Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch
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The tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta) attack in Nigeria: effect of climate change or agroterrorism?

The tomato leafminer (Tuta absoluta) attack in Nigeria: effect of climate change or agroterrorism? | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
"During the 2016 tomato season, a sporadic attack by invasive tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, nicknamed ‘tomato ebola’ occurred in the Northern parts of the country, where tomato production was most concentrated (Villareal, 1980). The pest caused over 80% loss of tomato production in the first cycle, and resulted in shortage of raw materials supply to the newly developed tomato processing industry, which subsequently closeddown. The development of the tomato leaf miner was considered sudden and viewed by many stakeholders as an act of sabotage or agro-terrorism, targeted against agricultural production in Nigeria (...). The incident occurred in the Northern part of Nigeria that has witnessed in the past six years various degrees of instability and terrorist attacks, adding to the suspicion of an attack. There were insinuations that the attack was a deliberate act, targeted at coercing growers and the government into adopting Genetically Modified (GMO) Seeds (Anon, 2016; Jibrin, 2016). Agro-bioterrorist agents were suspected to be responsible for the release of T. absoluta to undermine local production and technically, to enforce adoption of genetically modified (GMO) tomatoes which cannot replicate. The implications therefore could be a perpetual dependence of Nigerian tomato growers on GMO seeds of resistant hybrids (a form of horticultural colonialism). The use of Terminator Seed Technology (TST) to destroy indigenous tomato landraces in developing countries, and the implications on food security and biodiversity of plant species have been reported (Yusuf, 2010)."
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Federal (U.S.) research and development for agricultural biodefense (Gerstein, 2017)

Federal (U.S.) research and development for agricultural biodefense (Gerstein, 2017) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
Agricultural biodefense is a crowded space with responsibilities shared across federal, state and local government officials to private industry that largely owns and operates the sector. Since the establishment of DHS in 2003, USDA and DHS have had a shared role in agricultural biodefense, particularly in the area of R&D. While much progress has been made in developing systems to oversee, track, and monitor FAD internationally and in the United States, the threats continue to grow because of socioeconomic, environmental and ecological factors. With more global travel and trade and encroachment into formerly uninhibited areas, the opportunities for the spread of disease continues to increase as does the potential for a FAD to penetrate the United States. I appreciate the opportunity to discuss Federal Research and Development for Agricultural Biodefense and look forward to your questions.
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Preparedness and response to agroterrorism [Preparación y respuesta frente al agroterrorismo]

Preparedness and response to agroterrorism [Preparación y respuesta frente al agroterrorismo] | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
Since the beginning of the biological warfare cattle and crops have been considered as a strategic objective. With the evolution of the threat to terrorist employment, agroterrorism emerged as a concept derived from bioterrorism, with vulnerable states declaring themselves in front of it. Agroterrorism poses fewer challenges in order to reach the operational capacity of dissemination, and its use may remain unnoticed until the effects are devastating. Similarly, agroterrorism poses lower ethical dilemmas than bioterrorism as the consequences are basically economic, considering that the single threat of employment will have direct effects on society as a whole. Of all the biological agents that affect animals and plants, it may be the Foot and Mouth virus that can be considered the agro-terrorist agent par excellence because of its characteristics and effects.
Since the beginning of the biological warfare cattle and crops have been considered as a strategic objective. With the evolution of the threat to terrorist employment, agroterrorism emerged as a concept derived from bioterrorism, with vulnerable states declaring themselves in front of it. Agroterrorism poses fewer challenges in order to reach the operational capacity of dissemination, and its use may remain unnoticed until the effects are devastating. Similarly, agroterrorism poses lower ethical dilemmas than bioterrorism as the consequences are basically economic, considering that the single threat of employment will have direct effects on society as a whole. Of all the biological agents that affect animals and plants, it may be the Foot and Mouth virus that can be considered the agro-terrorist agent par excellence because of its characteristics and effects.
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U.S. President Trump likely to sign popular agroterrorism bill H.R.1238 called "Securing our Agriculture and Food Act"

U.S. President Trump likely to sign popular agroterrorism bill H.R.1238 called "Securing our Agriculture and Food Act" | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
President Donald J. Trump is shortly expected to sign H.R. 1238, also called the “Securing our Agriculture and Food Act,” to coordinate efforts to defend U.S. food, agriculture and veterinary systems against terrorism. Congress sent the bill to the White House for the President’s consideration on June 27. The bill amends the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to direct the Assistant Secretary for Health Affairs for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to carry out a program to coordinate DHS efforts related to defending the food, agriculture and veterinary systems of the United States against terrorism and other high-consequence events that pose a high risk to homeland security.
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Legislation introduced in U.S. house and senate Addressing agroterrorism threats to nation’s food supply (U.S. Senators P Roberts & C McCaskill)

Legislation introduced in U.S. house and senate Addressing agroterrorism threats to nation’s food supply (U.S. Senators P Roberts & C McCaskill) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
U.S. Senator Pat Roberts (R-KS.), Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, and Sen. Claire McCaskill (D-MO) today introduced bipartisan legislation to address the threat of agro-terrorism and ensure the safety of food put on the tables of American families. Reps. David Young (R-IA), Donald Payne, Jr. (D-NJ), and Dan Donovan (R-NY) introduced the legislation in the House.
“I have introduced this legislation in the Senate because it reiterates the important and necessary role of the DHS in the agro-terrorism space,” said Senator Roberts, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. “As DHS continues to build the National Bio and Agro-defense Facility (NBAF) in Manhattan, Kan., now is the exact time to shore up authorities regarding coordination and mitigation should the worst occur and the nation is hit by a biological attack on our food and agriculture. As former Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, I understand the unique threat our farmers and ranchers face. As the backbone of the U.S. economy, the spread of any deadly pathogen among our livestock and plant population would cause irreparable damage. I look forward to continuing to work with DHS and USDA, which play equally important roles, in protecting our homeland’s food supply.”
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Grippe aviaire dans le Sud-Ouest de la France et soupçons d'acte de malveillance : le parquet de Paris ouvre une enquête pour "tromperie aggravée"

Grippe aviaire dans le Sud-Ouest de la France et soupçons d'acte de malveillance : le parquet de Paris ouvre une enquête pour "tromperie aggravée" | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
Le parquet de Paris a ouvert une enquête préliminaire pour « tromperie aggravée » pour tenter de déterminer les responsabilités dans la propagation à la fin de 2016 de l’épidémie de grippe aviaire dans le Sud-Ouest. Cette enquête préliminaire fait suite à un rapport du ministère de l’agriculture transmis au parquet d’Albi, qui s’était ensuite dessaisi au profit du pôle de santé publique de Paris. L’enquête doit permettre de démontrer si, à la fin de l’année 2016, des lots de volatiles ont pu être envoyés à des éleveurs du Gers, de Lot-et-Garonne et des Hautes-Pyrénées tout en sachant qu’ils pouvaient être contaminés par le virus H5N8.
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An agroterrorism thriller, by Hank Parker: "New tick-borne virus outbreak is traced to an extremist group..."

An agroterrorism thriller, by Hank Parker: "New tick-borne virus outbreak is traced to an extremist group..." | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
"When a gruesome new tick-borne virus breaks out near a major U.S. city and the outbreak is traced to an extremist group in Southeast Asia, the race to stop a global bio-terrorism conspiracy is on. Government epidemiologist Mariah Rossi must leave the safety of her lab to help fellow scientist and covert CIA agent Curt Kennedy track the disease back to its source..."
Hank Parker holds a doctorate in biological oceanography and is an adjunct professor at Georgetown University's School of Medicine, where he teaches a course on biological threats to food and agriculture. He formerly served as a senior executive and acting director of Homeland Security for the Agricultural Research Service of USDA and has published and lectured on bio- and agro-terrorism. He lives in Vermont.
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"Maman V'la les Ecoterroristes !"

"Maman V'la les Ecoterroristes !" | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
"Un expert en renseignement sème la terreur chez les éleveurs de cochons" : la perception du Canard Enchaîné (2 novembre 2016).
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Major Italian daily "La Stampa" rehashes Xylella noise as scoop

Major Italian daily "La Stampa" rehashes Xylella noise as scoop | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

The Italian press, which, instead of making a sustained effort to get to the bottom of the question, has dedicated only scattershot, distracted attention to the epidemic, trumpeting sensational accusations rather than providing the sustained attention that separates substance from static. A disheartening but representative example of this approach to the Xylella phenomenon appeared on October 9 in La Stampa, an historic Italian national daily based in the northern city of Turin, a city renowned as a cradle of the Enlightenment. The article by Paolo Crecchi, is entitled "The War of the Olive Trees: Xylella, Manna for the Olive Lobbies". See here: http://www.lastampa.it/2016/10/09/italia/cronache/la-guerra-degli-ulivi-xylella-una-manna-per-le-lobby-dellolio-kwuyB1itKLTjFGgDwTxLPN/pagina.html

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Geopolitics and cropbiosecurity (6). How a fungus can ignite a trade war: Russia is banning fruit and vegetable imports from Egypt after it’s erratic « zero ergot » policies

Geopolitics and cropbiosecurity (6). How a fungus can ignite a trade war: Russia is banning fruit and vegetable imports from Egypt after it’s erratic « zero ergot » policies | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
Russia may ban Egyptian citrus amid wheat dispute (by Polina Devitt and Eric Knecht).

Russia threatened to ban Egyptian citrus imports on Tuesday, a move that could escalate a trade dispute over exports of Russian wheat to the world's largest importer of the grain. Moscow said this week it hopes to hold talks with Egypt, its top buyer, over Cairo's failure to approve Russian wheat shipments since tightening its regulations on ergot, a common grains fungus, in late August. Several cargoes suspected of containing trace levels of the fungus have since been held at Russian ports, awaiting a decision from Cairo over whether to allow them to pass under the old rule, traders said. Zero tolerance on ergot could halt Russian wheat exports to Egypt at a time when the country has its largest wheat crop in post-Soviet history. Egypt's state grain buyer GASC purchased 540,000 tonnes of the grain from Russia since July before tightening its import restrictions on ergot, banning the fungus entirely and saying the new rule would apply retroactively, affecting hundreds of thousands of tonnes yet to be shipped. The sales were originally agreed to under a rule allowing 0.05 percent ergot, a common international standard. Russian wheat export prices fell last week, partly due to delayed supplies to Egypt, and are expected to remain under pressure until the situation is resolved, traders said. Egypt bought 6 million tonnes of Russian wheat in the 2015-16 marketing year, which ended on June 30, a quarter of Moscow's total wheat exports for the period.
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Indian River County (Florida, USA) officials learn about agricultural terror threat

Indian River County (Florida, USA) officials learn about agricultural terror threat | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
Most talk about terror targets during the years has revolved around large gatherings of people or heavily used modes of transportation. But as the United States uncovered more about al-Qaida's plans after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, explicit plans were found that involved attacks on food and water supplies, federal officials said. That's why the Department of Homeland Security created a group called the Rural Domestic Preparedness Consortium, which provides free instruction to rural law enforcement agencies on a plethora of topics. One of the courses is agroterrorism, which is taught by Tracey Stevens, a member of the University of California-Davis' Western Institute for Food Safety and Security. "People aren't aware of it, but the U.S. is one of the largest food exporters in the world," Stevens said. "We talk about terrorism and think about people first, but forget about food and agriculture."
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Don alerts to growing threat of agroterrorism to Nigerian security [buzz or argued threat?]

Don alerts to growing threat of agroterrorism to Nigerian security [buzz or argued threat?] | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
A professor of botany at the University of Lagos, Oluwatoyin Ogundipe, in a recent study titled “Agro-terrorism and Biological Crimes: Threats To National Security and Sustainable Development” warned that there is potential use of agro-terrorism in Nigeria, which is malicious use of plant or animal pathogens to cause disease in the agriculture sector (...). He said although there are relatively few cases of agro-terrorism recently, but with current upsurge in terrorism, it is imperative to study these few incidents to better understand the modus operandi and motivations that different actors may have for using biological agents against the agricultural sector, and also to develop and effective countermeasures and strategies (...). If such attacks were not foiled, what would have being the fate of Nigerians on agricultural produces and its confidence on the economy? However, it can be seen that we are at risk of terrorist attacks on our food chains; it will be justifiable to spend resources to deal with this risk. “ Ogundipe said combating agro-terrorism entails the usual appeals for alertness by the citizens and the officials, control of borders and resident aliens better coordination among law enforcement and intelligent gathering agencies, and an end to senseless policies that invite terrorism” he said.
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Périls sur l'alimentation des Égyptiens : l’imbroglio de l’ergot du blé [problème d’ergot ou bataille d’egos ?]

Périls sur l'alimentation des Égyptiens : l’imbroglio de l’ergot du blé [problème d’ergot ou bataille d’egos ?] | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

Problème d’ergot ou bataille d’egos ? Depuis la fin de l’année 2015, une querelle interministérielle sur l’interprétation d’un obscur règlement sanitaire à propos d’un champignon microscopique menace les importations du plus important acheteur de blé du monde, l’Égypte, et ses 90 millions d’habitants.

Décembre 2015 : deux cargaisons de blé français vendues par le grand négociant américain Bunge, soit 63 000 tonnes, sont refusées par l’Autorité de quarantaine (Agriculture Quarantine Authority, AQA), un bureau du ministère de l’agriculture égyptien. Motif, la présence de l’ergot1. Ce petit champignon qui se développe sur les grains de céréales peut provoquer des catastrophes et affole — à juste titre — l’opinion publique, et pas seulement en Égypte. L’ergotisme entraîne chez ses victimes des vomissements, de violents maux de tête, voire des convulsions dites « démoniaques » et divers troubles du comportement, pouvant aller jusqu’à la psychose. Steven Kaplan, dans Le Pain maudit. Retour sur la France des années oubliées, 1945-1958 (Fayard, 2008) raconte par exemple qu’en 1951, à Pont-Saint-Esprit, un village des bords du Rhône, une intoxication à l’ergot a frappé trois cents personnes, provoqué sept décès et obligé à interner d’office en asile psychiatrique cinquante malades ! Mais depuis plus d’un demi-siècle l’ergotisme, qui avait été virulent jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle, a disparu et les rares cas connus aujourd’hui sont d’origine médicamenteuse. Il faut d’ailleurs consommer des quantités considérables de farine contaminée pour ressentir les symptômes de l’ergotisme.

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Insects as biological weapons (Chaudry et al., 2017)

Insects as biological weapons (Chaudry et al., 2017) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
This study was conducted at University of Gujrat during 2017 to 2018 as a term paper for Master of Philosophy. The data regarding use of Insects as Biological Weapons was reviewed and compiled as a review paper from various published articles of international reputed journals annual/environmental reports of recognized organization and e-books. Use of entomological weapons is a wide field of research. Insects were used as biological weapons from ancient times and this concept is very old. Different insects can be used for this purpose by different ways. Insects can be used as biological weapons against crops, animals and human beings. Insects may be used as direct pests against crop or they may be used as vectors to spread diseases in animals and human beings. In both cases their effects are devastating. House Flies, Oriental Rat Flea, Colorado potato beetle, Ticks, screw worm larvae are the examples of some insects which can be used as biological weapons. Use of biological weapons in war against humans is however illegal.
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JFK Documents: US officials considered destroying Cuban crops (sugar) through "biological agents which would appear to be natural"

JFK Documents: US officials considered destroying Cuban crops (sugar) through "biological agents which would appear to be natural" | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

Government releases classified JFK assassination documents – as it happened. Many of the documents pertain to anti-Cuban efforts by the US government in the 1960s and 70s, including “Operation Mongoose”. In this 1962 file, the CIA considers “the possibility of producing crop failures by the introduction of biological agents which would appear to be of natural origin.”US government releases 2,800 files, sending historians, researchers and conspiracy theorists scrambling for fresh revelations.

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Frédéric Suffert's comment, November 3, 2017 4:18 AM
See also the article published by Zilinskas (1999) in Microbial Reviews in Microbiology http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408419991299202
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Emergence of bio- and agroterrorism in Kenya

Emergence of bio- and agroterrorism in Kenya | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
The growing use of biological toxins, biotechnology and bio-engineering may have, by commensurate measure, contributed to bio-terrorism under what is called agro/bio-terrorism. Agroproducts finally end up on the tables as food or on the shelves as medicine, and thus any form of their contamination by agro-terrorism will be a huge blow to food, pharmaceutical and medical sectors. This study explores emergence of agro/bio-terrorism in Kenya. Growing threats of terrorism lead the Government to legislate the Anti-terrorism Act of 2012. The act is expected to guard against the occurrence of agro-terrorism that can disrupt the food supply system of Kenyan population through "malicious use of plant or animal pathogens that can cause devastating diseases in the agricultural sector. In the past years, Kenya has suffered a number of epidemic plant and animal disease attacks that mimic agro-terrorism. These include Coffee Berry Disease of 1980s, Rift Valley Fever, Necrotic Lethal Maize Mosaic Virus among others. The methods known for execution of agro-terrorism include dissemination of pathogens in the fields by business competitors, movement of plant and animal material during strives and through food and seed imports. The current advances in genetic engineering of various microorganisms have produced very dangerous microorganisms that are classified among the group of weapons of mass destruction. The Government of Kenya has put in place strong regulatory bodies such as Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service, Kenya Medical Research Institute and Directorate of Veterinary services that can advise against dangers of agro-terrorism. However, these agencies will still need to be empowered to increase their responsiveness to any form of danger from agro-terrorism.
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Proud to present the book "Practical Tools for Plant and Food Biosecurity", based on EU-funded project PLANTFOODSEC: one of the best way to understand agroterrorism

Proud to present the book "Practical Tools for Plant and Food Biosecurity", based on EU-funded project PLANTFOODSEC: one of the best way to understand agroterrorism | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

This book is based on EU-funded project PLANTFOODSEC, covering intentional and unintentional threats to plant biosecurity and to food safety areas. Biosecurity is a strategic and integrated approach for analysing and managing relevant risks to human, animal and plant life and health, and associated risks to the environment. Interest in biosecurity has risen considerably over the last decade in parallel with the increasing trade in food and plant and animal products; higher levels of international travel; new outbreaks of transboundary diseases. Although most diseases outbreaks have natural causes or are the result of inadvertent introductions of pathogens through human activities, the risk of a deliberate introduction of a high consequence plant pathogen cannot be excluded. Vigilance is required to identify, prevent and manage new and emerging issues that could impact on production capacity, plant biosecurity or food safety and food chain resilience.


Reference: Practical tools for plant and food biosecurity, Gullino M-L, Stack J, Fletcher J and Mumford J (Eds.), Springer, 2017. http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319468969

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России грозит «стеблевая ржавчина»: старая болезнь губит пшеничные поля... могут использоваться в качестве биологического оружия ?

России грозит «стеблевая ржавчина»: старая болезнь губит пшеничные поля... могут использоваться в качестве биологического оружия ? | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

"Все грибковые заболевания злаковых представляют опасность и для российских сортов пшеницы, - говорит Александр Терентьев. - Наши сельхозпредприятия успешно борются с их различными видами, включая стеблевую ржавчину, при помощи химических средств защиты растений. Большую тревогу в данной ситуации вызывает отсутствие у наших фермеров своих, российских фунгицидов и гербицидов. Хорошо, что пока они не включены в санкционные списки, и мы имеем возможность покупать их у западных производителей. А что будет, если нам вдруг откажут? Страшно подумать! Россия, которая сейчас является одним из мировых лидеров по экспорту зерна, может сама остаться без хлеба. Вопрос с противогрибковыми препаратами, как мы не раз подчеркивали, относится к сфере государственной безопасности, но в соответствующих министерствах и ведомствах до сих пор не существует программы по возрождению собственного полного цикла производства химикатов для обработки растений (...). 

Во времена холодной войны стеблевая ржавчина, способная уничтожить за раз большую часть урожая, вполне реально рассматривалась в качестве биологического оружия. Впрочем, отловить диверсанта в данном случае было бы очень непросто, - грибок легко распространяется на большие расстояния по ветру или за счет случайной передачи через одежду человека и растительный материал. Ржавчина может прилететь к нам на воздушном транспорте или приехать на колесах автомобилей. Поэтому ставить охранников на полях против возможных диверсантов, распространяющих этот грибок, бесполезно. Тут миссия охраны должна быть возложена на ученых-химиков, которые вовремя создают правильные химические средства защиты растений, на фермеров и специалистов по сельскому хозяйству, которые своевременно обрабатывают ими свои поля и хранилища. В целом, перспективным способом борьбы с грибковыми заболеваниями является выведение новых сортов растений, но, к сожалению, это не быстрый процесс."

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Vulnerability, risk and agroterrorism: an examination of international strategy and its relevance for the Republic of Korea (Green et al., 2017)

Vulnerability, risk and agroterrorism: an examination of international strategy and its relevance for the Republic of Korea (Green et al., 2017) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

This article explores the under-researched subject of agroterrorism, and how this is being addressed in the Republic of Korea (South Korea). It first outlines the differences between bioterrorism, food terrorism and agroterrorism and why it is becoming increasingly important to focus on risks to farming and the food chain. The article then explores a range of international models of organisational structures and processes designed to counter agroterrorism in the USA, Australia and the UK, based on an analysis of all available open-source materials at the time of writing. This provides a critical picture of the understanding of risk, security and preparedness in those three countries against which the South Korean model can be compared. We found that, compared to the mature arrangements in place in the USA and Australia, both the UK and the Republic of Korea have relatively immature strategies to protect farmers, food production and rural communities, focussing only on maintaining alternative safe food sources for consumers. These relatively weak policies essentially ignore the potentially significant social and economic impact of agroterrorism. We conclude by proposing further research, including fieldwork with local communities in the agricultural sector, including first responders, within South Korea. Overall, these findings may help Korean policy makers to consider their current approach within an international perspective and encourage them to consider both national resilience and local interests.

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How a drone IR-equipped for agricultural use (e.g. high-throughput crop phenotyping) can lead to a diplomatic incident [between Russia, US and Israel].

How a drone IR-equipped for agricultural use (e.g. high-throughput crop phenotyping) can lead to a diplomatic incident [between Russia, US and Israel]. | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
Israel's Agriculture Minister Uri Ariel thought it would be a nice going-away present for visiting Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev: an unmanned helicopter used for agricultural research. Now it emerges that Israel may run into trouble with the United States for handing over the aircraft, if it is proved that it has been developed with American technology. Moreover, a diplomatic tiff may be brewing as well with Moscow, since the helicopter was given to the Russians without some of its technological features (...).
It seems that the unmanned aircraft wasn’t actually Ariel’s to give – it belongs to Volcani, not the Agriculture Ministry – and its value exceeds by a factor of more than 60 the sum that government officials are allowed to spend on official presents. When Russian officials came to collect the helicopter, they were left waiting impatiently until the flustered Volcani staff received permission from an unnamed official to release it (...).
Apparently the staff refused to hand over the remote-control equipment and a thermal camera, costing an estimated 100,000 shekels ($26,000), which the institute had installed on the aircraft. The Russians have already asked Volcani for these parts and if they do not receive them, the newly inked agricultural deal with Israel may be at risk. At the same time, there could be trouble if the aircraft is found to be equipped with American technology that has not been approved for export to Russia by Israel's Defense Ministry. Equipment that is considered to be "dual use" – that is, to have both civilian and military applications – must be approved for exports in advance by the ministry (...).
Such approval is intended to prevent advanced technology developed by America and other countries from reaching unfriendly nations, and/or from being re-exported in some fashion in another product without formal permission. In the past such violations have led to the dismissal of senior Israeli officials, including a Defense Ministry director general. “This is a completely ridiculous story,” said an Israeli official, who asked not to be named. After news of the affair leaked, the Agriculture Ministry agreed to buy the institute a new drone – that is, at the Israeli taxpayers’ expense.
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Émergence de l’écoterrorisme en France ?

Émergence de l’écoterrorisme en France ? | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

Les groupes animalistes sont considérés par Éric Denécé comme des écoterroristes : Lors de l’assemblée générale de l’Ameb, il est revenu sur l’évolution de ces mouvements contestataires.

« Écoterrorisme, animalisme, zadisme, altermondialisme… Depuis une vingtaine d’années, des mouvements contestant la société de consommation et le libéralisme sont apparus. Ils agissent au nom de « l’éthique » et remettent en cause, parfois violemment, l’évolution des sociétés développées », lance Éric Denécé, directeur du centre français de recherche sur le renseignement lors de l’assemblée générale de l’Ameb (Association pour le maintien de l’élevage en Bretagne), le 29 septembre à Plérin. Ces nouvelles idéologies contestataires montent en puissance. « Ces entités ont toutes pris naissance outre-Manche ou outre-Atlantique, ou en raison de leurs actions criminelles (sabotages, attentats, meurtres), elles figurent sur la liste noire des organisations terroristes au même titre que Daesh ou Al-Quaïda. Elles ont conduit le FBI et Scotland Yard à créer des unités spécialisées afin de lutter contre elles. »

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The threat of agroterrorism and zoonotic diseases in the US (GA Flory, NCT CBRNe USA 2016 Conference)

The threat of agroterrorism and zoonotic diseases in the US (GA Flory, NCT CBRNe USA 2016 Conference) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
The threat of agroterrorism and naturally occurring disease outbreaks in the United States continues to expand as new diseases emerge and existing diseases become endemic in many parts of the world. This paper and the associated presentation at NCT CBRNe US 2016 will discusses the risk of an agroterrorism attack, steps to safeguard the food supply, strategies for controlling disease outbreaks and the significance of the human/animal interface.
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Farming, food and fallibility: Tackling the risk of agroterrorism (UK)

Farming, food and fallibility: Tackling the risk of agroterrorism (UK) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
While nobody's suggesting that agroterrorism is about to replace cyber threats or the 'active shotter' scenario as arguably the biggest security risk facing the UK today, neither should the possibility of deliberate and targeted attacks on our food chain be dismissed. Stephen Green describes why that's the case.
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Focus on "Risk analysis of plant pathogen use as anti-crop weapons" (3rd EBRF meeting, Biosecurity Office/NVWA, NL, 15th April 2016)

Focus on "Risk analysis of plant pathogen use as anti-crop weapons" (3rd EBRF meeting, Biosecurity Office/NVWA, NL, 15th April 2016) | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it
An analysis specific for Europe of the risk of plant pathogens being used as anti-crop bioweapons, taking into account both the biological and human dimensions of the threat, was given by Dr. Frédéric Suffert (researcher at INRA, F; participant to the EU PlantFoodSec project), invited speaker at the 3rd European Biosecurity Regulators Forum meeting (organized the NVWA, Wageningen, NL). An historical review of anti-crop bioweapons was exposed as the starting point of the characterization and contextualizes the threat in Europe. Four types of threat provided a structure for the analysis: (1) from military state programs to allegations of attacks; (2) from 'rogue state' hidden programs to claimed terror attacks; (3) biocrime, sabotage, private allegations and conspiracy theories on social media; (4) from the overzealous application of phytosanitary measures to the deliberate introduction of a regulated pest to justify trade protectionism. A database consisting of important target crops and of potentially dangerous pests was also presented to quantify the risk of agroterrorism in Europe.
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Geopolitics and cropbiosecurity (5). China's tightening of quarantine specifications: 'no coincidence' according to grain industry leader

Geopolitics and cropbiosecurity (5). China's tightening of quarantine specifications: 'no coincidence' according to grain industry leader | Cropbiosecurity and Agroterrorism Watch | Scoop.it

A key grain industry representative says China's tightening of quarantine specifications could have little to do with food security and plenty to do with its struggle to sell a large stockpile of aging grain. It has been 12 months since the Australian Government formally agreed to a quarantine protocol for wheat and barley going into China, designed to reduce the spread of pests and diseases. At the time the protocol was lauded by Australian authorities as a means of securing the lucrative market. But industry body Grains Industry Market Access Forum said the goal posts could be moved at any time and China's requirements had become increasingly difficult to meet (...).

Tony Russell, Grains Industry Market Access Forum executive manager "We are trying to set up new arrangements to make sure that we meet China's requirements going forward." According to Mr Russell, is that Australia's wins through the Free Trade Agreement with China - including eventual removal of a 3 per cent tariff on barley - are largely irrelevant. "It's very close to the comments I continue to make to Government; that it's all very well to remove tariffs under these free trade agreements, but the reality is tariffs aren't the barrier," he said. "It's quarantine barriers and other non-tariff barriers that countries use to restrict trade." Mr Russell conceded Australia could improve quarantine standards, particularly in relation to snails, but rejected China's level of scrutiny. "You do need to back it up with good science," he said. "Quarantine can get used as a tool to manage these things in a way that we think is slightly inappropriate."

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