Criminology and Economic Theory
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Why did Shrien Dewani case collapse? 7 reasons why he is free

Why did Shrien Dewani case collapse? 7 reasons why he is free | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The top blunders that caused the Dewani case to collapse. Piece by piece, this is how the prosecution case came unstuck, leading to the collapse of the Shrien Dewani trial
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Son and father accused of printing fake banknotes ‘to pay for daughter’s medical bills’

Son and father accused of printing fake banknotes ‘to pay for daughter’s medical bills’ | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Men arrested after police raid nets US$365,000 in counterfeit money
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Why other countries are giving China a licence to print money

Why other countries are giving China a licence to print money | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Chinese state-owned firm winning contracts to print foreign currencies as country seeks to expand global reach and influence
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Viewpoint: Chinese mosque standoff risks peace in model Muslim province

Viewpoint: Chinese mosque standoff risks peace in model Muslim province | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
China is determined to maintain control over how religion is practised, but recent threats to demolish a mosque could backfire, writes US-based academic David R Stroup.

On a frigid morning in early February 2016, just before sunrise, I stood in the courtyard of a mosque in Weizhou, a tiny, rural, predominantly Muslim township in China's Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.

Around me, nearly 150 men, most wearing traditional white knitted skullcaps, some sporting long wispy beards, hurried into the mosque's washroom to perform ritual ablutions in preparation for Salat al-fajr, the first prayer of the day.

In the distance, loudspeakers from the community's other mosques sounded the call to prayer. With the call echoing through the town, the men gathered and began to pray, kicking off another day in China's Islamic heartland.

Two years later, the tiny township of Weizhou finds itself enmeshed in a growing conflict between the government and its Muslim citizens, over plans to demolish its recently completed Grand Mosque.

The local government justified its decision to raze the mosque on the grounds that it did not receive proper building permits, making it an "illegal building." In response, the predominantly Hui Muslim residents of Weizhou occupied the building to block the demolition.
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Sullivan’s bid to split the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals gets Senate attention

Sullivan’s bid to split the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals gets Senate attention | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The 9th Circuit, headquartered in San Francisco, has satellite courts across the west. It covers nine states — Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Washington — and two territories, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. It oversees cases about numerous Alaska-specific issues, including issues regarding land and water rights and Alaska Native legal issues.

The new bill would create a 12th Circuit Court of Appeals with 14 judges headquartered in Seattle. It would cover Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Washington. It would also implement the recommendations of the judicial conference, adding five appellate judges to the 9th Circuit, 52 district judges throughout the country and making eight temporary district judge seats permanent.
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A woman fled from the scene of a crash into a field. Then the cows sprang into action. - The

A woman fled from the scene of a crash into a field. Then the cows sprang into action. - The | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Video: Fleeing from the police at 2 a.m., she ran into a dark pasture. What happened next is just hilarious.
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Capitalism

Capitalism | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Callum Williams, The Economist
August 7th 2018
There is a growing sense across the rich world that capitalism does not work as it should. In many countries wages have barely grown over the past decade, while the rich seem to be running away with all the gains. Many economists, including those at this newspaper, argue that common factor explaining all of these ills is that firms have too much market power. Monopolies and oligopolies have spread. That allows big business to charge higher prices to consumers for poorer service, and also get away with paying their staff lower wages. But is capitalism really rigged in favour of the elites? To debate this topic we have invited Jason Furman (who argues in favour of the proposition) and Deirdre McCloskey (who argues against). 

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The proposer’s opening remarks in full

Yes
Jason Furman, Harvard Kennedy School
August 7th 2018
You walk into a casino and try to figure out whether or not it is rigged. You notice that 1% of the people are winning 20% of all the money. Does this mean that the casino is rigged? It might seem a little suspicious but, then again, talent is not distributed equally, and some people are always luckier than others, so it is not necessarily surprising that a small fraction of the people get most of the winnings.

While looking at the casino’s record books you find that 40 years ago the top 1% were only winning 10% of all the money. This seems more suspicious. Are they that much more talented now or does luck matter that much more? You might also notice that in other casinos in Europe and elsewhere the top 1% is taking more like 9-14% of all the money.  

In an attempt to strain the metaphor of the American economy well beyond where it should go, you come back to the casino a generation later and find that the children of the bottom 20% of winners in the previous generation have only a 7% chance of being in the top 20% today, again suspiciously less than in many other countries.

If this casino had a roulette wheel and the house was winning more than about 10% of the money you would infer it was rigged even if you could not observe exactly how it was rigged or who was doing the rigging. Similarly, the outcomes in the American economy are prima facie evidence that it is tilted towards societal elites.

We can, however, observe many of the ways the economy systematically favours the wealthy and powerful. For most people inequality begins at birth. In America one-fifth of four- and five-year-old children do not go to school, putting us 29th in the OECD in this regard—below much poorer countries like Mexico. When the child does eventually enter school, the amount spent per pupil varies from over $28,000 per pupil in rich areas to less than $8,000 per pupil in poorer ones because America has chosen to primarily fund schools at the local level and thus further perpetuate local inequality. A game where the participants have purposefully been given radically different amounts of preparation could be fairly described as rigged.

Then there is the fact that, as Adam Smith observed nearly 250 years ago, “People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices.” The fewer businesses engaged in the same trade, the easier it is to collude, either tacitly or explicitly and illegally. And in most trades there are many fewer businesses today: hospitals, beer, railroads, trucking, retail, technology, airlines, and most other categories of the economy. In certain industries this may have been a natural outgrowth of economies of scale, but it is hard to not also see that increased government-sponsored monopolies, through stronger intellectual-property protections, and reduced antitrust enforcement have also played an important role.

The result can be higher prices or worse service for consumers. Witness the cases of air travel and broadband internet. Or it can be lower wages for workers. Witness the illegal collusion that has taken place to lower the wages of nurses and software workers or much more extensive but legal practices, such as non-compete agreements, which help to keep those wages down.

The less cited second half of Smith’s quote is no less important: “[the law] ought to do nothing to facilitate such assemblies; much less to render them necessary. A regulation which obliges all those of the same trade in a particular town to enter their names and places of abode in a public register, facilitates such assemblies…” The regulations that facilitate collusion and the perpetuation of economic rents do not just come from nowhere. They come from the beneficiaries of those gains. These regulations manifest themselves as overly strong intellectual-property protections, occupational licensing that requires a florist to undertake extensive certification work, or land-use restrictions that keep housing prices high and make it more difficult for more people to move to areas with better jobs, schools and amenities.

Capitalism does not exist in a vacuum. It requires laws that establish property rights, adjudicate disputes, fund public infrastructure and finance all of these inputs. If you look at how elites currently shape the operational rules of capitalism, the outcome of these rules in terms of inequality and low levels of intergenerational mobility, or observe the many specific policies that establish and perpetuate inequality. It is clear that capitalism today could fairly be described as rigged in favour of elites.

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The opposition’s opening remarks in full

No
Deirdre McCloskey, University of Illinois at Chicago
August 7th 2018
Monopoly? Its prevalence is greatly exaggerated. It survives chiefly in protection from illiberal governments exercising their own super-monopoly, of violence. Since 1800, or 1900, monopoly has fallen, not risen. The railway, the bicycle, the automobile, the internet have steadily eroded local market power. Liberalisation of trade has given us twenty brands of auto to choose from, as against three in the closed economies 1930-1970. Entry rules. Ask your former “monopolist” of a department store in Leeds.  

“Capitalism” encapsulates a scientific mistake. It is not capital accumulation that made the economic world since 1800. It’s innovation. What made us astonishingly rich, from £4 a day per person rising to over £80 in Britain, was an explosion of bright ideas. The source was an entirely novel liberalism of inclusion, 1776 to the present, encouraging ordinary people to have a go. The go-ers were in succession poor men, non-conformists, Catholics, Jews, slaves, women, Irish people, other colonial peoples, women again, immigrants, teenagers, gays, Chinese, Indians, and on and on in a widening gyre. Capital and labour and institutions and the other intermediate factors followed the good ideas, such as railways or containerisation or the internet. They did not cause them.  

People caused them. Poor people such as the blacksmith John Harrison (marine chronometer) or the son of a weaver John Dalton (atomic theory, among other ideas) or the seamstress Coco Chanel (business attire for women) were permitted for the first time in history to innovate. Investment followed, yielding a Great Enrichment more important than the somewhat routine event 1760-1820 called the Industrial Revolution. You might better call what happened in the two centuries after 1800 “innovism,” or less snappily “commercially tested betterment for all and sundry.”  

For all and sundry, I say, not merely for an elite. In countries that adopted liberalism the average person’s real income per head increased after 1800 by a factor of 30. Not a mere 100%, or 200%, understand, but fully, to be more accurate than such rough truths allow, 2,900%. Or more. Sweden, Japan. Now Botswana and India and China and Singapore.  

The poor, the ancestors of us all, benefited the most. True, the elite acquired another diamond bracelet or two. Vulgar, yes. Important for the outcome, no. In its unprecedented magnitude the innovism after 1800 yielded to the poorest among us adequate food, housing, education, health. Not nirvana. We can and should do more. But a Great Enrichment nonetheless.  

Yes, there are still poor people, especially in places like Zimbabwe or Venezuela that have turned against liberal ideas, or among the numerous victims in rich societies of proliferating illiberal policies, such as prohibiting Uber and Lyft, closing occupations, regulating street food.  

But in 1800 practically everyone in the world was poor, at about £2 a day. The age of shocking inequality was not 1900 or 2000, but any of the other centuries back to the invention of agriculture. During the Middle Ages a half of national income was paid for land rents to the already rich. Labourers lived in squalid conditions, unimaginable nowadays unless you have seen the favelas and townships. The share of such places in world population diminishes yearly, as governments discover liberalism and let their people go. Admittedly, many populist tyrants have recently re-discovered an illiberalism suited to killing growth, and people. But viewed internationally, as a non-nationalistic ethic would require, individual inequality has fallen in the past forty years like a stone. Innovation did it.

Why have the poor benefited? After all, you might believe that the fat cats get the first bite. The answer in a word is entry. When Sam Walton, running a little faux-Woolworth’s in his home town, innovated the use of bar codes to control inventories, revolutionising US retailing, other retailers were not slow to notice. The economist William Nordhaus reckons that innovators get 2% of the social value of their innovations. It’s a good deal. Sam’s children became obnoxiously wealthy. But we got by competition the 98%.

Be of good cheer, then. The poor shall inherit the earth.
Rob Duke's insight:

A fantastic debate...See Gordon Tullock's work for more on the Calculus of Consent and the role of inclusion in political governance and the rise of the Industrial Revolution.  Frankly, we've gone backwards with Citizen United giving corporations even more influence.

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Nikolas Cruz interrogation transcript: Florida school shooter says "demon" in his head - CBS News

Nikolas Cruz interrogation transcript: Florida school shooter says "demon" in his head - CBS News | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Florida school shooting suspect Nikolas Cruz told a detective that a demon in his head -- "the evil side" -- told him to burn, kill and destroy, and that he thought about going to a park to kill people about a week before 17 people were gunned down at the school, according to a transcript of his interrogation released Monday.
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Ohio contractor fined for trench death now charged with murder for alleged shooting

Ohio contractor fined for trench death now charged with murder for alleged shooting | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A Mason, Ohio, contractor recently fined $201,201 by OSHA following the trench collapse death of Zachary David Hess was arrested in Cape Coral, Florida, on a second-degree murder charge.

According to reports by the Fort Meyers News-Press  and Cincinnati.com, Gerald P. Koller, 49, owner of JK Excavating and Utilities, has been charged with shooting and killing 28-year-old Jonathan Joseph Breadmore at a boat dock behind Koller’s Cape Coral home. A caller reported hearing four to five gunshots, and news reports said police used loudspeakers to order Koller out of his home.

After being seen pacing back and forth in his home, Koller surrendered to police.

OSHA fined Koller’s firm in June in response to the December 28, 2017 death of Hess, 25.

Hess’s death was profiled in Equipment World’s recent special report on trench collapse fatalities. He died in a 16-foot trench working on a sewer tap-in at a housing project in Morrow, Ohio. Initial news reports placed the trench at 25 feet deep.
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Request of Jury to Watch Defendant Walking, to Compare to Video of Robber, Properly Denied

Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Michael A. Cowell committed no abuse of discretion in declining a request by jurors, during deliberations, to have the defendant walk in front of them so they could compare his gait with that of a robber depicted on a surveillance tape, limping, the Court of Appeal for this district has held.

Jurors made the request for additional evidence notwithstanding that DNA evidence showed there was but one chance in 42 trillion that defendant Raudel Marquez was not the man who had bound the wrists of one of the two robbery victims with tape, with DNA extracted from that tape. (DNA taken from a zip tie, with which the other victim’s wrists were restrained, indicated one chance in 2,400 that the robber was not Marquez.)

The after-hours robbery at a nail salon in a Pico Rivera mini-mall took place on March 1, 2015. The surveillance tape, showing the robber, came from a camera mounted on a restaurant four doors down, and did not definitively depict the defendant.

Marquez’s lawyer asked Cowell to reopen the evidence and allow the requested demonstration so jurors could see that his client doesn’t limp. The judge responded:

“It’s too late for testimony. You could have had him walk and-stand up and walk. First of all, this happened so long ago, he could have had a broken leg at that time, for all I know. It’s completely irrelevant at this stage of the proceedings. He may have had a pebble in his shoe, if it was him. I’m not going to allow it. I’ll say no.”

Div. Four, in an opinion filed Monday and not certified for publication, affirmed Marquez’s conviction on one count of second-degree robbery and two counts of false imprisonment.
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FCA can settle Jeep, Ram EcoDiesel emission case with fine, recall: Justice Department

FCA can settle Jeep, Ram EcoDiesel emission case with fine, recall: Justice Department | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
While VW is moving toward the end of buybacks, payments, and fines for eight years of cheating on diesel emission standards, Fiat Chrysler is still in the thick of its own diesel mess involving Jeep SUVs and Ram trucks.

On February 2, the U.S. Justice Department offered to let the company move forward if it recalls all 104,000 EcoDiesel models of the Ram 1500 full-size pickup and Jeep Grand Cherokee to modify their engine-control software sold between 2014 and 2016.

The company would also have to pay a so-far-unspecified but "substantial" fine for its actions.
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Pope changes church teaching on death penalty, says it is 'inadmissible' | Euronews

Pope changes church teaching on death penalty, says it is 'inadmissible' | Euronews | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Pope changes church teaching on death penalty, says it is 'inadmissible'
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This is big!  This could change many nations' policies on the death penalty....

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Sweden's Crown Jewels stolen in dramatic heist | The Cube | Euronews

Sweden's Crown Jewels stolen in dramatic heist | The Cube | Euronews | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Swedish police are on the hunt for two suspects who stole a collection of priceless crown jewels from a cathedral located west of Stockholm, the police department confirmed in a statement yesterday.

Strangnas Cathedral, where the jewels were located, said in a statement that two crowns belonging to 17th Century monarchs Karl IX and his wife Kristina, and a royal orb were taken from locked and alarm-activated displays that were open to visitors.
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Duterte’s Destruction Rages: 68 More Cars Crushed In Philippines

Bulldozers destroyed more than $5.89 million worth of cars.

Crime doesn’t pay, and it’s especially true in the Philippines where the government takes a proactive stance on curbing smuggled cars. At this point, Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte’s actions are almost ritualistic in his attempted crackdown on crime and government corruption. Illegally imported vehicles are again in the crosshairs of Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte. The President, who ran a campaign to fight corruption and drugs before elected in 2016, took a ringside seat to some luxurious destruction recently when 68 illegally imported cars were destroyed, according to DailyMail.co.uk.

The cars, which included Lamborghinis, Mustangs, Porsches, and eight motorcycles, were valued at more than $5.89 million at current exchange rates. President Duterte watched sitting in safety glasses and a white construction hat.
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Chinese girl, 6, drives her parents straight to the police station

Chinese girl, 6, drives her parents straight to the police station | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
A couple from central China who shared a video of their six-year-old daughter driving the family car on a public road ended up being given a dressing down by the police, local media reported.
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UK police given more time to quiz Parliament crash suspect

UK police given more time to quiz Parliament crash suspect | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
British police have been given more time to question the suspect in a car crash outside Parliament that injured three people.

Salih Khater, a British citizen originally from Sudan, was arrested Tuesday after striking cyclists, then plowing his car into a security barrier.

He is being held on suspicion of terrorism and attempted murder, but has not been charged. A magistrate has given police until Monday to charge him, release him or seek another extension.
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Texas Gov. Greg Abbott proposes bail reform after death of DPS trooper

Texas Gov. Greg Abbott proposes bail reform after death of DPS trooper | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Abbott said he wanted to fix a flawed system in Texas that allowed the man suspected of killing a trooper last year to get out of jail on bond despite having been previously accused of assaulting a deputy.
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Saudi Arabia crucified man in Mecca while calling out Canada human rights

Saudi Arabia crucified man in Mecca while calling out Canada human rights | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia executed a man in the holy city of Mecca on Wednesday amid accusing Canada of human-rights violations in a deepening dispute between the two countries.
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San Francisco Magazine | Modern Luxury | What’s the Matter with California Cannabis?

San Francisco Magazine | Modern Luxury | What’s the Matter with California Cannabis? | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The greatest threat standing in the way of California’s march toward legalized marijuana isn’t Attorney General Jeff Sessions or Big Pharma. It’s the cannabis industry itself. Proof positive is hidden behind the glass-and-concrete walls of a low-slung building on an otherwise nondescript block of warehouses and auto body shops in Hunters Point.

It was here, where Anresco Laboratories has been testing imported seafood for the FDA since 1982 and, more recently, marijuana, that workers in white lab coats recently confirmed what many within the cannabis world have known for years: Much of the roughly $1 billion in cannabis sold in California’s 1,000-plus dispensaries every year is dirty. At least that’s what workers at Anresco found when they were asked to test buds, edibles, and concentrates entered in the competition at last August’s HempCon, one of several such trade shows. Some 80 percent of the product entered came back tainted with mold, pesticides, and harmful solvents. The dirty pot wouldn’t have been allowed on dispensary shelves in Colorado or Oregon, where marijuana must undergo quality-control testing before entering the legal market, and it certainly won’t pass muster when California adopts its own controls in January—expected to be even stricter than those in other states.

All of which means that it’s up to growers to invest in cleaner—and necessarily more expensive—cultivation practices to avoid being turned away from California’s dispensary shelves. And they’ll need to do it in a hurry. Until then, it’s buyer beware. The marijuana legalization era has just begun, and its first major challenge has already emerged. Here, a guide to the crud that's turned up in California cannabis.
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Mismanaged, overcrowded forests provide fuel to historic California wildfires, experts say

Mismanaged, overcrowded forests provide fuel to historic California wildfires, experts say | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Neglect and mismanagement have left western U.S. forests overcrowded, firefighting experts say, leaving them more susceptible to the kinds of major wildfires that are currently ravaging California.

California state and federal officials have responded to about 4,500 fires this year that have burned nearly 400,000 acres of land, easily outpacing last year's record burns.
Rob Duke's insight:

In my career, I saw the California Department of Forestry re-brand itself as Cal-Fire and Foresters retired and were not replaced.

Does this reflect the polarization of politics or is there enough negligence in management to suggest that there is criminal negligence, which might make this a WCC?

My guess is probably not.  Politics is strange and often requires huge errors before correction is needed, but when that correction comes it is often through a voter revolt....

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Man Who Threatened House GOP Had 200 Rounds Of Ammo At His Home

Man Who Threatened House GOP Had 200 Rounds Of Ammo At His Home | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
The New York man who was accused of leaving threatening voicemail messages for House Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-LA) and Republican Conference Chairwoman Rep.
Rob Duke's insight:

Wow! 200 whole rounds...that's just Tuesday's allotment of ammo in Alaska.

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California prepares to lead US profession into non-lawyer ownership | News

California prepares to lead US profession into non-lawyer ownership | News | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it

Regulators are poised to consider radical rule changes that could decisively open the way to allowing non-lawyers into the legal profession of the US’s most populous state. 

The State Bar of California voted earlier this month to accept a report from legal academic Professor William D. Henderson calling for structural reforms to the way the market is regulated.  The bar’s board of trustees further resolved to authorise a taskforce to study and come back with recommendations for reforms that balance the goals of public protection and increased access to justice. 

The taskforce proposals - not expected until 2019 – could pave the way for a version of the alternative business structure regime in the UK and Australia, allowing a system where non-lawyers are able to own law firms and legal businesses are able to take on external capital investment. Despite repeated attempts to encourage liberalisation in the US – and not withstanding sporadic examples of legal markets opening to outsiders – the US profession has overwhelmingly resisted emulating England and Wales.  

In his report, Prof Henderson cited the problem of ‘lagging legal productivity’ and that, in contrast to medical care and higher education, a growing proportion of US consumers are choosing to forgo legal services rather than pay a higher price. 

With the profession at an ‘inflection point’, the report states that lawyers now need to work closely with professionals from other disciplines but are prevented from doing so by ethics rules.  

‘To the extent these rules promote consumer protection, they do so only for the minority of citizens who can afford legal services,’ added Prof Henderson, who is based at the Indiana University Maurer School of Law. 

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California company says it's created an instant marijuana breath test device | MPR News

California company says it's created an instant marijuana breath test device | MPR News | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
As legalization of recreational and medical marijuana continues to expand, police across the country are more concerned than ever about stoned drivers taking to the nation's roads and freeways, endangering lives.

With few accurate roadside tools to detect pot impairment, police today have to rely largely on field sobriety tests developed to fight drunk driving or old-fashioned observation, which can be foiled with Visine or breath mints.

That has left police, courts, public health advocates and recreational marijuana users themselves frustrated. Nine states and the District of Columbia have legalized recreational marijuana and 30 states and D.C. have legalized medical pot.

Now one California company claims it has made a major breakthrough in creating what some thought of as a unicorn: a marijuana breathalyzer.

"We are trying to make the establishment of impairment around marijuana rational and to balance fairness and safety," says Hound Labs CEO Mike Lynn in his downtown Oakland, Calif., office.
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When Your Child Is a Psychopath

When Your Child Is a Psychopath | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
Researchers shy away from calling children psychopaths; the term carries too much stigma, and too much determinism. They prefer to describe children like Samantha as having “callous and unemotional traits,” shorthand for a cluster of characteristics and behaviors, including a lack of empathy, remorse, or guilt; shallow emotions; aggression and even cruelty; and a seeming indifference to punishment. Callous and unemotional children have no trouble hurting others to get what they want. If they do seem caring or empathetic, they’re probably trying to manipulate you.

Researchers believe that nearly 1 percent of children exhibit these traits, about as many as have autism or bipolar disorder. Until recently, the condition was seldom mentioned. Only in 2013 did the American Psychiatric Association include callous and unemotional traits in its diagnostic manual, DSM-5. The condition can go unnoticed because many children with these traits—who can be charming and smart enough to mimic social cues—are able to mask them.
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Tommy Robinson freed after court agrees contempt hearing was flawed | Euronews

Tommy Robinson freed after court agrees contempt hearing was flawed | Euronews | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
British law allows judges to impose restrictions on reporting of details around ongoing court cases to prevent jurors from being influenced by material they might come across outside the courtroom.

The Court of Appeal ruled that there had been procedural errors in the original decision to jail Robinson for 13 months, although it upheld a separate suspended sentence for a similar offence.
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Our War on Drugs is Driving Family Migration

Our War on Drugs is Driving Family Migration | Criminology and Economic Theory | Scoop.it
We are torn by images of children being ripped from their parents at the border with Mexico, but few are asking why parents are so desperate to escape their own countries that they are willing to risk everything—including family separation.

A recent NY Times article explored that question. Many parents had concluded that the risk of losing their children outweighed the near certainty of death for those children at home—due to gang and cartel violence.
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