Criminology and Economic Theory
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Criminology and Economic Theory
In search of viable criminological theory
Curated by Rob Duke
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How the Internet's Just Starting to Transform Cuba

In the past two years, Cuba has started rolling out public access to the internet. Wifi is now available through a network of hotspots-- but access is expensive, and the connection can be patchy and slow. This week, Bloomberg Technology's Pia Gadkari visits Cuba, exploring what life looks like when a country's just starting to get online. Pia and Aki Ito hear from local entrepreneurs how the Internet is helping them grow their businesses, and discuss the potential for U.S. tech companies on the island.
Eric Villasenor's comment, February 16, 2017 7:43 PM
This is great. I think Cuba is finally becoming part of the rest of the modern and developed world. I was just recently looking on at houses in Havana. You can rent a Spanish near mansion like accommodations for $20 a day. This will only improve their economy now that travel from the US is allowed and the internet is booming and becoming part of their trade. What a success for their country.
Angela Webb's comment, February 17, 2017 6:19 AM

I think it’s really good that Cuba is becoming more familiar with the internet. It can be a very helpful and amazing thing. It can be a great boost for the economy. helping people grow their business will further help the economy and the wellbeing of the country.
Joshua Vey's comment, February 24, 2017 9:55 PM
Good for everyone to experience the internet because it can connect them with the rest of the world.
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Old doors in Palmer courthouse to get a makeover

Though the project to replace or restore nearly 70 locks and doors has an estimated value of up to &u0024;500,000, state courts officials don't expect it to cost nearly that much.
Kelsey Therron Snell's comment, February 15, 2017 7:38 PM
haha, I have worked on that building before, and yes the roof does indeed need to be replaced but I didn't think the doors would need to be replaced if the locks are just worn out.... Order new locks??? seems pretty obvious to me.
Angela Webb's comment, February 17, 2017 5:55 AM
I find it interesting when they are having other more serious problems like the issue with the roof they would rather get the doors replaced. It is important for court rooms and important rooms to be secured but it seems that the locks still work and they just want the doors to be a little more sound proof. I don't see the need for this issue to be fixed before the roof. If there was tuns of money just laying around wishing for something to do then maybe it would be ok to fix the doors but I don't think its necessary right now.
Camden Pommenville's comment, February 19, 2017 4:10 AM
It is important to maintain the security of our federal and state buildings and keep them from falling into disrepair. 500 thousand dollars seems a bit excessive in my opinion. If the doors are only taking 100 thousand, what are they planning on using the other 400 from the appropriation for?
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Life is but a stream: China’s new craze for live-streaming | The Economist

Life is but a stream: China’s new craze for live-streaming | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |
LAST YEAR ZHAO XINLONG, aged 25, and his wife and baby boy moved from his parents’ farm into a mid-rise apartment in town. It has been a tough adjustment. Luan County is a rustbelt community on the polluted outskirts of the steel city of Tangshan in north-east China.
Jasmine Lowery's comment, February 22, 2017 10:54 PM
This article definitely shows that anyone and everyone today can have access to anything and everything. Everything being so accessible because of social media people tend to jump to social media and tend to put physically talking to other people to the way side. But at the same time it Live streaming and social media in general does create a platform for people to expand their business. So live streaming and social media does have its upside.
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Daily chart: How colleges affect social mobility in America | The Economist

Daily chart: How colleges affect social mobility in America | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |
IS THE American elite born or made? A new study by a team of economists tackles this question. By matching data from the Department of Education with 30m tax returns, the authors examine in unprecedented detail how much graduates of different colleges earn, and how earnings vary according to parental income.
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How Your Gut Affects Your Mood

How Your Gut Affects Your Mood | Criminology and Economic Theory |
At any given moment, you have somewhere between 10 trillion and 100 trillion microorganisms inhabiting your gut — that’s more microbes in your bowels than ther…
Kyle Green's comment, February 18, 2017 8:42 PM
Some of the elements in the last paragraph should be the caveat statement to all health studies. “Biology is rarely as simple as we want it to be.” There will never be a one step process to curing something without affecting another process in the body negatively.

Maybe someday we’ll understand what it is we are and how we work… that is if we don’t evolve away from what we’re studying already!
Us Woodards's comment, February 19, 2017 10:53 PM
This article strikes close to home because my wife is always reading about (and then telling me about) the gut brain. As Kyle pointed out, "Biology is rarely as simple as we want it to be." The more we learn about ourselves, the more we realize we dont know anything. A year ago if you would have told me about the "gut brain" I would have laughed. Yet there is so much in biology that we have no idea. It makes you wonder just what is going to be common knowledge 100 years from now, that we are clueless about today.
Jasmine Lowery's comment, February 22, 2017 10:56 PM
This article was really intriguing. It was interesting to read about how important it is to know that bacteria good and bad does play a part in stimulating your mood and brain function. The article also mentions how micro bacteria in the gut has links to anxiety and depression. Microbiome has connections to pre term birth, irritable bowel syndrome and diabetes. This article really makes people more aware of how healthy they are or need to be. I guess what people eat and how much water you drink per day really does matter.
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Trump signs three new executive orders on crime reduction

Trump signs three new executive orders on crime reduction | Criminology and Economic Theory |
President Donald Trump signed three new executive orders Thursday that he said are "designed to restore safety in America."
Timmy Folkers's curator insight, February 12, 2017 4:04 AM
politics are never my strong suit. I do however I do think that when we placed laws that heeded immigration, there was a large influx of people staying in the US. I think that there could have been more people coming and going from other countrys. With more regulations needed to get into america they could have just decided to just sty in the US instead of returning home and created a climate where people are fearful to leave.  
Kelsey Therron Snell's comment, February 15, 2017 7:32 PM
I'm glad to see someone stepping up on behalf of the police and that our president is taking some charge and making changes. We will see the repercussions of it later, but I think this is a movement in the right direction for aiding the police. True, given the nature of their work they are in danger, but they should not fear the consequences of using force when needed. Also, seeing a change towards some serious immigration flaws is a great move forward as well.
J Meiler Balog's comment, February 19, 2017 9:39 PM
I think that this is going to be a positive reinforcement for the police. The second order that this article talks about it will be very beneficial. I think that the more interagency collaboration and sharing we have is a great idea. This is good not only for fighting the cartels but should be utilized for all situations that threaten our country or allies. Although the last executive order does give the police a little bit of relive in that they are not on their own especially after what has been happening this last few years. As Amnesty USA states in this article “this doesn’t change the underlying law enforcement issue” which is true but the police need some reassurance in their workforce and this order will help establish that.
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Greyhound passenger who beheaded, cannibalized passenger is granted freedom

Greyhound passenger who beheaded, cannibalized passenger is granted freedom | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Will Baker, also known as Vince Li, was initially kept in a secure wing of a psychiatric hospital but has been given more freedom every year
Rob Duke's insight:
Well, at least we not Canada...
J Meiler Balog's comment, February 19, 2017 9:53 PM
I don't know what the regulations are in Canada that are set in place to keep close eyes on these kinds of individuals but it would be so much harder to watch him and make sure he takes his medicine everyday. I would never trust this man in society again much like the mother. It is one thing to recuperate through the system (physiological or criminal) but most cases don't end up with cannibalism, this guy doesn't deserve to have the amount of freedom that he does.
Camden Pommenville's comment, February 20, 2017 12:23 AM
I am for the idea of reintegrating criminals into society, even those with mental illness but with some sort of check system in place. I am wary of the idea of releasing a schizophrenic on his own and have him follow his medication on the honor system. Especially one with such gruesome potential. I hope he has truly changed for our sake.
Rob Duke's comment, February 20, 2017 12:27 AM
Yeah, it's difficult to see this one as a reasonable release.
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Nullius in verba: A crash course in understanding numbers | The Economist

Nullius in verba: A crash course in understanding numbers | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |

A Field Guide to Lies and Statistics. By Daniel Levitin. Dutton; 292 pages; $28. Viking; £14.99.

PEOPLE take in five times as much information each day as they did in the mid-1980s. With all these data sloshing around it is easy to feel lost. One politician uses a statistic to back up her argument; a newspaper uses another fact to refute it; an economist uses a third to prove them both wrong. In “A Field Guide to Lies and Statistics” Daniel Levitin, an American neuroscientist, shows the reader how to find a way through all this numerical confusion.

A book about statistics can easily be boring. Fortunately, Mr Levitin is the perfect guide. Before becoming an academic he used to work as a stand-up comedian. Drawing on those skills Mr Levitin peppers his book with wisecracks. He uses the phrase “on average, humans have one testicle” to make the point that the mean can be a misleading description of a population. He goes off on interesting tangents, granting the reader some light relief from detailed analysis of sampling and probabilities. Only occasionally is his hokey style annoying.

Using plenty of examples, Mr Levitin shows how easily statistics can lead people astray. Take the following assertion, which on a quick skim might seem perfectly reasonable: “In the 35 years since marijuana laws stopped being enforced in California, the number of marijuana smokers has doubled every year.” One will soon realise that this must be nonsense; even with only one smoker to begin with, after doubling every year for 35 years there would be more than 17bn of them. Mr Levitin repeatedly throws these statistical curveballs at his readers, training them to adopt a take-nobody’s-word-for-it attitude. It is an effective pedagogical technique.

Some statistics turn out to be plain wrong, but more commonly they mislead. Yet this is hard to spot: numbers appear objective and apolitical. A favourite of academics and journalists, when analysing trends, is to “rebase” their figures to 100 so as to back up the argument that they wish to make. For instance, starting a chart of American GDP growth in 2009, when the country was in recession, tricks the reader into thinking that over the long term the economy is stronger than it really is. “[K]eep in mind that experts can be biased without even realising it,” Mr Levitin reminds people.

A basic understanding of statistical theory helps the reader cope with the onslaught of information. Mr Levitin patiently explains the difference between a percentage change and a percentage-point change, a common source of confusion. When a journalist describes a statistical result as “significant”, this rarely carries the same meaning as when a statistician says it. The journalist may mean that the fact is interesting. The statistician usually means that there is a 95% probability that the result has not occurred by chance. (Whether it is interesting or not is another matter.)

Some readers may find Mr Levitin’s book worthy but naive. The problem with certain populist politicians is not that they mislabel an x-axis here or fail to specify a control group there. Rather they deliberately promulgate blatant lies which play to voters’ irrationalities and insecurities. Yet if everyone could adopt the level of healthy statistical scepticism that Mr Levitin would like, political debate would be in much better shape. This book is an indispensable trainer.

Rob Duke's insight:
A stat book from a stand-up comedian--
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Hackers take down thousands of 'dark web' sites, post private data

Hackers take down thousands of 'dark web' sites, post private data | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Someone claiming to be affiliated with Anonymous compromised a private web hosting service last week, taking down more than 10,000 sites on the highly encrypted "dark web," security researchers said.

The hacker or hackers broke into the hidden web hosting service Freedom Hosting II, claiming to have harvested all of the sites' files and its database, totaling almost 80 gigabytes of material, they said in a message appearing on the screens of users trying to access the sites.

They said more than half of the information they obtained was child pornography, even though the service promotes itself as having a "zero tolerance policy" to such material.

Other materials in the exposed data include numerous references to botnets — automated computer networks used to launch distributed denial of service (or DDoS) attacks, spew out spam or steal data — email addresses, usernames and passwords from dark web sites.
Cheyenne Martinez's comment, February 13, 2017 3:30 AM
I am also one of those people who had never heard of the dark web – or even the fact that most of the internet wasn’t accessible through search engines. The thought that the rest can only be accessed through certain passwords and software is kind of crazy to me. However, on another note – it’s interesting that certain web hosting servers have delved into the more unjustifiable types of crime only when they are behind closed doors. How quickly their actions betray their words.
Brennan D Watson's comment, February 16, 2017 7:41 PM
What I am wondering is why the group of hackers would leave a link to how they supposedly carried out the hack. That seems like it could be used to make systems more secure against them.
Kyle Green's comment, February 18, 2017 8:13 PM
If the dark web network wasn’t permitted to be in existence in the first place, and someone illegally obtains access and control over it and then shuts it down, was harm really done to anyone?

Vigilante justice? “Anonymous” is known for that, but they themselves are not necessarily a unified “organization” having been on both sides of the fence of what is probably considered “legal.”
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The shaping of the law in America: Why the American legal system is so flexible | The Economist

The shaping of the law in America: Why the American legal system is so flexible | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |

The idea of “rights”, “mainstream” and even the role of the Supreme Court in determining these are not as enshrined as advocates of various positions contend. They never have been. Many ideas abound about the role of the court within America’s political system, the principles it should uphold and even the definition of a ubiquitous term, “rule of law”. Some of these debates trace their roots back to the early 18th century, before America was even established.

If the fight has become more heated, it is because the authority of the judiciary in America, notably its ability “to legislate”—to expand the reach of law and find new, unstated (and possibly unintended) rights—has been a pivotal feature of politics since the 1950s. “Law Professors: Three Centuries of Shaping American Law”, a well-timed book by Stephen Presser, a professor at Northwestern University, traces how this emerged.

The book is organised around the intellectual biographies of 29 individuals, including one Barack Obama, who spent 12 years as a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago before taking an eight-year tour as America’s president. “There is no country on Earth in which law professors have played a more prominent role,” writes Mr Presser, a statement that neither lawyers nor politicians in any camp would dispute.

The natural audience for this book is academics, members of the bar and law students. For these last in particular, it may become essential reading. Law professors like putting their students through the hoops by asking them bewildering questions; Mr Presser’s book does a good job of distilling what is actually being taught. Given the timing of the book, though, its greatest value may lie in the way it explains why potential candidates are so often described, by different interested parties, as being ignorant, bigots or temperamentally unsuited to the task at hand.

“Our two major political parties now understand the rule of law very differently,” Mr Presser writes. Should it be based on precedent and written statutes (basically the Republican approach) or should it be discretionary and allowed to incorporate values and external information (the Democrats’ view). Within this schism is a struggle over whether the judiciary’s role is to enforce laws as they were written or to see law as a flexible instrument to achieve objectives, many of which are passionately supported—and passionately opposed.

That law professors became pivotal players in this drama was never inevitable. As in Britain, in America’s earliest days legal training came through apprenticeships. This was augmented by a few intellectually ambitious outside authorities who found their way to universities. One of the earliest law professors, Joseph Story, simultaneously taught at Harvard, served as a justice on the Supreme Court, wrote treatises instructing judges and lawyers on the law and ran a bank (which may have been perceived at the time as an added benefit rather than a conflict of interest).

In his spare time, Story hosted Alexis de Tocqueville during his trip to America, and is thought to have been a key influence in de Tocqueville’s assertion that lawyers served as America’s aristocracy, and “constitute a sort of privileged body in the scale of intellect”, who serve as “the most powerful existing security against the excesses of democracy”. These lines are often repeated—less so a subsequent passage, noting that beyond their virtues, they, “like most other men, are governed by their private interests, and especially by the interests of the moment”.

These three sentiments: that the study of the law is the preserve of lawyers, who are the intellectual elite; that they serve as a deterrent against the failures of democracy; and that they may be compromised, if not flawed, in their approach, are dominant themes throughout Mr Presser’s book. In practice, Story was one of many prominent Americans who tried to distil law from cases that were largely but not exclusively British, reflecting differences such as lack of a monarchy. Although this was a formidable task, it was limited to determining what were, in fact, the rules of law.

The pedagogical approach was formalised in the late 19th century by Christopher Columbus Langdell, a dean of Harvard Law School, who developed what became the practice of deciphering a vast number of appellate decisions to understand what were perceived to be scientific principles and logic. But even as this approach to legal training became common, intellectually the fact that the law could be discerned through its history was never entirely satisfactory to its most ambitious practitioners. In response to a casebook on contracts compiled by Langdell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, yet another professor at Harvard Law School and a Supreme Court justice, wrote, “The Life of the Law is not logic, but experience.” Even if the same rules were invoked, over time they served different purposes, in Holmes’s view.

It is this premise of a flexible law that became the animating force in law schools and ultimately in American courts and policy, largely through a series of movements that Mr Presser describes with as much precision as this somewhat murky procession allows. Among the most important was “legal realism”, which, as Holmes’s statement suggests, examined what judges actually did, rather than the rules of law¸ and encouraged them to incorporate research from social sciences in making their decisions. This was adopted by the Supreme Court under Earl Warren after the second world war and played a huge factor in many of its most notable decisions, including Brown v Board of Education in 1954, which concluded that segregation was unconstitutional, not because of segregation itself but rather because of testimony drawn from research about the psychological harm that segregation imposed.
The notion of the court as a mechanism for going beyond statutes and past decisions to define justice opened up a wide field of study in the latter half of the 20th century. Among the many professors to shape the judicial system during that time were Ronald Dworkin, a professor at New York University and Oxford, who argued that law must be debated on the basis of moral concepts rather than rules; Richard Posner, a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago and a federal judge, who has been called the single most cited legal authority largely because of his development of cost-benefit analysis; and, conversely, Cass Sunstein, also of Chicago, then Harvard, then the Obama administration, who concluded that the failure of people to act rationally justifies judicial and governmental intervention.

Mr Obama too spent many years at Chicago, but Mr Presser writes that his views were established while he was a student at Harvard when another movement, “critical legal studies”, was popular. It argued that the law was malleable—a political instrument that had been misused by the powerful in the past and should be reinterpreted to empower the disenfranchised.

The great figure who opposed this approach was Antonin Scalia, who left the Chicago faculty to be a federal appeals court judge then a Supreme Court justice, and whose death almost exactly a year ago created the current opening.

As Mr Presser writes, Scalia believed the law and constitution should be followed by interpreting both as they were understood at the time they were enacted rather than stretched by unelected judges, since original intent was the best means of implementing the will of the people. Change should come through popular votes and the laws enacted by elected legislators. This approach, more than any particular issue, is a fundamental challenge to an expansive court, presidency and even, perhaps, to the aristocratic position that de Tocqueville discerned in the law. As Mr Presser shows, it is a challenge that resonated in unlikely candidates in the past, notably Felix Frankfurter, a Harvard professor, architect of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal and a Supreme Court justice, who revealed in his opinions concerns about pushing the boundaries of law too far.

Mr Presser’s book does not always make for easy reading, but the ideas that he has gathered together, all of them put forward by intelligent people, are complex. America is consumed by serious legal debates about issues, what the law says, what people think the law should say—and whether that is law. This may be the book that comes closest to spelling out what is really being argued.

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His money or his art?: Obituary: J.S.G.Boggs was found dead on January 23rd | The Economist

His money or his art?: Obituary: J.S.G.Boggs was found dead on January 23rd | The Economist | Criminology and Economic Theory |
A HAMBURGER and Coke with Steve Boggs was a disconcerting event. To begin with he preferred to be called “Boggs”, just straight. He also had a way of opening his eyes a little wider than normal, giving his thin face an unnerving, even devilish look. And then, when the eating was done and the bill came, he would take out his wallet, unfold the notes, and put one on the table in a way that portended something profound and strange.

At first glance, the note would look normal. It was not. The portrait on it might be of Mr Boggs himself, or Martha Washington instead of George. The bank name might be “Federal Reserve Not”, or “Bank of Bohemia”. The plate serial number might be “EMC2” or “LSD”. All this delicate copying and subverting had taken up to ten hours of Mr Boggs’s time, working on special paper with the finest-tip green and black pens. (He later shifted to limited-edition prints, a little speedier.) The result was now proffered to pay for his food.

To the bemused waitress, he would politely explain that he was an artist. He could pay her with official money if she wanted. But he believed in producing something beautiful; and having spent so much time on this drawing of money, wasn’t it worth the value it declared?

Nine out of ten times, the offer was refused. If it was accepted, Mr Boggs would note down time and place on the blank back of the drawing, ask for a receipt and take any change he was “owed”. After a day, he would call one of many avid collectors of his works; he would sell the collector, at a roughly fivefold mark-up, the receipt and change; and from those clues the collector, if he wished to buy the drawing, would have to track down the new owner. Receipt, change and drawn note, when reunited, became joint proof of the drawing’s value, confirmed by the transaction; and would then change hands, typically, for tens of thousands of dollars.

This elaborate charade ensured that Mr Boggs never sold his drawings. He “spent” them at “face value” in exchange for goods and services, cheekily challenging the value ascribed to money. The inspiration dated from 1984, when a waitress in Chicago accepted his sketch of a dollar bill on a napkin for a doughnut and a coffee. She even gave him a dime in change, which he kept as a lucky charm. After that, wherever he was in the world, he drew the local currency and threw down his challenge.

Early on he struggled, unwashed, hungry and heavily in debt. But by 1999 his drawings had paid for more than $1m-worth of goods, including rent, clothes, hotels and a brand-new Yamaha motorbike. He thanked the Swiss, who discovered him in 1986 and were often delighted to accept original art rather than “real” money. 


He was cautious, however, about dealing with anyone he already knew. He preferred to offer his exchange to people who had never heard of him, even though they might just scrumple his precious note into a pocket. And his main aim was to raise disquieting questions about the notion of exchange itself. What was money really worth? What supported a dollar bill, other than faith? Was the value of anything just subjective? When salesmen told him they didn’t accept art, he would point out the beauty of official notes, with their scrolls and arrow-clutching eagles. When shopkeepers demanded only “real” money, he might launch into the non-reality of time and space, too. To his long-time tracker and biographer, Lawrence Weschler, he was “just short of being a con man—but no more so than anyone else in the art world, or for that matter in the world of finance—which, of course, is the whole point.”

Feat counterfeit

A simpler view was taken by the authorities. This looked like counterfeiting to them. In Britain, where he lived for several years, he was arrested and put on trial at the Old Bailey for “reproducing” the currency. He argued back that it was the “real” notes that were reproductions: his drawings were originals, never meant to be the real thing. He was acquitted, as he was when he faced similar charges in Australia.

America, though, hardly knew how to deal with him. In 1992 he had a madcap idea to flood Pittsburgh, where he lived then, with $1m in Boggs Bills, and see if they could get through five transactions (handlers would put thumbprints on the back). The Secret Service warned the city and raided his studio, seizing more than 1,000 pieces of work. They never returned them. The courts solemnly debated whether the drawings were closer to pornography—which might be censored, but also allowed as free speech—or evil non-returnable contraband, like drugs.

Mr Boggs’s career was blighted by fruitless appeals to try and get them back. His legal costs mounted. At his Old Bailey trial he had paid his lawyer with drawings for his services. He now started on a series of $1,000 Boggs Bills sporting a portrait of him by Thomas Hipschen, America’s chief engraver of banknotes (itself happily exchanged for a Boggs Bill), to cover a hearing in the Supreme Court, if he could get one. But he was also venturing closer to the edge, toting guns and using methamphetamines, and died before he had got that far.

His art remained on the walls of America’s finest museums and of galleries all over Europe. His questions remained, too, evading easy answers.
Rob Duke's insight:
Ah, paper money.  A leap of faith Institution.  What says that the paper is worth anything?

Salmon Chase, Secretary of the Treasury, at the time, convinced Lincoln and others that we needed it.  Until the mid-civil war, we still traded in coin.
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Bus driver gets 2 years in death of autistic teen left on bus in Whittier

Bus driver gets 2 years in death of autistic teen left on bus in Whittier | Criminology and Economic Theory |
WHITTIER >> A judge on Monday sentenced a school bus driver to two years in prison for leaving an autistic Whitti
Joshua Vey's comment, February 13, 2017 8:21 PM
It sucks when something that could have been avoided happens, especially at the expense of someone's life.
Ashley DeLoney's comment, February 18, 2017 6:14 PM
This story is rather shocking. I use to ride the bus home from middle school into my first year in high school and my bus driver always checked the seats after all the kids exited the bus.
Jasmine Lowery's comment, March 6, 2017 4:23 AM
This case is just awful it is horrible that someone so young lost their life especially from heat exhaustion how horrible. Lee was left on the bus for seven hours after the sub bus driver was unaware and thought Lee had gotten off on his stop. What does not make sense to me is that even when I was in grade school and up until high school the bus driver or sub bus driver would always check to see if anyone was still on the bus even after the regular stops. It’s just sad that not double checking can cost someone their life. I do like how school boards are taking time to add a new law to child safety where there are alarms in the back of the buses that must be turned off by bus drivers.
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California Governor Brown: Driver’s license penalty harms the poor

California Governor Brown: Driver’s license penalty harms the poor | Criminology and Economic Theory |
SARAMENTO >> When Aaron Cutchon was laid off from his job at an auto body shop, he could no longer afford to pay for two traffic tickets he got for driving in a carpool lane.His license was suspended, and he had to stop attending classes
Ashley DeLoney's comment, February 18, 2017 6:35 PM
What a great idea I think. You must still be held accountable for your actions. In this case your driving tickets. Though paying them is a mute point if you lose your license because of the tickets. Little jobs will hire you. You need income to pay off what you owe.
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A protest style dating back to 1970s Germany is resurfacing in the US, and police are worried

A protest style dating back to 1970s Germany is resurfacing in the US, and police are worried | Criminology and Economic Theory |

Kelsey Therron Snell's comment, February 15, 2017 7:24 PM
I was aware of this incident when it occurred, I enjoy listening to Milo on various platforms; he is actually quite entertaining as well as educated and intelligent. Interesting though that the students organized as such; seems like it (black bloc) is an effective method for causing the police trouble and confusion. I also found it intriguing that the students seem to see themselves in the right... Perhaps this is a showcase of the younger generation and their agenda(s)...? How do we continue the rights to free speech and to assemble if these are going to continue to occur? Do those rights then be terminated/suspended temporarily until we discover how to keep everyone calm and cool?
Samantha Pershing's comment, February 19, 2017 7:19 PM
It really sucks that a few people out of many can make protesting look like a bad thing. I really like this article because it explains what really happened. What I mean is that it doesn’t make the situation look like everyone was violent. It also makes me think how hard it is for law enforcement to handle situations with violent protestors, because it is hard to tell if a protest would be likely to turn to violence, as well as deal with finding the violent protestors out of the peaceful ones. Furthermore, the more law enforcement pushes, the harder that the violent protestors will push back.
Martha Hood's comment, February 19, 2017 10:19 PM
What I find really sad is that a lot of people do not know about this, they think it is all the protesters. I think the Black bloc is just a bunch of people who don’t want to make a statement but just want to cause trouble. If they really cared about the issues that they are supposedly protesting, then they would not bring such bad light to the protests. They make everyone else look bad and take away from the message.
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Convicted Sex Offender Arrested in Killing of Ohio State Student

Convicted Sex Offender Arrested in Killing of Ohio State Student | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Police in Ohio have arrested a suspect in connection with the shooting death of 21-year-old Reagan Tokes, who was a senior at Ohio State University.
Manisha Misra's comment, February 22, 2017 6:02 PM
I think that this is a pretty big testament on our justice system that this man was released after 6 years for kidnap and rape. Why are sentences so minimal. Aren't we a society that says the punishment should absolutely fit the crime, when did our justice system stray so far from that. A convicted rapist was let back out into society and committed an even more violent crime but it's very possible that he still won't face a punishment that fits his crimes. And that seems to be an alarmingly popular problem with our justice system as a whole.
Justin Baugh's comment, February 23, 2017 6:54 PM
This is a sad story, I agree with Manisha that sentences on Felonies are so light because they don't want to over populate the jails and prisons. If prisons focused their attention on a more productive prison system that puts prisoners with minor convictions into a work setting that allows the prisoners to return to life outside prison and not have to be a repeat offender.
Katrina Bishop's comment, February 25, 2017 8:01 PM
This is such as sad story. It’s scary to know that something like this can happen so suddenly. I agree with everyone else that 6 years seems like far too little time for this kind of sentence. He clearly has not changed his ways with this happening again. It’s hard to imagine what that lady might have experienced in her last moments.
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Meet Mr Green

Meet Mr Green | Criminology and Economic Theory |

IMMANUEL KANT (1724-1804) never set foot outside his native East Prussia. For all but a few years of his long, uneventful life he lived and taught in the Baltic port of Königsberg. Yet no philosopher since Aristotle has exercised such influence. Kant's thought transformed how the modern world approached enduring problems in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics and aesthetics. “The Critique of Pure Reason” ranks among the most important works of philosophy ever written; it is still one of the most difficult. Lord Macaulay, a great English historian, was exasperated to discover that he could not understand a word of it.

Kant was one of the first thinkers to concentrate on philosophy alone, and the difficulty of his writing arises partly from a deliberate attempt to professionalise the subject and give it the rigour of experimental science. Yet his true originality went far deeper. Kant sought to reconcile two dominant but conflicting traditions: the rationalism of Descartes and the sceptical empiricism of Hume. Our experience of the outside world is never bare, Kant argued, but comes, as it were, ready clothed in thought; yet thought about an objective world is itself necessarily limited by the range of possible experience. The result, if true, was to throw humanity back on its own cognitive resources. God, the soul, immortality became hypotheses, things in themselves were inaccessible to human perception, and certainty was possible only within the limits dictated by the apparatus of human thought. The entire structure of metaphysics and theology seemed to totter under the rigour of Kantian criticism. Even though his intention had not been to subvert religion or the state, he was dubbed der Alleszermalmer, the “all-crusher”. Yet the instrument of his critical philosophy was not the blunt hammer of a Nordic god, but the clarifying precision of systematic thought.

That precision is famously reflected in the folk memory of the philosopher, partly based on early biographers who knew him only in old age, which depicts him as a pedantic, solitary, slightly absurd bachelor whose entire life was run according to inflexible rules and whose habits were as regular as clockwork. This “machine man” derives from the popular image of Kantian ethics, which is founded on the metaphysical concept of the categorical imperative. Formulations of this moral principle vary. Sometimes Kant says: “Act as if your maxims were to serve at the same time as a universal law.” Alternatively he emphasises the importance of treating others “always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.” The categorical imperative was easily vulgarised: into a duty to humanity in general rather than to anybody in particular, and more sinisterly into the elevation of race, class or any other collective above the individual. Kant's most famous passage evokes “the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me”, the existence of which, unlike that of God, is not conjectural. Though a man of the Enlightenment, Kant also believed, however, that humanity had a natural propensity to “radical evil”.

Manfred Kuehn's excellent new life is the first substantial biography of Kant since Germany's historical catastrophe, and the figure who emerges is not the familiar caricature of a withdrawn Prussian professor. The young Kant overcame his humble origins to become an elegant man-about-town. Oddly, Mr Kuehn glosses over the fact, evident from his portraits, that Kant was pigeon-breasted and slightly hunchbacked. His gregariousness is thus all the more striking, and Mr Kuehn goes so far as to say that conversational dialogue was of decisive importance to his thought: “His critical philosophy,” he writes, “is an expression of this form of life.”

Indeed, it is fascinating to learn from Mr Kuehn's account how large a debt Kant owed to his daily talks with a scholarly English merchant, Joseph Green, of Green, Motherby & Co. It was under Green's influence that the dandy developed into the ascetic, devoted to duty and with a missionary zeal to rescue philosophy from the entropy of scepticism. Green it was who spent every afternoon conversing with Kant until seven o'clock sharp (neighbours set their watches by the moment at which the professor emerged from their conclave), Green who shared his hero-worship of Hume and Rousseau, Green who showed Kant how to live his life according to strictly applied maxims, Green who guided Kant's modest investments, Green with whom he often dozed off as they smoked their pipes together. “Green's effect on Kant cannot be overestimated,” concludes Mr Kuehn.

So the greatest German philosopher was also, we learn, a great Anglophile. He was, in this respect, not untypical of Frederick the Great's Prussia, and especially of the Hanseatic ports. The combination of English commerce and German intellect was evidently unbeatable. During the years of Anglo-German enmity, Joseph Green was forgotten. Today, it would be a splendid gesture for the many German firms in London to commemorate the unknown Englishman who helped Kant to greatness and thereby made Germany a home of philosophy for the next two centuries.

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Building trust: Activists and Salt Lake City police meet regularly to talk about use of force, other issues

Building trust: Activists and Salt Lake City police meet regularly to talk about use of force, other issues | Criminology and Economic Theory |
When two police officers shot and critically injured a 17-year-old black boy outside of a Salt Lake City homeless shelter nearly a year ago, it sparked another round of angry protests. “We’re not going t
Rob Duke's insight:
This is what I'd call the logistics part of policing.  Care and feeding of relationships before there's a problem....
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Paris Street Urinals Double As Mini Gardens

Paris Street Urinals Double As Mini Gardens | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Equipped with a miniature garden on the top, the Uritrottoir is an eco-friendly street urinal that turns pee into compost.
Rob Duke's insight:
Um? ok, I guess....
Sara Mckinstry's comment, February 13, 2017 2:54 AM
i guess its a pretty good idea to do this. at first it was disgusting but if its making a better choice for the earth and people will do I guess it cant be to bad.
Eric Villasenor's comment, February 16, 2017 7:46 PM
Much like needle disposals in grocery stores and free syringes, it's best to give people a sanitary solution to their bad decisions, than to pretend like the bad decisions aren't going to happen. I'm confident these urinals were put in because people were too lazy to find a restroom. Having said that, this is a solution to the unsanitary public urination that will leave the urine on the ground.
Angela Webb's comment, February 17, 2017 6:05 AM
I had no idea this issue existed. I find it repulsive that people are actually urinating in public and it’s become a major problem. I would say that you shouldn't encourage such behavior by setting up these urinal planters. But since this has been a problem for a while and they haven't been able to stop it this is a pretty clever solution.
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NYPD's 'Uncle Rodney' Guides Officers to Try and Make City's Neighborhood Policing Program Work

NYPD's 'Uncle Rodney' Guides Officers to Try and Make City's Neighborhood Policing Program Work | Criminology and Economic Theory |
As we celebrate Black History Month, NY1's Dean Meminger introduces us to a police officer who is responsible for trying to make the city's neighborhood policing program work.
Liam Juhl's comment, February 24, 2017 7:20 PM
From watching the video, I think I like this guy. It seems like he's willing to do whatever he can to protect the folks of his city. I'm not a fan of him shutting down the street and only allowing folks who lived there to walk by, I don't think I would have done the same in his situation, but it examples his tendency to be strong on criminal activity, and his willingness to go the extra mile. I like the idea of adding more NCO's and pushing for a positive relationship with the people there, particularly using service as a way to achieve that positive relationship.
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Program teaches police, responders to look for meth lab indicators

Program teaches police, responders to look for meth lab indicators | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Drain cleaner, camping fuel or coffee filters in unusual locations may be signs of a one-pot meth lab, emergency responders learned Monday.
Rob Duke's insight:
Knowing what to look for can save your life....the wrong time and mixture can be lethal.

Also, look for lots of Martha Stewart sheets (cheap and high thread count for filtering); red phosphorus from feed stores; batteries; large rubbermaid tubs, propane cans.....lots of empty diet pill or cold medicine containers.
DS's comment, February 12, 2017 8:55 PM
This article was more in depth than an episode of "Breaking Bad". Prior to reading this, I’d never heard of a one-pot meth lab. Talk about reactions water & lithium metal, who knew? This program benefits those who attended or persons who would respond to a lab type situation.
Rachel Nichols's comment, February 12, 2017 10:38 PM
The things that people come up with astound me... I never knew that simple things out of place could mean that something so serious is going on. It will be interesting to me if I ever do see something because I know I won't be able to not look for these types of things, just because these things interest me. It is sad that people will do whatever they can and find whatever way possible to get the drug because they are so addicted.
J Meiler Balog's comment, February 19, 2017 10:28 PM
This is a great training course and something that officers should look out for. With this becoming and issue all over the nation, especially in the town I live in this will hopefully have a positive impact on communities. After all this terrible product could be made right next door and you would never know it until it blew up.
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Fairbanksans ask City Council to grant city sanctuary status

Fairbanksans ask City Council to grant city sanctuary status | Criminology and Economic Theory |
FAIRBANKS — Mayor Jim Matherly said he and City Attorney Paul Ewers would explore the possibility of sanctuary city status after a dozen people asked the City Council for the
Kelsey Therron Snell's comment, February 12, 2017 9:45 PM
hahahahaha go ahead and make us a sanctuary city if you want, who the hell in their right mind would move here from a desert climate......? Personally, I am not opposed to the idea of helping those in need, but that's exactly it, we have those in need presently and let's take care of them. I am pretty sure there is a country named the UAE reallllllll close by to these banned countries that could probably help out with some financial means to the people of the region. Just a thought.
Cheyenne Martinez's comment, February 13, 2017 1:18 AM
I understand the appeal of bestowing sanctuary city status onto Fairbanks, but I also know that most of the citizens do not wish to open the resources available here to others. Many, I would assume, think that any illegal immigration would cause some sort of chaotic crime boom. I do not share this belief. However, I am concerned with the amount of open hostilities in general aimed towards immigrants in our country’s current state.
Brennan D Watson's comment, February 16, 2017 7:59 PM
had personally not heard of the concept of sanctuary cities before this article. I am not sure that people would even take advantage of Fairbanks being a sanctuary city, we are kind of out of the way. I also think that we may want to see how the court battle on the immigration ban works out before we go and make an emotionally charged decision. I am also pleased that our city counselors have chosen to take the time to research the issue before making a decision.
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Alaska Sen. Sullivan takes a new shot at breaking up the 9th Circuit court

Conservative Alaskans have long hoped for an appeals court with which they are more ideologically aligned.
Rob Duke's insight:
The 9th would serve California, Hawaii, and the Mariana Islands; while the new 12th would serve Alaska, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, Idaho, etc.
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Drug-dealing felon whose sentence was commuted by Obama arrested with a kilo of cocaine

Drug-dealing felon whose sentence was commuted by Obama arrested with a kilo of cocaine | Criminology and Economic Theory |
A San Antonio man who was once serving a life sentence, for drug crimes who then was commuted by President Barack Obama, is back behind bars.
Rob Duke's insight:
Liam Juhl's comment, February 10, 2017 7:53 PM
The war on drugs is a tired and spent attempt to change crime in America. I don't do drugs, I don't support the use of drugs, and I wouldn't like to see children using drugs, especially, but that's my choice. I think that the decriminalization of certainly most drugs would do well for the Justice system in America, and instead of offering lower sentences for these non-violent offenders, instead offer them rehabilitation efforts, and reform programs to truly benefit themselves. Like I said, drugs aren't a part of my life, because of my choice. His choice to continue to make the same bad decisions are his own, too, and being well aware of the consequences, and having spent so long in jail clean, he should know the punishment he expects. It was a bad choice, but it was his to make, and it's a shame that lifestyle has such a rewarding possibility.
Riley Landeis's comment, February 10, 2017 8:46 PM
There is a difference between individuals charged with small amounts in possession and people like this who have a large amount with the intent to sell. I don't know what qualified these individuals for pardoning, but clearly it should have been looked at further before the final decision was made.
Jazmin Pauline's comment, February 12, 2017 4:40 PM
This is interesting but also sad that he could not stay out of crime after being released,
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How an NYPD Lieutenant's Intuition Helped Catch the Queens Jogger Murder Suspect

How an NYPD Lieutenant's Intuition Helped Catch the Queens Jogger Murder Suspect | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Karina Vetrano was strangled to death while jogging on Aug. 2, 2016.
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California considers an end to bail: ‘We’re punishing people simply for being poor’

California considers an end to bail: ‘We’re punishing people simply for being poor’ | Criminology and Economic Theory |
Critics charge that making people pay for their release from jail is discriminatory against the poor and has led to high pretrial detention rates in California. Legislation was introduced this session to overhaul the system, but bail bond companies and law enforcement groups are pushing back, arguing that bail protects public safety .
Riley Landeis's comment, February 10, 2017 8:53 PM
I agree that the safety precaution is necessary and it seems that in certain cases bail is extremely high, but the way that I see it is that you shouldn't be committing a crime if you don't want to locked away on an expensive bail. I think the article attempts to use the example of the old man going blind to appeal to our emotions. This sounds like a very rare case and an attempt to push California's liberal agenda.
Katrina Bishop's comment, February 11, 2017 7:32 PM
I agree with Riley that you shouldn’t be committing a crime if you don’t want to be locked away on an expensive bail. Bail I think is a deterrence factor. We are monetary society, and money is something people need to live. If posting high bails makes people less likely to commit crimes than it’s a useful tactic. That being said, I can see how bails can be too high, especially if people are coming from poverty. How are people supposed to continue with their lives and make a change if they can’t get out of jail to do it? I it’s an interesting idea and one that needs to be closely looked at.
Cheyenne Martinez's comment, February 13, 2017 3:17 AM
Why is the amount of bail for California so high? It’s practically unreasonable to demand bail at that rate – hence the numerous people awaiting trial and those who are imprisoned for not being able to pay their bail. In agreement with the article, I believe this to be rather reprehensible, and I’m certainly quite glad that they are trying to address this issue and change it into a better working system, but this is simply my opinion on the matter.