cause a bias blind spot in many different aspects. The reasoning and methods behind the article are completely ethical.

This article does an excellent job of portraying unbiased information to allow a wide variety of groups to interpret the information. This  information may be able to help different groups recognize their personal bias to take steps towards excluding this bias in their decision making process. This could pertain to literally all groups of people due to the fact that all groups are prone towards bias.

 

References

Lilienfeld, S. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

Pronin, E. (n.d.). Perception And Misperception Of Bias In Human Judgment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(1), 37-43. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from Ebsco Host. 
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1 in 10 adults have used abusive language towards a disabled person | UK children's charity | National Children's Bureau

1 in 10 adults have used abusive language towards a disabled person | UK children's charity | National Children's Bureau | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
A survey released to mark Anti-Bullying Week 2014 suggests adults are using discriminatory language offensive to people with disabilities and SEN.
Mitchell Brandon's insight:

This article is another demonstration of the innate social bias toward disabled people. The article touches on the overall view of other towards those with disability. It also uses different anonymous surveys to demonstrate the views of others towards the disabled and the social acceptability to use derogatory terms used to describe the disabled. 

Terms that may be pertinent to know are:

Perpetuate-make something, including undesirable behavior, continue (Webster)

derogatory-showing a disrespectful attitude (Webster)

After being demonstrated the true meaning of many derogatory terms towards disabled people over 25% said that they would still continue to use the word. This is a perfect example of desensitization in a social aspect. Desensitization in psychology is referred to as a diminished emotional response due to repeated exposure (Kolb 140) . Many people, including youth are exposed to these words so frequently that they become desensitized to them and unaware of the potential harm they may cause others. 

Another cause for these types of harm can be attributed to social stigma. Social stigma of disability has been around for ages and seems to perpetuate through each generation. Speaking specifically of mental disability Lilienfeld says, "consider the fact that social stigma of mental illness substantially predates all psychiatric classification systems" (Lilienfeld 184). This demonstrates the reasoning behind the desensitization behind such words as "retard" and "spaz" as they are used in a derogatory sense. This continual desensitization leads to the discrimination of many different groups including both physically and mentally disabled. 

This article uses accurate information taken from studies done in the UK. The information is reasonable and precise at displaying the content. It also showed evidence of discrimination that was not skewed yet taken directly from surveys to avoid bias. I feel as though this article does an excellent job of using the given information to draw a conclusion. I feel it is ver reasonable to conclude the desensitization is a major cause in discrimination. 

This article does a good job at covering several different aspects and including great diversity. They include both physical and mental disabilities to demonstrate the current discrimination that seem prevalent. This article could have excellent effects on many different groups but mostly those whom commit errors out of ignorance rather than out of discrimination. 

 

References 

Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. (2011). An introduction to brain and behavior (Third ed.). New York: Worth.

 

Lilienfeld, S. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

McMahon, B. T., Chan, F., Cheing, G., Rosenthal, D. A., & Bezyak, J. (2005). Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: The utility of Attribution Theory. Work, 25(1), 77-88.

 

 (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online. In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved January 2, 2013, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/citation.

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Is there a coherent social conception of disability? -- Harris 26 (2): 95 -- Journal of Medical Ethics

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United States: HUD Settles Disability Discrimination And Retaliation Case For ... - Mondaq News Alerts (registration)

United States: HUD Settles Disability Discrimination And Retaliation Case For ... - Mondaq News Alerts (registration) | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
Earlier this month, HUD announced that it had settled a disability discrimination case against the owner and manager of a 500 unit affordable apartment community in Illinois.
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JUST ASK | Sensory Disability Awareness Film

A short film for the Basingstoke Disability Forum to raise awareness of sensory disabilities. For more information visit http://www.voluntaryservices.com/dis...
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The EEOC's Litigation Program: Bureaucracy without Reform | EEO ...

The EEOC's Litigation Program: Bureaucracy without Reform | EEO ... | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
While Congress and the Supreme Court mull over the adequacy of the EEOC's pre-litigation conciliation efforts, a more fundamental question remains: has the EEOC's litigation program accomplished any meaningful reform in ...
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Unconscious Bias @ Work | Google Ventures

Unconscious biases are created and reinforced by our environments and experiences. Our mind is constantly processing information, oftentimes without our cons...
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Prejudice & Discrimination: Crash Course Psychology #39

You can directly support Crash Course at http://www.subbable.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we're doing. Also, if you can afford to pay a little every...
Mitchell Brandon's insight:

In this video the presenter does an excellent job  of explaining and describing prejudice and discrimination as it relates to psychology. The author states that it does seem to be a "touchy" issue to talk about our prejudices and how they are quite natural to the human psyche.

A few terms that would be helpful to define to help have understanding of the shot video are Implicit thoughts, explicit thoughts, cognition, and prejudice. An implicit thought is a thought that may be implied but is not necessarily outwardly expressed, potentially the thoughts owner may not even be aware of such thoughts (Merriam Webster). Explicit thoughts are thoughts or ideas that are projected outward and the owner of said thoughts are completely aware of them (Merriam Webster). Cognition is defined as the mental action of gaining knowledge through thought and experience (Merriam Webster). Prejudice is a preconceived opinion that may not necessarily be based in fact (Merriam Webster).

This article helps us to understand the bias and how it works in our society. Confirmation bias is lightly touched on in the experiment that demonstrated the two groups being separated with the only difference being their sneakers. Each group used their prior beliefs to draw the conclusion that their group was better than the others. This is a good demonstration of how bias and discrimination arises in our society. Overall, the video is highly effective in demonstrating the pertinent information. The video gives an excellent basis to understand discrimination on a personal level and how it relates to a social level. The general public demonstrates a hierarchy of preferences for a specific group of people this includes disability (McMahon 78). Though it is difficult to admit everyone has social biases regardless of their own personal standing. Often times even those whom are discriminated against maintain many of the same biases. The article uses the example of females whom demonstrate discrimination in the field of science towards other females. One possible explanation for this is the fact the we all think fairly similarly even between men and women. Men and women are far more alike than they are different in their thinking styles (Lilienfeld 146), This could attribute to the reason why social bias towards minority groups including disabilities are considerably universal. Overall this post seems to be based in strong evidence and information to portray it's point. Although this is potentially a controversial topic the information is portray in a non-biased format to allow the viewer maintain their own knowledge. 

This information could affect different groups greatly, although the video does not condone discrimination specific groups might be able to use this information to justify their beliefs. As I stated before this article does not condone discrimination it is not explicit in condemning it. Therefore it could have different effects on both minority groups and those responsible for the persecution. 

 

References


Lilienfeld, S. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.


McMahon, B. T., Chan, F., Cheing, G., Rosenthal, D. A., & Bezyak, J. (2005). Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: The utility of Attribution Theory. Work, 25(1), 77-88. 

 

 (n.d.). Merriam-Webster Online. In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 15, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/citation.

 

Pronin, E. (n.d.). Perception And Misperception Of Bias In Human Judgment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(1), 37-43. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from Ebsco Host. 

 

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'I was bullied because I'm disabled'

'I was bullied because I'm disabled' | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
New research has found that children with disabilities are significantly more likely to be victims. Here, young disabled people tell their stories and share tips for tackling the problem.
Mitchell Brandon's insight:

This article describes and demonstrates the likelihood of a child being discriminated against due to disability. The article shows three children that were specifically targeted and bullied principally based on that fact and the little action taken by others to do something about it. The article states that research done by the ABA (anti-bullying alliance) show that 8 out of 10 children with disabilities have been targeted in bullying.

To understand why this happens we need to understand a few key concepts directly correlated to bullying. Social conditioning may be one of the may causes that lead to discrimination. Through society individuals learn their social norms and customs (McMahon 87). With our society and the lack of emphasis placed on equality of disabled people, often times the we are conditioned towards a feelings of superiority.

Social Contagion may be another reason why so many instances of discrimination in the form of bullying often times goes unreported. The idea behind social contagion is that the influence of others causes an almost "pack like mentality" in humans (McMahon 88). This can explain why people in large crowds may act very differently than normal. The same concept demonstrates why others may join in on bullying and/or fail to report such events. The importance lies in understanding the underlying motives of the discrimination such as ego-defensive motives, informational motives, or normative motives (McMahon 86). 

The article is taken from popular media and therefore there is always a strong chance of information bias. However, this article does portray the information and give the links to the information used to support their claims that children with disability typically face more discrimination. The reasoning by the author seems to be very fit and sound due to her using specific data to present fact and less personal opinion. Personal experiences were also used to give the article a sense of feeling but the strongest portion is the use of statistics to demonstrate the discrimination of disabled people. 

Though this article focuses on discrimination towards disabled students it could have great affect due to diversity. Perhaps the most notable groups that would have a different view on this topic relates to generations and age. The common concept of "kids will be kids" is considered much more acceptable amongst older generations. The common misconception that adolescence is a time of turmoil and that it will pass is another common view held by older generations and perhaps used to dismiss the discrimination of bullying of another student. However, both are misconceptions that use the same underlying idea that it is a phase and will pass. This idea is disproven through the indication that only about 20% of adolescents go through turmoil (Lilienfeld 80). This information demonstrates how age is not an excuse for behavior, especially that which leads to the discrimination of disabled people. 

 

References

 

Lilienfeld, S. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

McMahon, B. T., Chan, F., Cheing, G., Rosenthal, D. A., & Bezyak, J. (2005). Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: The utility of Attribution Theory. Work, 25(1), 77-88.

 

Micula, A. (2014). Social Perception on Social Integration of People with Disabilities. Social Work Review, (3), 57-68. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from Ebsco Host.

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Equality Rights: Discrimination Against People with Physical Disabilities

Mitchell Brandon's insight:

This short video demonstrates different types of discrimination that happen in the work place. This was particularly to inform about discrimination towards people with physical disability. The video is put in the form of an interview. Several questions are asked to the experts about work place discrimination. A concept and term that was very important in this video was inclusion. The video demonstrates that discrimination is not only the intentional rejection of a person but the failure to include a person. A psychological term that could be used is marginalization. Marginalization is the act of systematically blocking a group of people from various rights (Micula 59). Many would argue that systematic exclusion happens consistently here in the U.S. An example of marginalization would be intentionally not allowing certain people to maintain leadership positions within a company whether it is based on race, creed, and physical ability. 

This can often happen when we hold to prior beliefs regardless to whether or not they are true. Hearing a person express an opinion ten times often times will lead us to hold to the information as true (Lilienfeld 10). The continual exposure to a system that exposes a person to discriminatory acts may lead them to continue these beliefs. This is potentially one of the hardest problems with discrimination. Through studies it has been shown that many groups are not against the integration and acceptance of those with disabilities despite the discriminatory practices and behaviors held within a society (Adina 3)

This article uses accurate informationin the form of experts on the subject. They are also very clear in their explanations, I feel that the information was accurate and precise. I also think that the conclusions made were very good. That the information presented was important to understand exclusion and discrimination in the work place. 

This article can have an effect on several different groups of diversity. Principally those with physical disabilities will be able to better understand their personal rights. It will also help inform employers and help integrate disabled individuals into the work force helping weaken discrimination.

 

References

 

Adina, M. (2014). Social perception on social integration of people with disabilities. Social Work Review, (3), P. 57-68. Retrieved November 13, 2014.

 

Lilienfeld, S. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 

 

Micula, A. (2014). Social Perception on Social Integration of People with Disabilities. Social Work Review, (3), 57-68. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from Ebsco Host.

 

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Blind job seeker: 'they just can’t look past the disability'

Blind job seeker: 'they just can’t look past the disability' | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
RACHAEL Berka has spent five years looking for a chance to prove herself capable in a job despite her blindness.
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About 252 allegations of discrimination: Human Rights Commission

About 252 allegations of discrimination: Human Rights Commission | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
The New Brunswick Human Rights Commission has released its annual report, and says the issue of discrimination is still a very real problem in the province.
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DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILD WITH DISABILITY

A 6 year old girl at Wenchi who was denied education because of her physical disability is still not in school. Officials at the Wenchi Municipal Education o...
Mitchell Brandon's insight:

Although this is not of scientific origins it gives us an excellent opportunity to recognize the discrimination of disabled people and the contributing factors. There are several factors that contribute to the discrimination of the young girl from South Ghana. 

Social misperception is a common factor in the discrimination of disabled people. Concepts that are false seem to be true through the social surroundings and environment. The idea that someone that is physically disabled must be mentally affected as well is an example of social misperception. As demonstrated in the video much misconstrued information was written about the child based purely off of a persons perception.  Perception being defined as the way of defining or interpretting something. Perception can be greatly biased due to different psychological aspects. Many people are aware of social biases and misconceptions however, fail to recognize how this affects their own decision making (Micula 60). Another term related to psychology that may help us understand why this type of discrimination occurs is ego-protective. Ego-protective is a form of bias or motivation for ones discriminatory actions (Micula 57). One does so to protect their own personal views or intellectual. This allows us to harbor preconceived misconceptions.

Another possible explanation is the evolutionary explanation that innate mechanisms or adaptive responses have been passed down through history in preserve groups (Kolb 402). Perhaps many of our biases are drawn from this feeling of necessity of self-preservation. The idea that physically disabled people are a threat to others well-being and health. 

Although this video was not scientific of origin I feel it of great merit. The information obtained was received from both sides of the fence. This included the childs mother and those in charge of making the decision to not allow the child to attend school. All the information portrayed by the video was direct and unbiased. I feel that the author was concise in their reasoning to conclude that the child was being discriminated against. 

This article however did not take into account of a specific group. The group excluded was the teachers. This groups may have had a different view on the situation. Perhaps they felt they lacked the resources to be able to meet the child's needs. Therefore it is necessary to take into account the opinion of other groups. 

 

References 

 

Lilienfeld, S. (2010). 50 great myths of popular psychology: Shattering widespread misconceptions about human behavior. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. 

Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. (2011). An introduction to brain and behavior (Third ed.). New York: Worth.

Micula, A. (2014). Social Perception on Social Integration of People with Disabilities. Social Work Review, (3), 57-68. Retrieved November 17, 2014, from Ebsco Host.

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Call for proposal European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) Combating Discrimination;

Call for proposal European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR)  Combating Discrimination; | Disability and Social Bias | Scoop.it
Call for proposal European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) Combating Discrimination;  Reference: EuropeAid/134379/C/ACT/Multi   Deadline for submission of Concept notes: August 8,...

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nicoleta susanu's curator insight, June 28, 2013 10:55 AM

Deadline for submission of Concept notes: August 8, 2013, at 16h Brussels

 

The global objective of this Call for Proposals is to reinforce the EIDHR fight against discrimination.