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Les insectes : chimistes, architectes et pharmaciens

Les insectes : chimistes, architectes et pharmaciens | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

Par Mario Bonneau. Espace pour la vie – Montréal. « Nous sommes souvent impressionnés par les inventions de l’humain. Pourtant, la nature nous a devancés, depuis longtemps! Les insectes peuvent être inspirants à plusieurs niveaux : perfection anatomique, durabilité à toute épreuve et bien d’autres caractéristiques. Voici un bref aperçu de leur génie créatif, l’un des facteurs faisant d’eux l’une des classes du règne animal ayant le mieux réussi sur Terre… »

 

« L’invention du papier par l’humain remonte à l’Antiquité. Que dire alors des insectes qui maîtrisent l’art de sa fabrication depuis des millions d’années! Parmi les plus connus; les guêpes à papier. Ces dernières mâchent la fibre de bois qu’elles mélangent à leur salive pour construire et isoler leur nid. [...] »

 

[...]

 

[Image] « Nid - guêpe sociale © Insectarium de Montréal (René Limoges) »


Via Bernadette Cassel
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.......... Récemment, une équipe de chercheurs allemands et états-uniens en robotique s’est inspirée des structures des pattes d’insectes pour créer un matériau en polymère biologique : un ruban adhésif, sans colle, avec une force d’adhésion deux fois supérieure au ruban adhésif « ordinaire ». Le ruban, en plus d’être moins sensible à la contamination par la poussière, est lavable à l’eau et au savon. Il est fabriqué de microstructures organisées géométriquement comme les poils retrouvés sur les pattes de certaines mouches, coléoptères et perce-oreilles.

Quelques faits

L’éthylène glycol que l’on utilise dans nos voitures comme antigel et à d’autres usages est aussi utilisé par les insectes! En effet, cette molécule chimique permet aux insectes de survivre l’hiver, à des températures pouvant descendre jusqu’à -53 oC. De vrais chimistes à six pattes!

L’élevage de « bétail » n’est pas une invention de l’homme. Certaines fourmis, qui raffolent du miellat (liquide sécrété par les pucerons) protègent ces derniers des prédateurs en échange du délicieux liquide. Elles peuvent même « traire » leurs pucerons en procédant à un toucher, avec leurs antennes, qui a pour effet d’en stimuler la production.

Le viagra surpassé?

Des chercheurs de l’université de La Frontera au Chili travaillent sur le venin de la célèbre araignée veuve noire. ........

...........

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Le renard est loin d’être un nuisible : il nous protège contre la maladie de Lyme

Le renard est loin d’être un nuisible : il nous protège contre la maladie de Lyme | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Animal très présent dans nos campagnes, le renard a une mauvaise image qui lui colle à la peau. Considéré par les contes comme un nuisible voleur fourbe, il est dans

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Ce scarabée « télécommandé » pourrait sauver des vies lors de catastrophes naturelles

Ce scarabée « télécommandé » pourrait sauver des vies lors de catastrophes naturelles | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
En reliant les antennes du coléoptère à une puce électronique, les chercheurs sont parvenus à diriger l'insecte. Ce dernier pourrait être utilisé pour retrouver des survivants lors de catastrophes naturelles.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter, JP Fourcade, Profleluherne, Bernadette Cassel
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Bernadette Cassel's curator insight, December 6, 11:38 AM
 
→ Un avenir noir de sauveteur | EntomoNews | Scoop.it - 
 

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12 Houseplants That Have the Power to Heal

12 Houseplants That Have the Power to Heal | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

"The art of healing comes from nature and not from the physician. Therefore, the physician must start from nature with an open mind." —Paracelsus


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Flower attracts insects by pretending to be a mushroom: The true pollinators for one of the strangest flowers are finally revealed

Flower attracts insects by pretending to be a mushroom: The true pollinators for one of the strangest flowers are finally revealed | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
The mysterious flowers of Aspidistra elatior are found on the southern Japanese island of Kuroshima. Until recently, scientists thought that A. elatior has the most unusual pollination ecology among all flowering plants, being pollinated by slugs and amphipods. However, direct observation of their ecosystem has revealed that they are mainly pollinated by fungus gnats, probably thanks to their resemblance to mushrooms.

This discovery was made by Project Associate Professor SUETSUGU Kenji (Kobe University Graduate School of Science) and Senior Researcher SUEYOSHI Masahiro (Forest Zoology Group, Kyushu Research Center). The findings were published on November 14 in the online edition of Ecology.

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Photographer Captures Softer Side of Elusive and Feared Leopard Sleeping Peacefully

Photographer Captures Softer Side of Elusive and Feared Leopard Sleeping Peacefully | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Wildlife photographer George Turner recently photographed an elusive leopard named Ghost at the Ruaha National Park in Tanzania.

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Journal of Experimental Botany: Exchanging missives and missiles: the roles of extracellular vesicles in plant–pathogen interactions (2017)

Journal of Experimental Botany: Exchanging missives and missiles: the roles of extracellular vesicles in plant–pathogen interactions (2017) | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

This article comments on: Regente M, Pinedo M, San Clemente H, Balliau T, Jamet E, de la Canal L. 2017. Plant extracellular vesicles are incorporated by a fungal

 

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by organisms from all forms of life. In the mammalian field they are intensively studied due to their importance in disease and potential for therapeutic use. However, there has been little research in plants and thus the paper byRegente et al. (2017) is a valuable addition to a small but hopefully growing body of data. The authors conducted proteomic analysis on purified sunflower EVs and demonstrated that they are enriched in defence-related proteins. They found that fungal spores treated with fresh EV preparations are damaged and show reduced growth.


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Bridget Barker's curator insight, November 30, 11:12 AM
Curious about EVs in human fungal pathogens...
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New butterfly species discovered in Russia with an unusual set of 46 chromosomes

New butterfly species discovered in Russia with an unusual set of 46 chromosomes | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
What looked like a population of a common butterfly species turned out to be a whole new organism, and, moreover - one with a very peculiar genome organisation.

Discovered by Vladimir Lukhtanov, entomologist and evolutionary biologist at the Zoological Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, and Alexander Dantchenko, entomologist and chemist at the Moscow State University, the startling discovery was named South-Russian blue (Polyommatus australorossicus). It was found flying over the northern slopes of the Caucasus mountains in southern Russia. The study is published in the open access journal Comparative Cytogenetics.

"This publication is the long-awaited completion of a twenty-year history," says Vladimir Lukhtanov.

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Antmaps : "Une belle cartographie interactive qui répertorie les espèces de fourmis présentes dans chaque pays"

Antmaps : "Une belle cartographie interactive qui répertorie les espèces de fourmis présentes dans chaque pays" | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
224 native species in France
Total Records: 19220

Museum Records: 210 Database Records: 8506 Literature Records: 10504

Aphaenogaster corsica
Aphaenogaster dulciniae
Aphaenogaster gibbosa
Aphaenogaster leveillei
Aphaenogaster senilis
Aphaenogaster spinosa
Aphaenogaster splendida
Aphaenogaster subterranea
Bothriomyrmex communista
Bothriomyrmex corsicus
Bothriomyrmex laticeps
Bothriomyrmex meridionalis
Bothriomyrmex saundersi
Camponotus aethiops
Camponotus cruentatus
Camponotus fallax

(...)

 

[via] Valentine (SdC) sur Twitter, 25.11.2017 : "Une belle cartographie interactive qui répertorie les espèces de fourmis présentes dans chaque pays (la France en compte 224 !) "
https://twitter.com/Sciencecomptoir/status/934232803335659522

 

& Biotweeps - Brit sur Twitter, 25.11.2017 : "Janicki et al. (2016): Created https://t.co/NehGx3W5Us, a web-mapping application to support the development of a 1.7 million record databas… "

 



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Bernadette Cassel's curator insight, November 25, 12:51 PM
 
→ Carte en ligne de la répartition mondiale des fourmis - From www.levif.be - August 9, 2015 10:41 AM

 

 

 

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Divided island: How Haiti and the DR became two worlds

Haiti and the Dominican Republic share a border, and an island. But the two countries are very different today: the Dominican Republic enjoys higher quality of life for many factors than Haiti. I went to this island and visited both countries, to try and understand when and how their paths diverged.

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Seth Dixon's curator insight, October 23, 3:14 PM

This video is an exciting debut for the new series "Vox borders."  By just about every development metric available, the Dominican Republic is doing better than Haiti, the only bordering country on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola with the DR.   

 

Questions to Ponder: How does the border impact both countries?  How has sharing one island with different colonial legacies shaped migrational push and pull factors?

 

Tags: Haiti, Dominican Republic, video, poverty, development, economic, labor, migration, political, borders.

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Mettre la nature sous cloche, une fausse bonne idée

Mettre la nature sous cloche, une fausse bonne idée | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Les environnements artificiels fleurissent un peu partout dans les grandes villes. Mais est-ce vraiment la bonne manière de répondre aux menaces environnementales ?

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Katell Rochard's curator insight, November 16, 4:33 PM
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Stunning drone footage of Iceland's scenic landscape

Stunning drone footage of Iceland's scenic landscape | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
In a five-minute long video shot in Iceland and titled the North Awakens, viewers are taken on a breathtaking flight over a mix of terrain.

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Logjam: Inside Madagascar’s illegal-rosewood stockpiles

Logjam: Inside Madagascar’s illegal-rosewood stockpiles | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
ANTALAHA, Madagascar — The piles of rosewood logs outside Chantal Rasoanirina’s office filled more than half the courtyard to head height. Each log, wet and weathered, was marked with a…
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Counting logs The log counting began in 2010, “one by one,” according to Ratsimbazafy, who interviewed more than 200 people to compile the TRAFFIC report. “There wasn’t really a decision to adopt a method, like, ‘For rosewood in Madagascar, this is the way we’re going to count.’ It depends on the context, on who’s leading the inventory — on who’s there on the trip.”
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Lake Nyos

Lake Nyos | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Known locally as “the Bad Lake,” Lake Nyos, located in the Northwest Region of Cameroon, Africa, carried a folklore of danger, and tales were spoken of an evil spirit which emerged from the lake to kill all those who lived near it. This legend contained the memory of a very real threat.

Lake Nyos was formed in a volcanic crater created as recently as 400 years ago. Crater lakes commonly have high levels of CO2 as they are formed by the volcanic activity happening miles beneath them. Under normal circumstances this gas is released over time as the lake water turns over.

But Lake Nyos was different: an unusually still lake, with little in the way of environmental agitation. Rather than releasing the gas, the lake was acting as a high-pressure storage unit. Its deep waters were becoming ever more loaded with gas until more than five gallons of CO2 were dissolved in every gallon of water. Pressurized to the physical limit, Lake Nyos was a time bomb.

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VIDEO. Diego, la tortue qui a repeuplé les Galapagos grâce à son activité sexuelle

VIDEO. Diego, la tortue qui a repeuplé les Galapagos grâce à son activité sexuelle | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Il y a cinquante ans, il ne restait plus que quatorze spécimens de son espèce de tortue sur les îles Galapagos. C’était sans compter la vigueur sexuelle de Diego…

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
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Les pigeons capables de distinguer les concepts du temps et de l'espace

Les pigeons capables de distinguer les concepts du temps et de l'espace | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Les pigeons sont capables de faire la distinction entre les concepts abstraits du temps et de l'espace, à l'instar des humains et des grands singes, selon des expériences qui révèlent que ces oiseaux sont plus intelligents qu'on ne l'imaginait.

"La capacité cognitive des oiseaux est encore plus proche de celles des humains et des grands singes", juge Edward Wasserman, professeur de psychologie expérimentale à l'Université d'Iowa et principal auteur de cette étude publiée lundi dans Current Biology.

Via Hubert MESSMER @Zehub on Twitter
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A series of fortunate events

A series of fortunate events | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Volcanism is sometimes like food poisoning, where the Earth spews forth unstable material. New research from Michigan Technological University, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh and ETH Zurich shows that a significant pulse of volatile carbon was released from the Earth's mantle around 500 million years ago. But why?

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35 Magical Places on Earth Worth Visiting at Least Once in Your Lifetime

35 Magical Places on Earth Worth Visiting at Least Once in Your Lifetime | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Fantastic places and unbelievably beautiful nature exist not only in fairy tales but in the real world too. Sometimes you have to see them live with your own eyes to appreciate their beauty. Bright Side gathered several of the most picturesque places that you can find in different corners of our planet.

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Fascinants champignons - Kaizen

Fascinants champignons - Kaizen | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Ni animal, ni végétal, le champignon recèle de nombreux mystères. Sous terre se cache l’essentiel de son corps : de gigantesques réseaux de filaments qui lui permettent d’échanger des nutriments avec les arbres et les plantes. Les champignons sont essentiels à la vie sur terre. Filip Eremita, photographe, et « fervent amateur de champignons » cherche à montrer, à travers ses clichés, leur beauté singulière.

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Ocean floor mud reveals secrets of past European climate

Ocean floor mud reveals secrets of past European climate | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Samples of sediment taken from the ocean floor of the North Atlantic Ocean have given researchers an unprecedented insight into the reasons why Europe's climate has changed over the past 3000 years.

From the warmer climates of Roman times when vineyards flourished in England and Wales to the colder conditions that led to crop failure, famine and pandemics in early medieval times, Europe's climate has varied over the past three millennia.

For the first time, researchers have been able to pinpoint why this occurs, and the answer lies far out at sea in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Scientists from Cardiff University have studied fossil remains of shell-bearing plankton and grains buried in sediments from the North Atlantic to determine what conditions were like in the ocean on timescales of 10-20 years over a 3000-year period.

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Les éphémères mémorables de Thierry Knauff - Télévision - Télérama.fr

Les éphémères mémorables de Thierry Knauff - Télévision - Télérama.fr | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

"Film rare d'un cinéaste rare, “Vita Brevis”, de Thierry Knauff, [était] au programme du Festival international du film de La Rochelle (du 1er au 10 juillet 2016). Une œuvre inclassable, d'une beauté saisissante."

 

Vita brevis | Festival du Film de la Rochelle
http://festival-larochelle.org/festival-2016/film/vita-brevis

 



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Une superbe tarentule bleue jusqu'alors inconnue découverte dans les forêts du Guyana / A Stunning Blue Tarantula And Its Friends Were Just Discovered in South America

Une superbe tarentule bleue jusqu'alors inconnue découverte dans les forêts du Guyana / A Stunning Blue Tarantula And Its Friends Were Just Discovered in South America | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it

"A previously unknown tarantula discovered in the forests of Guyana in South America is absolutely stunning - its legs and body are a shimmering electric disco blue."

 

Biodiversity Assessment Survey of the Kaieteur Plateau and Upper Potaro, Guyana | WWF, 17.11.2017 http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/?316770/BAT-Survey-Report-No-2

 

[via] Une tarentule bleue découverte dans une forêt de Guyana - SciencePost, 23.11.2017 http://sciencepost.fr/2017/11/tarentule-bleue-decouverte-foret-guyana/

 



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Impacts psycho-sociaux des espaces verts dans les espaces urbains

Impacts psycho-sociaux des espaces verts dans les espaces urbains | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
L’évolution écologisante de la réglementation en urbanisme depuis le début des années 2000 (SRU, AEU, Grenelle 1 et 2) a permis une (ré)introduction de la Nature dans les Villes et le développement de l’écologie urbaine. Est-ce que cela est suffisant pour construire des Cités Vertes ? À notre sens, la réponse est négative. Pour répondre à l’enjeu d’urbanisme durable, il convient d’intégrer au volet environnemental, un volet sociétal. Cet article propose un premier cadre de définition du volet sociétal de l’urbanisme de demain, vu par les habitants et les usagers des espaces urbains, en s’appuyant sur une première synthèse bibliographique exploratoire sur les « Bienfaits du végétal en ville », réalisée à l’attention de Plante et Cité en 2010.

 

Par Sandrine Manusset, Vol. 3, n° 3 | Décembre 2012 Varia
http://developpementdurable.revues.org/9372

 

[...]

 

"... Les résultats présentés dans cet article sont extraits d’une étude exploratoire, réalisée en 2010 à la demande de Plante et Cité en partenariat avec Val’hor, l’UNEP, l’IDDR et l’AgroCampus1. Il s’agit d’une synthèse bibliographique réalisée à l’échelle internationale tendant à faire un état des lieux des connaissances scientifiques acquises sur les impacts positifs du Végétal en Ville. Quatre objectifs de mission étaient posés : apporter des arguments scientifiques à « plus de nature en ville » ; appréhender la globalité des bienfaits du végétal sur l’homme, à la fois dans son individualité et dans son espace social ; proposer des méthodes d’enquête aux acteurs de l’aménagement sur le thème santé/urbanisme et identifier des personnes-ressources. Dans ce cadre, cette étude a permis de rassembler 21 résultats scientifiques en faveur de « plus d'espaces verts, (...)"

 



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The Petroglyphs and Rock Art of Gabon, Africa

The Petroglyphs and Rock Art of Gabon, Africa | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
At the present time, the Ogooue valley contains the major part of the rock art petroglyph sites of Gabon, with the discovery of more than 1000 recorded rock art petroglyphs, essentially on paragneiss rocks.

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New Phytol.: A functional imaging study of germinating oilseed rape seed (2017)

New Phytol.: A functional imaging study of germinating oilseed rape seed (2017) | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
Germination, the process whereby a dry, quiescent seed springs to life, has been a focus of plant biologist for many years, yet the early events following water uptake, during which metabolism of the embryo is restarted, remain enigmatic. Here, the nature of the cues required for this restarting in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed has been investigated. A holistic in vivo approach was designed to display the link between the entry and allocation of water, metabolic events and structural changes occurring during germination. For this, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence-based respiration mapping, computer-aided seed modeling and biochemical tools. We uncovered an endospermal lipid gap, which channels water to the radicle tip, from whence it is distributed via embryonic vasculature toward cotyledon tissues. The resumption of respiration is initiated first in the endosperm, only later spreading to the embryo. Sugar metabolism and lipid utilization are linked to the spatiotemporal sequence of tissue rehydration. Together, this imaging study provides insights into the spatial aspects of key events in oilseed rape seeds leading to germination. It demonstrates how seed architecture predetermines the pattern of water intake, which sets the stage for the orchestrated restart of life.

Via Nicolas Denancé, IRHS - Seed Lab, Loïc Lepiniec
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Geologists uncover Antarctica's fossil forests

Geologists uncover Antarctica's fossil forests | De Natura Rerum | Scoop.it
During Antarctica's summer, from late November through January, UW-Milwaukee geologists Erik Gulbranson and John Isbell climbed the McIntyre Promontory's frozen slopes in the Transantarctic Mountains. High above the ice fields, they combed the mountain's gray rocks for fossils from the continent's green, forested past.

By the trip's end, the geologists had found fossil fragments of 13 trees. The discovered fossils reveal that the trees are over 260 million years old, meaning that this forest grew at the end of the Permian Period, before the first dinosaurs, when Antarctica was still at the South Pole.

"People have known about the fossils in Antarctica since the 1910-12 Robert Falcon Scott expedition," said Gulbranson, a paleoecologist and visiting assistant professor in UWM's Department of Geosciences. "However, most of Antarctica is still unexplored. Sometimes, you might be the first person to ever climb a particular mountain."

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