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Rescooped by Richard Snape from International Relations Theories
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International relations and complexity theory

International relations and complexity theory | Daily rag | Scoop.it
 
Hilton Root has published some very interesting ideas about systems thinking in international relations theory in Dynamics among Nations: The Evolution of Legitimacy and Development in Modern States.

Via Chris Goldsmith
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Rescooped by Richard Snape from International Relations Theories
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Issues about microfoundations

Issues about microfoundations | Daily rag | Scoop.it
I believe that hypotheses, theories, and explanations in the social sciences need to be subject to the requirement of microfoundationalism.

Via Chris Goldsmith
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Rescooped by Richard Snape from International Relations Theories
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Causal powers from a metaphysical point of view

Causal powers from a metaphysical point of view | Daily rag | Scoop.it
A number of scholars who are interested in causation have recently expressed new interest in the concept of causal powers. This makes sense in a very straightforward and commonsensical way.

Via Chris Goldsmith
Richard Snape's insight:

I think this raises questions that should be considered more by physical scientists and, especially, modellers

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Rescooped by Richard Snape from CxBooks
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The Irrationals: A Story of the Numbers You Can't Count On (by Julian Havil)

The Irrationals: A Story of the Numbers You Can't Count On

~ Julian Havil (author) More about this product
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The ancient Greeks discovered them, but it wasn't until the nineteenth century that irrational numbers were properly understood and rigorously defined, and even today not all their mysteries have been revealed. In The Irrationals, the first popular and comprehensive book on the subject, Julian Havil tells the story of irrational numbers and the mathematicians who have tackled their challenges, from antiquity to the twenty-first century. Along the way, he explains why irrational numbers are surprisingly difficult to define--and why so many questions still surround them.

 

That definition seems so simple: they are numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers, or that have decimal expansions that are neither infinite nor recurring. But, as The Irrationals shows, these are the real "complex" numbers, and they have an equally complex and intriguing history, from Euclid's famous proof that the square root of 2 is irrational to Roger Apéry's proof of the irrationality of a number called Zeta(3), one of the greatest results of the twentieth century. In between, Havil explains other important results, such as the irrationality of e and pi. He also discusses the distinction between "ordinary" irrationals and transcendentals, as well as the appealing question of whether the decimal expansion of irrationals is "random".

Fascinating and illuminating, this is a book for everyone who loves math and the history behind it.

 

 


Via Complexity Digest
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