Deep Earth by Sean
33 views | +0 today
Follow
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

Plate tectonics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motions of Earth's lithosphere. The model builds on the concepts of continental drift, developed during the first few decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted the theory after the concepts of seafloor spreading were developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

The lithosphere is broken up into tectonic plates. On Earth, there are seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where plates meet, their relative motion determines the type of boundary: convergent, divergent, or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates typically varies from zero to 100 mm annually.[2]

Tectonic plates are composed of oceanic lithosphere and thicker continental lithosphere, each topped by its own kind of crust. Along convergent boundaries, subduction carries plates into the mantle; the material lost is roughly balanced by the formation of new (oceanic) crust along divergent margins by seafloor spreading. In this way, the total surface of the globe remains the same. This prediction of plate tectonics is also referred to as the conveyor belt principle. Earlier theories (that still have some supporters) proposed gradual shrinking (contraction) or gradual expansion of the globe.[3]


Via ZYM0001
more...
ZYM0001's comment, July 25, 2013 12:04 AM
This will be part of my global inquiry
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

Mountain formation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains. These processes are associated with large-scale movements of the earth's crust (plate tectonics).[1] Mountain formation is related to plate tectonics. Folding, faulting, volcanic activity, igneous intrusion and metamorphism are all parts of the orogenic process of mountain building.[2] The understanding of specific landscape features in terms of the underlying tectonic processes is called tectonic geomorphology, and the study of geologically young or ongoing processes is called neotectonics.[3]

There are three main types of mountains: volcanic, fold, and block.[4] A more detailed classification useful on a local scale predates plate tectonics and adds to the above categories.[5]

Movements of tectonic plates create volcanoes along the plate boundaries which erupt and form mountains. A volcanic arc system is a series of volcanoes that form near a subduction zone where the crust of a sinking oceanic plate melts.[7]


Via ZYM0001
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

Plate Tectonics-- Difference between crust and lithosphere

Plate Tectonics Introduction and Difference between crust and lithosphere

Via ZYM0001
more...
ZYM0001's curator insight, July 18, 2013 7:50 PM

Khanacademy series of videos on plate tectonics

Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle - PhysOrg.com

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle - PhysOrg.com | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Scientists have long believed that lava erupted from certain oceanic volcanoes contains materials from the early Earth's crust. But decisive evidence for this phenomenon has proven elusive. New research from a team ...

Via ZYM0001
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Deep Earth-Earthquakes
Scoop.it!

Man-Made Earthquakes | Science Features - USGS

Man-Made Earthquakes | Science Features - USGS | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
The recent spike of earthquakes in the central and eastern U.S. may be linked to human activity. Read more.

Via yan0035
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Deep Earth-Earthquakes
Scoop.it!

Tectonic Plates' Movement Begins to Bring Europe and Americas ...

Tectonic Plates' Movement Begins to Bring Europe and Americas ... | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Minor seismic activity in tectonic plates under the Atlantic Ocean could indicate the start of a process that would ultimately reunite the continents.

Via yan0035
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Sustain Our Earth
Scoop.it!

Injection Wells Spawn Powerful Earthquakes [Video]: Scientific American

Injection Wells Spawn Powerful Earthquakes [Video]: Scientific American | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
New research shows how human activity deep underground combines with natural earthquakes far away to set off potent local temblors

Via SustainOurEarth
more...
clim's curator insight, July 31, 2013 9:36 AM

Perhaps - an earthquake may not simply just be the tectonic plates moving naturally in action; a mere 'natural disaster' - what if humans played a part in the occurance of earthquakes?

Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Warming in deep ocean may be unprecedented, scientists say | EarthSky.org

Warming in deep ocean may be unprecedented, scientists say | EarthSky.org | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Deep ocean waters below 700 meters have heated up unexpectedly since the year 2000, according to a new analysis. (New study says deep ocean waters have heated up unexpectedly since 2000.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Oldest water on Earth found deep underground - Fox News

Oldest water on Earth found deep underground - Fox News | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
BBC News Oldest water on Earth found deep underground Fox News The finding, announced in the May 16 issue of the journal Nature, raises the tantalizing possibility that ancient life might be found deep underground not only within Earth, but in...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle - PhysOrg.com

Ancient Earth crust stored in deep mantle - PhysOrg.com | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Scientists have long believed that lava erupted from certain oceanic volcanoes contains materials from the early Earth's crust. But decisive evidence for this phenomenon has proven elusive. New research from a team ...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Futurity.org – How deep carbon could pop up on Earth's surface

Futurity.org – How deep carbon could pop up on Earth's surface | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
New computer simulations show that under pressure deep in the Earth, carbonate could dissolve in water, providing a route for carbon to return to the Earth's surface. Above, a carbonate ion (red/grey) dissolved in water ...
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

Earthquake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.

Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and over potentially cause serious damage over larger areas, depending on their depth. The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the possible magnitude. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011 (as of October 2012), and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records began. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. The shallower an earthquake, the more damage to structures it causes, all else being equal.[1]

At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.


Via ZYM0001
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

BBC Two - How Earth Made Us, Deep Earth

BBC Two - How Earth Made Us, Deep Earth | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
How the forces of the deep Earth played a role in the development of human civilisation.

Via ZYM0001
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Humanities research task - Deep Earth
Scoop.it!

Volcano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from the magma chamber below the surface.

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates, e.g., in the East African Rift, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "Plate hypothesis" volcanism.[1] Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.

Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. Volcanic ash can be a threat to aircraft, in particular those with jet engines where ash particles can be melted by the high operating temperature; the melted particles then adhere to the turbine blades and alter their shape, disrupting the operation of the turbine. Large eruptions can affect temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the sun and cool the Earth's lower atmosphere or troposphere; however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the stratosphere. Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines.


Via ZYM0001
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Deep Earth-Earthquakes
Scoop.it!

Australian, Antarctic and Indian tectonic plates 'wrongly positioned' - NEWS.com.au

Australian, Antarctic and Indian tectonic plates 'wrongly positioned' - NEWS.com.au | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Australian, Antarctic and Indian tectonic plates 'wrongly positioned' NEWS.com.au Researchers from Royal Holloway University in London, Australian National University and Geoscience Australia, state they "have helped clear up previous uncertainties...

Via yan0035
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Deep Earth-Earthquakes
Scoop.it!

Volcanic earthquakes produce a “seismic scream” just before eruption - Ars Technica

Volcanic earthquakes produce a “seismic scream” just before eruption - Ars Technica | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
ABC News
Volcanic earthquakes produce a “seismic scream” just before eruption
Ars Technica
Most of the earthquakes associated with the eruption were small (between magnitude 0.5 and 1.5) and centered a few kilometers below the volcanic vent.

Via yan0035
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Deep Earth-Earthquakes
Scoop.it!

Jets of molten rock push Earth's tectonic plates - NBC News.com

Jets of molten rock push Earth's tectonic plates - NBC News.com | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Giant fountains of hot rock under central Africa and the central Pacific that have apparently remained stationary for at least 250 million years are helping drive the movements of the massive tectonic plates making up Earth's ...

Via yan0035
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from @The Convergence of ICT & Distributed Renewable Energy
Scoop.it!

Are Fracking Wastewater Wells Poisoning the Ground beneath Our Feet? | Scientific American

Are Fracking Wastewater Wells Poisoning the Ground beneath Our Feet? | Scientific American | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it

Over the past several decades, U.S. industries have injected more than 30 trillion gallons of toxic liquid deep into the earth, using broad expanses of the nation's geology as an invisible dumping ground.

 

No company would be allowed to pour such dangerous chemicals into the rivers or onto the soil. But until recently, scientists and environmental officials have assumed that deep layers of rock beneath the earth would safely entomb the waste for millennia.

 

There are growing signs they were mistaken.

 

Records from disparate corners of the United States show that wells drilled to bury this waste deep beneath the ground have repeatedly leaked, sending dangerous chemicals and waste gurgling to the surface or, on occasion, seeping into shallow aquifers that store a significant portion of the nation's drinking water.

 

In 2010, contaminants from such a well bubbled up in a west Los Angeles dog park. Within the past three years, similar fountains of oil and gas drilling waste have appeared in Oklahoma and Louisiana. In South Florida, 20 of the nation's most stringently regulated disposal wells failed in the early 1990s, releasing partly treated sewage into aquifers that may one day be needed to supply Miami's drinking water.

 

There are more than 680,000 underground waste and injection wells nationwide, more than 150,000 of which shoot industrial fluids thousands of feet below the surface. Scientists and federal regulators acknowledge they do not know how many of the sites are leaking.

 

Federal officials and many geologists insist that the risks posed by all this dumping are minimal. Accidents are uncommon, they say, and groundwater reserves — from which most Americans get their drinking water — remain safe and far exceed any plausible threat posed by injecting toxic chemicals into the ground.

 

But in interviews, several key experts acknowledged that the idea that injection is safe rests on science that has not kept pace with reality, and on oversight that doesn't always work.

 

Click headline to read more--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Sean0020 from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Intelligent Earth - How a tilted planet finds its way back to a normal position in space

Intelligent Earth - How a tilted planet finds its way back to a normal position in space | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Once its axis tilts, how does the Earth “know” to return to its normal orientation? Work by Harvard researchers provides some answers.

 

What would happen if the Earth’s axis suddenly tilted by 50 degrees or more? It may sound like the plot of a bad science fiction movie, but scientists say it’s not an academic question — geological records clearly show such shifts have indeed happened several times throughout the planet’s history, with dramatic effects on climate and sea level.

 

To understand how the Earth “knows” how to return to its original orientation, Creveling and Mitrovica turned to two images, the first being the stretching of a rubber band. Jerry X. Mitrovica, professor of geophysics, and Jessica Creveling illustrate their research using a model of the Earth inside the Geological Museum at Harvard. As the planet shifts on its axis, stress on the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s crust increases, Mitrovica explained. That increased stress acts like a stretched rubber band, gradually pulling the planet back to its original rotation axis, even after millions of years of rotation at a different angle.

 

Previous research conducted by Mitrovica uncovered a similar phenomenon on Mars. However, while the Earth’s surface is made up of many different plates, the surface of Mars consists of a single plate. “We have shown that even with those breaks, [the Earth] still has a bit of that rubber band effect,” Mitrovica said. The second effect at work in drawing the planet back to its original orientation,

 

Mitrovica explained, is similar to that of a toy punching bag that bounces back up after being pushed over. Because the Earth is not a perfect sphere, when the rotation pole moves, the extra mass centered around the equator acts like an anchor, pulling the pole back to its original place. These massive shifts in the Earth’s position could have played a role in the planet’s long-term development, and life on it.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Turtle Island Being Pulled Toward Europe by Tectonic Plate Activity - Indian Country Today Media Network

Turtle Island Being Pulled Toward Europe by Tectonic Plate Activity - Indian Country Today Media Network | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Christian Science Monitor
Turtle Island Being Pulled Toward Europe by Tectonic Plate Activity
Indian Country Today Media Network
Mother Earth is covered in tectonic plates that float on the liquid rock magma just beneath the planet's crust.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Seismic Data Set Could Improve Earthquake Forecasting - Science AAAS

Seismic Data Set Could Improve Earthquake Forecasting - Science  AAAS | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Seismic Data Set Could Improve Earthquake Forecasting Science AAAS To get a handle on the driving force behind most earthquakes, other geoscientists reappraised the movements of Earth's tectonic plates to estimate the rate of deformation at plate...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Sean0020
Scoop.it!

Researchers Propose New Way to Probe Earth's Deep Interior | News

Researchers Propose New Way to Probe Earth's Deep Interior | News | Deep Earth by Sean | Scoop.it
Researchers from Amherst College and The University of Texas at Austin have described a new technique that might one day reveal in higher detail than ever before the composition and characteristics of the deep Earth.
more...
No comment yet.